# Georg StadlerNew York University | NYU · Courant Institute

Georg Stadler

Dr

## About

115

Publications

10,762

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3,963

Citations

Introduction

Additional affiliations

October 2010 - July 2014

## Publications

Publications (115)

We propose a new method to compute magnetic surfaces that are parametrized in Boozer coordinates for vacuum magnetic fields. We also propose a measure for quasisymmetry on the computed surfaces and use it to design coils that generate a magnetic field that is quasisymmetric on those surfaces. The rotational transform of the field and complexity mea...

We present a technique that can be used to design stellarators with a high degree of experimental flexibility. For our purposes, flexibility is defined by the range of values the rotational transform can take on the magnetic axis of the vacuum field while maintaining satisfactory quasisymmetry. We show that accounting for configuration flexibility...

Plate motions are a primary surface constraint on plate and mantle dynamics and rheology, plate boundary stresses, and the occurrence of great earthquakes. Within an optimization method, we use plate motion data to better constrain uncertain mantle parameters. For the optimization problem characterizing the maximum a posteriori rheological paramete...

We present a Newton-Krylov solver for a viscous-plastic sea-ice model. This constitutive relation is commonly used in climate models to describe the large scale sea-ice motion. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the momentum equation, the development of fast, robust and scalable solvers is still a substantial challenge. We propose a novel primal-dua...

Magnetic fields with quasi-symmetry are known to provide good confinement of charged particles and plasmas, but the extent to which quasi-symmetry can be achieved in practice has remained an open question. Recent work [M. Landreman and E. Paul, Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 035001, 2022] reports the discovery of toroidal magnetic fields that are quasi-symm...

It was recently shown in [Wechsung et. al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2022, to appear] that there exist electromagnetic coils that generate magnetic fields which are excellent approximations to quasi-symmetric fields and have very good particle confinement properties. Using a Gaussian process based model for coil perturbations, we investigate the...

We propose a new method to compute magnetic surfaces that are parametrized in Boozer coordinates for vacuum magnetic fields. We also propose a measure for quasi-symmetry on the computed surfaces and use it to design coils that generate a magnetic field that is quasi-symmetric on those surfaces. The rotational transform of the field and complexity m...

We present a new coil design paradigm for magnetic confinement in stellarators. Our approach directly optimizes coil shapes and coil currents to produce a vacuum quasi-symmetric magnetic field with a target rotational transform on the magnetic axis. This approach differs from the traditional two-stage approach in which first a magnetic configuratio...

Sampling of sharp posteriors in high dimensions is a challenging problem, especially when gradients of the likelihood are unavailable. In low to moderate dimensions, affine-invariant methods, a class of ensemble-based gradient-free methods, have found success in sampling concentrated posteriors. However, the number of ensemble members must exceed t...

Co-exposure networks offer a useful tool for analyzing audience behavior. In these networks, nodes are sources of information and ties measure the strength of audience overlap. Past research has used this method to analyze exposure to content on social media and the web. However, we still lack a systematic assessment of how different choices in the...

A drastic change in plate tectonics and mantle convection occurred around 50 Ma as exemplified by the prominent Hawaiian–Emperor Bend. Both an abrupt Pacific Plate motion change and a change in mantle plume dynamics have been proposed to account for the Hawaiian–Emperor Bend, but debates surround the relative contribution of the two mechanisms. Her...

We extend the single-stage stellarator coil design approach for quasi-symmetry on axis from [Giuliani et al, 2020] to additionally take into account coil manufacturing errors. By modeling coil errors independently from the coil discretization, we have the flexibility to consider realistic forms of coil errors. The corresponding stochastic optimizat...

We consider Bayesian inverse problems wherein the unknown state is assumed to be a function with discontinuous structure a priori. A class of prior distributions based on the output of neural networks with heavy-tailed weights is introduced, motivated by existing results concerning the infinite-width limit of such networks. We show theoretically th...

Given a distribution of earthquake-induced seafloor elevations, we present a method to compute the probability of the resulting tsunamis reaching a certain size on shore. Instead of sampling, the proposed method relies on optimization to compute the most likely fault slips that result in a seafloor deformation inducing a large tsunami wave. We mode...

Plate motions are a primary surface constraint on plate and mantle dynamics and rheology, plate boundary stresses, and the occurrence of great earthquakes. Within an optimization method, we use plate motion data to better constrain uncertain mantle parameters. For the optimization problem characterizing the maximum a posteriori rheological paramete...

We present augmented Lagrangian Schur complement preconditioners and robust multigrid methods for incompressible Stokes problems with extreme viscosity variations. Such Stokes systems arise, for instance, upon linearization of nonlinear viscous flow problems, and they can have severely inhomogeneous and anisotropic coefficients. Using an augmented...

We extend the single-stage stellarator coil design approach for quasi-symmetry on axis from [Giuliani et al, 2020] to additionally take into account coil manufacturing errors. By modeling coil errors independently from the coil discretization, we have the flexibility to consider realistic forms of coil errors. The corresponding stochastic optimizat...

We present a new coil design paradigm for magnetic confinement in stellarators. Our approach directly optimizes coil shapes and coil currents to produce a vacuum quasi-symmetric magnetic field with a target rotational transform on the magnetic axis. This approach differs from the traditional two-stage approach in which first a magnetic configuratio...

We propose a Bayesian inference framework to estimate uncertainties in inverse scattering problems. Given the observed data, the forward model and their uncertainties, we find the posterior distribution over a finite parameter field representing the objects. To construct the prior distribution we use a topological sensitivity analysis. We demonstra...

We propose and compare methods for the estimation of extreme event probabilities in complex systems governed by PDEs. Our approach is guided by ideas from large deviation theory (LDT) and borrows tools from PDE-constrained optimization. The systems under consideration involve random parameters and we are interested in quantifying the probability th...

