Georg Steinhauser

Georg Steinhauser
Leibniz Universität Hannover · Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protecion

About

182
Publications
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4,248
Citations
Citations since 2016
67 Research Items
2683 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (182)
Article
Full-text available
A contamination with the ubiquitous radioactive fission product ¹³⁷Cs cannot be assigned per se to its source. We used environmental samples with varying contamination levels from various parts of the world to establish their characteristic ¹³⁵Cs/¹³⁷Cs isotope ratios and thereby allow their distinction. The samples included biological materials fro...
Article
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Radioactive contamination resulting from major nuclear accidents presents harsh environmental conditions. Inside the Chernobyl exclusion zone, even more than 30 years after the accident, the resulting contamination levels still does not allow land-use or human dwellings. To study the potential of basidiomycete fungi to survive the conditions, a fie...
Article
Als am Morgen des 2. Oktober 2017 in Europa die Luftfilter der Messstationen gewechselt wurden, ahnte noch niemand, was in der Luft lag: eine Wolke von radioaktivem Ruthenium‐106 über dem ganzen Kontinent. Die Luftüberwachung schlug Alarm, aber kein Staat wollte die Verantwortung übernehmen, und angeblich wusste keiner davon. Aber die Messwerte lie...
Article
Full-text available
On August 8, 2019, an explosion of a military missile occurred at the Nenoksa (also transcribed as Nyonoksa) Missile Test Center (Russian Federation). Russian authorities confirmed a release of radioactive material in the course of this incident, which fueled rumors that it could have involved a nuclear‐propelled missile of the Burevestnik/Skyfall...
Article
Im Herbst 2017 meldeten europäische Messstationen eine Wolke aus Ruthenium‐106. Nach Auswertung tausender Messwerte von Luftfiltern [1] und unzähligen Stunden Rechenleistung für meteorologische Modellierungen [2] stand fest: Die Wolke kam wohl aus dem südlichen Ural. Dort liegt eine der größten Nuklear‐ und Wiederaufbereitungsanlagen der Welt: Maja...
Article
We conducted a comprehensive radiation hazard assessment of the Tokyo Olympic Games (Tokyo 2020, postponed to 2021). Our combined experimental and literature study focused on both external and internal exposure to ionizing radiation for athletes and visitors of the Games. The effective dose for a visit of 2 weeks ranges from 57 to 310 µSv (includin...
Article
Full-text available
Significance In the fall of 2017, a massive, undeclared release of ¹⁰⁶ Ru occurred that was detected across Eurasia. To conclusively address the nature of the release, we have used carefully selected and established chemical transformations to reveal a chemical fingerprint for the ¹⁰⁶ Ru contaminant that is uniquely consistent with specific methodo...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the circumstances of the undeclared 2017 nuclear release of ruthenium that led to widespread detections of the radioisotope 106Ru in the Eurasian region, and whether it derives from a civilian or military source, is of major importance for society and future improvements in nuclear safety. Until now, the released nuclear material has...
Article
Presence of environmental radiosilver and the investigation of the 108mAg/110mAg isotopic ratio in the aftermath of a nuclear power plant accident provides valuable information on the condition of the control rods of pressurized water reactors. However, the detection of minute amounts of the gamma emitting radiosilver isotopes is often thwarted by...
Chapter
Despite their simple basic principle, gas ionization detectors are still used frequently for the detection of ionizing radiation emitted from both radioactive substances and artificial radiation sources. On passing through a gas, ionizing radiation creates positive ions and electrons. If an electric field is applied, the positive ions start to migr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The position paper of the ENS High Scientific Council on "The important role of nuclear in a low-carbon world"
Article
The bioconcentration factors for radiosilver (108mAg) and radiocesium (¹³⁷Cs) for shiitake mushrooms from an artificially contaminated sawdust substrate were found to be 0.11 and 3.8, respectively. The main fraction of radiosilver was found in the stalk rather than the cap, whereas radiocesium accumulated mostly in the cap of the shiitake mushroom....
