George Ayodo

George Ayodo
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology · Health Sciences

About

65
Publications
37,575
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2,965
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Introduction
George Ayodo currently works at the school of Health Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology. George does implementation research on malaria and also does some genetic and epidemiology research with his international collaborators.
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - present
Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (65)
Preprint
Full-text available
The peoples of the Swahili coast of eastern Africa established a literate urban culture by the second millennium CE. They traded across eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean and were among the first sub-Saharan practitioners of Islam. An open question has been the extent to which these early interactions between Africans and non-Africans were accompa...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple lines of genetic and archaeological evidence suggest that there were major demographic changes in the terminal Late Pleistocene epoch and early Holocene epoch of sub-Saharan Africa1,2,3,4. Inferences about this period are challenging to make because demographic shifts in the past 5,000 years have obscured the structures of more ancient pop...
Article
Full-text available
HIV-1 genetic diversity results into the development of widespread drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) for the first-line retroviral therapy. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the relationship between DRMs and HIV-1 subtypes among HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs). This study therefore determined the association between HIV-1 genotypes...
Article
Full-text available
Background Further reductions in malaria incidence as more countries approach malaria elimination require the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals who carry mosquito-infective Plasmodium gametocytes that are responsible for furthering malaria transmission. Assessing the relationship between total parasitaemia and gametocytaemia...
Article
Full-text available
Background Understanding the existing barriers to utilization of maternal and newborn health care services can inform improvement of care services in the rural settings in sub-Saharan Africa. However, how unintended pregnancy relates to the uptake of antenatal care (ANC) services and also how gaps in the role of the community health workers and hea...
Thesis
Full-text available
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the high number of maternal deaths in some areas of the world reflects subnational inequities in access to maternity health. In Siaya County, Kenya, an estimated 34% of pregnant women still delivered at home in the year 2018. Yet it is still unclear whether the problem is the lack of capacity in the...
Article
Full-text available
We previously identified a Plasmodium falciparum protein of unknown function encoded by a single copy gene, PF3D7_1134300, as a target of antibodies in plasma of Tanzanian children in a whole-proteome differential screen. Here we characterized this protein as a blood-stage antigen that localizes to the surface membranes of both parasitized erythroc...
Article
Objectives Performing high-quality and reliable cognitive testing requires significant resources and training. As a result, large-scale studies involving cognitive testing are difficult to perform in low- and middle-income settings, limiting access to critical knowledge to improve academic achievement and economic production in these populations. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Further reductions in malaria incidence as more countries approach malaria elimination require the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals who carry mosquito-infective Plasmodium gametocytes that are responsible for furthering malaria transmission. Assessing the relationship between total parasitemia and gametocytemia i...
Article
One-third of people with pre-diabetic condition progress to type 2 diabetes within five years. However, with adequate knowledge on diabetes risk reduction behaviors, progression to diabetes can be controlled. We therefore recruited 220 suspected cases of pre-diabetic patients at Busia County Referral Hospital assessed their knowledge, and adaption...
Article
The use of spatial data in malaria elimination strategies is important to understand whether targeted interventions against malaria can be used, particularly in areas with limited resources. We previously documented consistent areas of increased malaria incidence in the epidemic-prone area of Kipsamoite in highland Kenya from 2001 to 2004. In this...
Article
Immune correlates of protection against clinical malaria are difficult to ascertain in low-transmission areas because of the limited number of malaria cases. We collected blood samples from 5,753 individuals in a Kenyan highland area, ascertained malaria incidence in this population over the next 6 years, and then compared antibody responses to 11...
Article
In epidemic-prone areas of the western highlands, the Kenya Ministry of Health conducted campaigns of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of households, followed by mass distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), as part of the National Malaria Strategy. We previously reported that in the highland areas of Kipsamoite and Kapsisiywa, widespread...
Article
Prevalence and levels of antibodies to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens show promise as tools for estimating malaria exposure. In a highland area of Kenya with unstable transmission, we assessed the presence and levels of antibodies to 12 pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens by multiplex cytometric bead assay or ELISA in 6...
Article
Full-text available
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins (B and C), and essential minerals and is the third most important source of calories in the tropics. However, it is not clear if the traditional processing methods expose the products to microbial contamination. This study assessed the levels of fungi and aflat...