Article
Wenn man sich die zahlreichen Versionen des Periodensystems ansieht, bekommt man den Eindruck, dass der f‐Block dort platziert werden darf, wo gerade Platz ist oder es schön aussieht. Doch für den radiophilen Anorganiker gibt es nur eine richtige Position.
Chapter
Nuclear emergencies exhibit an imminent threat to the fabric of society as they may cause severe actual damage or may be perceived as hazardous. A holistic approach is needed to assess past accidents as well as future accident scenarios. For this reason, education, science, and research are needed now as well as in the future for proper nuclear acc...
Chapter
In this chapter, various aspects of the two major reactor accidents at Chernobyl (1986; Ukrainian SSR) and Fukushima (2011; Japan) are discussed and compared. Both accidents have been ranked at the maximal level of 7 (“Major Accident”) at the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). The Chernobyl nuclear accident was caused by an...
Chapter
Large amounts of radionuclides were released into the environment as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident following the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami on March 11, 2011. Some research activities that focused on the monitoring of actinide elements (²³⁶U, 238,239,240,241Pu, ²⁴¹Am, an...
Chapter
This document provides a comprehensive overview study on the physico-chemical speciation of radioiodine observed in the atmosphere after various emissions related to nuclear activities: nuclear weapon tests, accident and incident releases, and routine discharges. The study covers different types of nuclear facilities including medical isotope produ...
Article
Full-text available
Significance A massive atmospheric release of radioactive ¹⁰⁶ Ru occurred in Eurasia in 2017, which must have been caused by a sizeable, yet undeclared nuclear accident. This work presents the most compelling monitoring dataset of this release, comprising 1,100 atmospheric and 200 deposition data points from the Eurasian region. The data suggest a...
Article
Full-text available
A dependence of the formation of tri-n-octylphosphine-capped Ni nanocrystals on the presence of halide ions during their synthesis is shown. For the application-oriented synthesis of Ni particles, this information can be crucial. Furthermore, Ni nanoparticles can be converted to nickel phosphide or sulphide by heating them up in the presence of a p...
Article
Following the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), radionuclides mostly of volatile elements (e.g., ¹³¹I, 134,137Cs, ¹³²Te) have been investigated frequently for their presence in the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere, and the Pacific Ocean. Smaller releases of radionuclides with intermediate volatility, (e.g., ⁹⁰Sr), have been reported for soil. How...
Article
The use of commercially available strontium-selective resins has been established for strontium isolation and the analysis of radiostrontium. The resins show no significant aging effects (during storage under different temperatures) and even long-time storage under highly acidic conditions yields a similar performance to new resin columns. The reus...
Article
The adsorption kinetics of ⁸⁵Sr onto three pedologically characterized mineral soils was investigated, namely, one soil from the Chernobyl-Exclusion zone, Ukraine (CEZ-soil), one soil from the dismantling site of a former nuclear research reactor in Germany (DRE-soil) and a sandy reference soil (RefeSol-04A) from the Fraunhofer IME system, Germany....
Book
This book discusses nuclear events that may become imminent threats to the fabric of our society, and elucidates strategies for preventing these threats or mitigating their adverse effects. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of various nuclear emergencies, including nuclear accidents, terror attacks involving nuclear materials, illicit traffick...
Article
Beryllium-7, mainly measured via γ-spectrometry, is used as a (natural) radiotracer for education and science. For activities < 0.1 Bq and samples containing also longer-lived ¹⁰Be, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the method-of-choice. We demonstrate that ⁷Be and ¹⁰Be can be quantified at the Dresden AMS facility on the same prepared BeO. De...
Article
Radioactive particles have been released from multiple sources since the mid-twentieth century. Famous examples include nuclear fuel particles from Chernobyl, glassy microparticles from Fukushima as well as particles from nuclear weapons production facilities (e.g., Windscale, United Kingdom and the facilities in the former Soviet Union), nuclear w...
Article
Full-text available
Radiostrontium is a common product of nuclear fission and was emitted into the environment in the course of nuclear weapon tests as well as from nuclear reactor accidents. The release of ⁹⁰Sr and ⁸⁹Sr into the environment can pose health threats due to their characteristics such as high specific activities and easy access in human body due to its c...
Article
Full-text available
Related to the recent nuclear release of radioactive ruthenium isotopes in fall 2017, we analyzed air filters from Vienna for irregularities in the (stable) elemental composition of particulate matter from this period. Methods were SEM/EDXS and INAA. For comparison, a reference filter from 2007 and blank filters were used. The chemical fingerprint...
Article
Full-text available
Radionuclides from water samples from the Chernobyl exclusion zone were studied for anthropogenic radionuclides ¹³⁷Cs and ⁹⁰Sr. Tritium levels remained below detection limits. For comparison, a sample of mollusk shells from the cooling pond of the NPP has been included into the study, which were found to accumulate ⁹⁰Sr by a factor of 600 from the...
Article
: Traces of particulate radioactive iodine (131I) were detected in the European atmosphere in January/February 2017. Concentrations of this nuclear fission product were very low, ranging 0.1 to 10 µBq m-3 except at one location in western Russia where they reached up to several mBq m-3. Detections have been reported continuously over an 8-week peri...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The cover page of our critical review in JAAS (2018, 33, 511-672): The role of mass spectrometry for radioactive contamination assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident The link to the page for our article: http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7JA00401J or to the JAAS homepage at: www.rsc.org/JAAS Abstract The Fukushima nuclear accident caused the r...
Article
Invited for the cover of this issue are the groups of Peter Weinberger from TU Wien, Vienna, Austria, and Georg Steinhauser, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hanover, Germany. The cover image shows the structure of the featured lanthanide azobis[tetrazolide]‐carbonate reaching from Y to Yb to illustrate the “overcoming” of the gadolinium break. One in...
Article
The Front Cover shows a photograph of a geological structure with a small, black hump in the middle: a crystal of gadolinite. The hump symbolizes the gadolinium break. The structure of the featured lanthanide azobis[tetrazolide]‐carbonate reaches from Y to Yb, illustrating the “overcoming” of the gadolinium break. More information can be found in t...
Article
The Fukushima nuclear accident caused the release of large amounts of radionuclides into the environment. After the accident, radioactive contamination assessment in the environmental samples is essential for radiation dose estimation and radioactive remediation. Mass spectrometry characterized by high sensitivity, low detection limit, short measur...
Article
Bereits Spuren des Actinoids Americium bestimmen die Kristallstruktur eines Terbiumsalzes.
Article
A series of rare earth (lanthanides plus yttrium) mixed anion 5,5'-azobis(1H-tetrazol-1-ide)-carbonate ([REE2(ZT)2CO3(H2O)10]∙2H2O) coordination compounds were synthesized, characterized and analyzed. Syntheses by simple metathesis reactions under a CO2 atmosphere were carried out at ambient (La - Gd and Ho) and elevated pressures (55 bar; Tb, Dy,...
Article
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The monitoring inspection of food after the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) was essential for ensuring food safety in Japan and reducing the adverse health effects due to incorporation of inacceptable amounts of radionuclides, in particular radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs). In this study, the mushroom fraction of the governmental data set of the fir...
Article
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Internal, high-dose exposure with radioiodine is known to increase the risk for thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Ingestion of contaminated food is generally regarded a dominant route of internal exposure. We analyzed the huge data set of the post-Fukushima food monitoring campaign and deployed a conservative model for the estimation of t...
Article
A selection of 35 food samples from Japan (plus one seawater sample and one mushroom sample from Russia) were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The analytical protocol included concentration of the sample by lyophilization and/or thermal treatment, resulting in exceptionally low limits of detections (in the low mBq/k...