Article
Full-text available
An understanding of menstruation and its relationship to fertility can help women know the gestational age of any pregnancies, and thus identify preterm births. It can also help women avoid unintended pregnancies. However, little is known about women, and especially men’s, menstruation and fertility knowledge, outside of research on adolescent girl...
Article
Full-text available
Background: HIV infection is associated with more frequent and severe episodes of malaria and may be the result of altered malaria-specific B cell responses. However, it is poorly understood how HIV and the associated lymphopenia and immune activation affect malaria-specific antibody responses. Methods: HIV infected and uninfected adults were re...
Article
How food production first entered eastern Africa ~5000 years ago and the extent to which people moved with livestock is unclear. We present genome-wide data from 41 individuals associated with Later Stone Age, Pastoral Neolithic (PN), and Iron Age contexts in what are now Kenya and Tanzania to examine the genetic impacts of the spreads of herding a...
Article
BACKGROUND The severity of sickle cell anemia (SCA) has been associated with five specific haplotypes in the beta globin cluster, identifiable by distinct patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). These RFLP-defined haplotypes, named according to the region where they were first discovered - Central Africa region (CAR), Benin, Se...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Over the years, reports implicate improper anti-malarial use as a major contributor of morbidity and mortality amongst millions of residents in malaria endemic areas, Kenya included. However, there are limited reports on improper use of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) which is a first-line drug in the treatment of malaria in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with more than a quarter of the deaths occurring in children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization of Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has reduced malaria infections across countries in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. However, limited studies have been carri...
Article
Iron deficiency (ID) and HIV infection frequently coexist. Little data exist on ID in HIV-infected individuals, partly because the iron marker ferritin is altered by inflammation common in HIV infection. We measured iron biomarkers (ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor [sTfR], hepcidin) and red cell indices (hemoglobin, mean cell volume [MCV]) in...
Article
Background: Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with more than a quarter of the deaths occurring in children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization of Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has reduced malaria infections across countries in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. However, limited studies have been carri...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 700,000 new cases of sickle-cell anemia (SCA) occur annually in the world with 60%-80% dying before their 5 th year birthday. SCA patients often experience hospitalization events including admissions for pain and vaso-occlusive crisis, infections and blood transfusions. However, limited studies have evaluated these events to improve c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: An estimated 200 million children suffer from developmental delays, most in developing countries. Early diagnosis through screening is key to timely intervention. However, screening tools have not been assessed in developing countries. Objective: This study thereforeassessesparental screening tool for evaluating developmental delays (PE...
Article
Full-text available
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apic...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria elimination campaigns are planned or active in many countries. The effects of malaria elimination on immune responses such as antigen-specific IFN- γ responses are not well characterized. Methods IFN- γ responses to the P. falciparum antigens circumsporozoite protein, liver stage antigen-1, thrombospondin-related adhesive protei...
Data
Batch analysis of IFN-γ levels to P. falciparum antigens in a subset of 30 samples IFN-γ levels to P. falciparum antigens CSP, LSA-1, MB2, TRAP, AMA-1, MB2 and MSP-1 in 30 samples collected in April 2008, October 2008 and April 2009.
Data
Antibody prevalence and levels to circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and schizont extract
Data
Data set of PCR data over the study period
Data
Correlation of IFN-g responses to P. falciparum antigens with age in April 2008 (Fig. 1A), October 2008 (Fig. 1B) and April 2009 (Fig. 1C), tested by Pearson’s correlation
Data
Interferon gamma levels for Plasmodium falciparum antigens over the study period
Article
Here we report the Simons Genome Diversity Project data set: high quality genomes from 300 individuals from 142 diverse populations. These genomes include at least 5.8 million base pairs that are not present in the human reference genome. Our analysis reveals key features of the landscape of human genome variation, including that the rate of accumu...
Article
Utilization of health information is important in the provision of efficient and effective healthcare services. It is a major public health component in the ministry of health which informs decisions for efficient and effective healthcare. It involves generation, collection and analysis and use in identifying gaps in health systems to prompt planni...
Article
There are many successful global health research partnerships, but little information is available about what makes them successful. We asked 14 research colleagues from Uganda, Kenya, and the United States who have extensive global health research experience about what they considered the top three factors that led to or impeded successful interna...