Article
Full-text available
Be with its relatively short half-life (53.22 days) is a possibly suitable radionuclide for radiotracer experiments. Low-level activities of natural ⁷Be can be found in rainwater and might be available as a tracer after radiochemical isolation. Herein, beryllium was first concentrated by evaporation of rainwater and/or iron(III) hydroxide co-precip...
Article
Als chemischer „Rattenfänger” lockt Americium das schwere Lanthanoid Terbium um die „Gadoliniumecke” – in einen Strukturtyp, der normalerweise nur von leichten Lanthanoiden bevorzugt wird. Terbiumazobis(tetrazolid) kristallisiert unter gewöhnlichen Umständen als salzartige Verbindung. Wie G. Steinhauser et al. in ihrer Zuschrift (DOI: 10.1002/ange....
Article
Americium acts as a “pied piper” and lures the heavy lanthanide terbium across the “gadolinium break” into forming a structure that is normally preferred by the light lanthanides only. Terbium azobis(tetrazolide) usually crystallizes as a salt-like compound. Traces of americium in the mother liquor change the structural behavior of the compound by...
Article
Full-text available
Mushrooms are well known as important food items. The uses of mushrooms in the cuisine are manifolds and are being utilized for thousands of years in both Oriental and Occidental cultures. Medicinal properties of mushrooms show an immense potential as drugs for the treatment of various diseases as they are rich in a great variety of phytochemicals....
Article
Crystallization of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (~1 pmol) of americium results in 1) the concentration of Am tracer in the crystalline solids and 2) material that adopts a different crystal structure than that formed in the absence of Am. The structure found for Am-doped Tb(Am)2ZT3·24 H2O is isostruct...
Article
Crystallization of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (~1 pmol) of americium results in 1) the concentration of Am tracer in the crystalline solids and 2) material that adopts a different crystal structure than that formed in the absence of Am. The structure found for Am-doped Tb(Am)2ZT3·24 H2O is isostruct...
Article
In June 2013 and July 2014, soil samples were collected from unremediated locations within Fukushima prefecture, with special focus on the Fukushima exclusion zone. The soil samples were analyzed for radiocesium by gamma spectroscopy, and then ⁹⁰Sr by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) after ion specific extraction chromatography. Specific activit...
Article
In the course of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (March 2011), large quantities of radionuclides, mainly of the volatile elements such as cesium and iodine were released to the environment. In small amounts non-volatile elements such as plutonium and uranium have also been released. For this study vegetation, litter and soil drill core sampl...
Article
Full-text available
Meat of wild boars is not only known for high ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations but also for the remarkable constancy of these levels. Even decades after the Chernobyl accident, the ¹³⁷Cs levels in wild boar meat in Central Europe have not declined but even partly increased. In the present study, we investigated an unusual hypothesis for this very unus...
Article
A piece of the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteorite was investigated for its content of anthropogenic radionuclides. In addition to traces of cesium-137 that had been previously reported for this particular fragment, we found an unusually high amount of strontium-90, which indicates that the source of this contamination was the Kyshtym accident (1957). A hig...
Article
Many species of mushrooms are known accumulators of radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs and ¹³⁴Cs). Even years and decades after major nuclear accidents, especially those at Chernobyl and Fukushima, mushrooms exhibit high concentrations of these radionuclides. We investigated a simple method for reducing the activity of radiocesium in wild mushrooms (chanter...
Article
In 1910, Carl Auer von Welsbach noted that he had made an observation of a radioactive substance inducing radioactivity to an inactive substance. From today's point of view, this could have been the first observation of neutron activation. Herein, we present new insights into our investigation of this ‘mysterious observation’ as Auer von Welsbach t...
Article
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After the Fukushima nuclear accident, beef proved to be a problematic food item with several exceedances entering the market. The reason was contaminated rice straw that was fed to cattle. Japanese authorities responded quickly to the exceedances and made beef one of the most-monitored food items after the Fukushima accident with more than a millio...
Article
Historic mining in the Eastern Alps has left us with a legacy of numerous spoil heaps hosting specific, metal tolerant vegetation. Such habitats are characterized by elevated concentrations of toxic elements but also by high irradiation, a poorly developed substrate or extreme pH of the soil. This study investigates the distribution of vascular pla...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of Chernobyl on the 137Cs activities found in wild boars in Europe, even in remote locations from the NPP, has been much greater than the impact of Fukushima on boars in Japan. Although there is great variability within the 137Cs concentrations throughout the wild boar populations, some boars in southern Germany in recent years exhibit h...
Article
We investigated Ocean sediments and seawater from inside the Fukushima exclusion zone and found radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) up to 800 Bq kg-1 as well as 90Sr up to 5.6 Bq kg-1. This is one of the first reports on radiostrontium in sea sediments from the Fukushima exclusion zone. Seawater exhibited contamination levels up to 5.3 Bq kg-1 radiocesiu...
Article
Published pre-Fukushima food monitoring data from 1963 to 1995 were used to study the long-term presence of 137Cs and 90Sr in rice and wheat. Effective half-lives (T eff) were calculated for rice (137Cs: 5.6 years; 90Sr: 6.7 years) and wheat (137Cs: 3.5 years; 90Sr: 6.2 years), respectively. In rice, 137Cs exhibits a longer T eff because putrefacti...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess whether or not the food monitoring campaign after the Fukushima nuclear accident has been successful in reducing the number of above-limit-food from reaching the consumers. The hypothesis of this study is that the fraction of "post-market" food can be used for this purpose, when the post-market fraction in th...
Article
The Fukushima nuclear accident (March 11, 2011) caused the widespread contamination of Japan by direct deposition of airborne radionuclides. Analysis of weekly air filters revealed sporadic releases of radionuclides long after the Fukushima Daiichi reactors have been stabilized. One major discharge was observed in August 2013 in monitoring stations...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of Chernobyl on the 137Cs activities found in wild boars in Europe, even in remote locations from the NPP, has been much greater than the impact of Fukushima on boars in Japan. Although there is great variability within the 137Cs concentrations throughout the wild boar populations, some boars in southern Germany in recent years exhibit h...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated Ocean sediments and seawater from inside the Fukushima exclusion zone and found radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) up to 800 Bq kg−1 as well as 90Sr up to 5.6 Bq kg−1. This is one of the first reports on radiostrontium in sea sediments from the Fukushima exclusion zone. Seawater exhibited contamination levels up to 5.3 Bq kg−1 radiocesiu...
Article
Processing environmental samples for analysis can result in loss of target or bystander radionuclides. Removal of carrier-free 131I from soil samples by chemical processes was evaluated in the presence and absence of iodide carrier, H2O2, and AgNO3. Soil samples spiked with 131I and 134Cs tracer were boiled under reflux for 30 min in HNO3 and combi...
Article
Although actinides are the most informative elements with respect to the nature of a nuclear accident, plutonium analysis is complicated by the background created by fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Therefore, we propose 239Np, a short-lived actinide that emits several gamma rays, as a preferred proxy. The aim of this study was to scree...
Article
Full-text available
Published pre-Fukushima food monitoring data from 1963 to 1995 were used to study the long-term presence of 137Cs and 90Sr in rice and wheat. Effective half-lives (T eff) were calculated for rice (137Cs: 5.6 years; 90Sr: 6.7 years) and wheat (137Cs: 3.5 years; 90Sr: 6.2 years), respectively. In rice, 137Cs exhibits a longer T eff because putrefacti...
Article
Full-text available
In the aftermath of the Fuku-shima nuclear accident, it has often been argued by the concerned public that radioactivity and ionizing radiation have to be considered intrinsically harmful because humans have no sensory organ for this type of radiation. It is not only true that humans lack a sense for ionizing radiation , but no organism on Earth is...