Article
Full-text available
In order to explore the diversity and selective signatures of duplication and deletion human copy number variants (CNVs), we sequenced 236 individuals from 125 distinct human populations. We observed that duplications exhibit fundamentally different population genetic and selective signatures than deletions and are more likely to be stratified betw...
Article
Background: Achieving optimal iron status in children in malaria-endemic areas may increase the risk of malaria. Malaria itself may contribute to iron deficiency, but the impact of an interruption in malaria transmission on the prevalence of iron deficiency is unknown. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether 1) iron status improved in children...
Article
Full-text available
ApolipoproteinL1 (APOL1) protects humans and some primates against several African trypanosomes. APOL1 genetic variants strongly associated with kidney disease in African Americans have additional trypanolytic activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the cause of acute African sleeping sickness. We combined genetic, physiological, and bioch...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria in highland areas of Kenya affects children and adults. Local clinicians include symptoms other than fever when screening for malaria because they believe that fever alone does not capture all cases of malaria. Methods Individuals who presented to dispensaries in a highland Kenya site of low, unstable malaria transmission from 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
We sequenced genomes from a ~7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans der...
Article
Full-text available
We sequenced the genomes of a ~7,000 year old farmer from Germany and eight ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analyzed these and other ancient genomes1–4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG),...
Article
Full-text available
MB2 is a novel Plasmodium falciparum antigen of unknown function expressed in pre-erythrocytic and blood stages of infection in the human host. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-10 responses to other P. falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from clinical malaria, but these responses have not been studied for MB2. The...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical immunity to malaria declines in the absence of repeated parasite exposure. However, little is known about how B cell populations and antigen-specific memory B cells change in the absence of P. falciparum infection. A successful indoor residual insecticide spraying campaign in a highland area of western Kenya, led to an absence of blood-sta...
Data
A comparison of MBC subsets among participants with vs. without MSP142-specific memory B cells in 2008. There was no difference in the distribution of CD19+IgD-CD27-CD21+IgM-, CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21+IgM-, CD19+IgD-CD27+CD21-IgM- and CD19+IgD-CD27-CD21-IgM- B cells between the two groups. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multiplex cytometric bead assay (CBA) have a number of advantages over ELISA for antibody testing, but little information is available on standardization and validation of antibody CBA to multiple Plasmodium falciparum antigens. The present study was set to determine optimal parameters for multiplex testing of antibodies to P. falcipar...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Over the years, reports implicate improper anti-malarial use as a major contributor of morbidity and mortality amongst millions of residents in malaria endemic areas, Kenya included. However, there are limited reports on improper use of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) which is a first-line drug in the treatment of malaria i...
Article
Malaria control campaigns have reduced malaria transmission to very low levels in many areas of Africa. Yet the extent to which malaria interruption or elimination might decrease the prevalence of anemia in areas of low malaria transmission is unknown. Kapsisiywa and Kipsamoite, highland areas of Kenya with low, unstable malaria transmission, exper...
Article
Antibodies to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection against clinical malaria in some studies but not others. Many of these studies have not assessed whether high-titer antibodies are associated with protection and have not adjusted for differences in malaria exposure. The presence of high-titer antibodies t...
Article
Full-text available
Natural entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are considered as potential biological control agents against soil-borne insect pests. This study was conducted to determine the impact of land use on the distribution, occurrence and diversity of entomopathogenic nematode community. Isolation of EPNs was done using the baiting technique and application of...
Article
Full-text available
Natural entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are considered as potential biological control agents against soil-borne insect pests. This study was conducted to determine the impact of land use on the distribution, occurrence and diversity of entomopathogenic nematode community. Isolation of EPNs was done using the baiting technique and application of...
Article
Glutathione plays a crucial role in free radical scavenging, oxidative injury, and cellular homeostasis. Previously, we identified a non-synonymous polymorphism (P462S) in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis. This polymorphism is present only in individual...
Article
Statistical power to detect disease variants can be increased by weighting candidates by their evidence of natural selection. To demonstrate that this theoretical idea works in practice, we performed an association study of 10 putative resistance variants in 471 severe malaria cases and 474 controls from the Luo in Kenya. We replicated associations...