Article
High fluence (>10 15 ions/cm 2) low-energy (<2 keV) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of AsH 3 + on (1 0 0) silicon was investigated, with the focus on stability and retention of the dopant. At this dose, a thin (∼3 nm) amorphous layer forms at the surface, which contains about 45% arsenic (As) in a silicon and oxygen matrix. The presence of...
Article
Japanische Lebensmittelbehörden haben nach dem Reaktorunfall von Fukushima mehr als 900 000 Stichproben untersucht. Dabei zeigte sich: Die Bevölkerung war weitgehend vor kontaminierter Nahrung geschützt. Allerdings wurde das schwierig nachzuweisende Nuklid Strontium-90 bislang kaum berücksichtigt.
Article
In an unprecedented food monitoring campaign for radionuclides, the Japanese government took action to secure food safety after the Fukushima nuclear accident (11 March 2011). In this paper we analyze a part of the immense data set, in particular radiocesium contaminations in food from the first year after the accident. Activity concentrations in v...
Article
Im Jahr 1910 publizierte der österreichische Chemiker Carl Auer von Welsbach eine merkwürdige Beobachtung, die nicht im Einklang mit dem damaligen Wissen stand. Es könnte sich um die erste Beschreibung von Neutronenstrahlung handeln.
Article
In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of rad...
Article
European legislation has set a limit of 5 mg Hg per compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Compliance with this regulation is tested with a method given in a European law from 2002 ("EU method"). According to the EU method, the arc tube has to be placed inside a fume cupboard and cut into segments. These pieces are collected and washed with HNO3, which is...
Article
The evolution of very high dose arsenic implants in silicon formed by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) using a non-pulsed plasma source was studied over a time period of more than one year. The study focused on the effect of arsenolite micro-crystal formation, enhanced oxidation, and the significant As dose loss from as impl...
Article
In inorganic 5,5[prime or minute]-azobistetrazolate (C2N102-; ZT) compounds, the energetic ZT moiety is usually stabilized by H-bonds to lattice H2O and/or coordination of an N-atom of the tetrazole ring to the metal ion. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a novel, salt-like compound, [Dy(H2O)8]2ZT3, which constitutes a unique ex...
Article
The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, t...
Article
Full-text available
The contamination of Japan after the Fukushima accident has been investigated mainly for volatile fission products, but only sparsely for actinides such as plutonium. Only small releases of actinides were estimated in Fukushima. Plutonium is still omnipresent in the environment from previous atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. We investigated soil a...
Article
Full-text available
The subject of this paper is to explore the possibility to obtain 99mTc from activation of 98Mo, using the TRIGA Mark II low flux research reactor (Vienna, Austria). Irradiation of both natural and enriched in 98Mo molybdenum oxides was compared. Aims of this work included the determination of neutron fluxes and 98Mo(n, γ)99Mo reaction effective cr...
Article
Full-text available
We created dense ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers in diamond by neutron and electron irradiation for applications in hybrid quantum systems and magnetometry. We characterize fluorescence intensity, optical and coherence properties of the resulting defects by confocal microscopy, UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, optically...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the interference of radiolead in the isolation of radiostrontium using a strontium-specific resin by means of Sr-85 and Pb-212 radiotracers. The resin was found to be almost equally specific for lead ions as well. Elution of Pb2+, however, was found to occur at very low acid concentrations (<= 0.02 HNO3) of the elutant. Even with pu...
Article
In the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident large amounts of antropogenic radionuclides relevant to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) were released and detected globally. Our group participated in the large European monitoring campaign and tracked fission products in various environmental media in Austria. We could show that the...
Article
Full-text available
This study is dedicated to the environmental monitoring of radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident. The activity concentrations of β(-) -emitting (90)Sr and β(-)/γ-emitting (134)Cs and (137)Cs from several hot spots in Japan were determined in soil and vegetation samples. The (90)Sr contamination levels of the samples...