We consider optimal design of infinite-dimensional Bayesian linear inverse problems governed by partial differential equations that contain secondary reducible model uncertainties, in addition to the uncertainty in the inversion parameters. By reducible uncertainties we refer to parametric uncertainties that can be reduced through parameter inferen...

Strain localization and resulting plasticity and failure play an important role in the evolution of the lithosphere. These phenomena are commonly modeled by Stokes flows with viscoplastic rheologies. The nonlinearities of these rheologies make the numerical solution of the resulting systems challenging, and iterative methods often converge slowly o...

Hessian operators arising in inverse problems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) play a critical role in delivering efficient, dimension-independent convergence for both Newton solution of deterministic inverse problems, as well as Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of posteriors in the Bayesian setting. These methods require the abil...

We propose a Bayesian inference framework to estimate uncertainties in inverse scattering problems. Given the observed data, the forward model and their uncertainties, we find the posterior distribution over a finite parameter field representing the objects. To construct the prior distribution we use a topological sensitivity analysis. We demonstra...

We present a method for computing A-optimal sensor placements for infinite-dimensional Bayesian linear inverse problems governed by PDEs with irreducible model uncertainties. Here, irreducible uncertainties refers to uncertainties in the model that exist in addition to the parameters in the inverse problem, and that cannot be reduced through observ...

High-resolution blood flow simulations have potential for developing better understanding biophysical phenomena at the microscale, such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction and overall vascular resistance. To this end, we present a scalable platform for the simulation of red blood cell (RBC) flows through complex capillaries by modeling the physical s...

High-resolution blood flow simulations have potential for developing better understanding biophysical phenomena at the microscale, such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction and overall vascular resistance. To this end, we present a scalable platform for the simulation of red blood cell (RBC) flows through complex capillaries by modeling the physical s...

We present a computational alternative to probabilistic simulations for non-smooth stochastic dynamical systems that are prevalent in engineering mechanics. As examples, we target (1) stochastic elasto-plastic problems, which involve transitions between elastic and plastic states, and (2) obstacle problems with noise, which involve discrete impulse...

Joint inversion refers to the simultaneous inference of multiple parameter fields from observations of systems governed by single or multiple forward models. In many cases these parameter fields reflect different attributes of a single medium and are thus spatially correlated or structurally similar. By imposing prior information on their spatial c...

Joint inversion refers to the simultaneous inference of multiple parameter fields from observations of systems governed by single or multiple forward models. In many cases these parameter fields reflect different attributes of a single medium and are thus spatially correlated or structurally similar. By imposing prior information on their spatial c...

We study sparse solutions of optimal control problems governed by PDEs with uncertain coefficients. We propose two formulations, one where the solution is a deterministic control optimizing the mean objective, and a formulation aiming at stochastic controls that share the same sparsity structure. In both formulations, regions where the controls do...

One of the greatest challenges in computational science and engineering today is how to combine complex data with complex models to create better predictions. This challenge cuts across every application area within CS&E, from geosciences, materials, chemical systems, biological systems, and astrophysics to engineered systems in aerospace, transpor...

We present a computational alternative to probabilistic simulations for non-smooth stochastic dynamical systems that are prevalent in engineering mechanics. As examples, we target (1) stochastic elasto-plasticity, which involve transitions between elastic and plastic states, and (2) obstacle problems with noise, which involve discrete impulses due...

We develop and study an adjoint-based inversion method for the simultaneous recovery of initial temperature conditions and viscosity parameters in time-dependent mantle convection from the current mantle temperature and historic plate motion. Based on a realistic rheological model with temperature-dependent and strain-rate-dependent viscosity, we f...

The computational cost of solving an inverse problem governed by PDEs, using multiple experiments, increases linearly with the number of experiments. A recently proposed method to decrease this cost uses only a small number of random linear combinations of all experiments for solving the inverse problem. This approach applies to inverse problems wh...

Gaussian random fields over infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces require the definition of appropriate covariance operators. The use of elliptic PDE operators to construct covariance operators allows to build on fast PDE solvers for manipulations with the resulting covariance and precision opera- tors. However, PDE operators require a choice of boun...

Full-waveform inversion (FWI) enables us to obtain highresolution subsurface images; however, estimating model uncertainties associated with this technique is still a challenging problem. We have used a Bayesian inference framework to estimate model uncertainties associated with FWI. The uncertainties were assessed based on an a posteriori covarian...

We address the inverse problem of inferring the basal geothermal heat flux from surface velocity observations using a steady-state thermomechanically coupled nonlinear Stokes ice flow model. This is a challenging inverse problem since the map from basal heat flux to surface velocity observables is indirect: the heat flux is a boundary condition for...

We present a weighted BFBT approximation (w-BFBT) to the inverse Schur complement of a Stokes system with highly heterogeneous viscosity. When used as part of a Schur complement-based Stokes preconditioner, we observe robust fast convergence for Stokes problems with smooth but highly varying (up to 10 orders of magnitude) viscosities, optimal algor...

We present a method for optimal control of systems governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) with uncertain parameter fields. We consider an objective function that involves the mean and variance of the control objective, leading to a risk-averse optimal control problem. To make the optimal control problem tractable, we invoke a quadratic T...

We address the inverse problem of inferring the basal geothermal heat ﬂux from surface velocity observations using an instantaneous thermomechanically coupled nonlinear Stokes ice ﬂow model. This is a challenging inverse problem since the map from basal heat ﬂux to surface velocity observables is indirect: the heat ﬂux is a boundary condition for t...

Mantle convection is the fundamental physical process within earth's interior responsible for the thermal and geological evolution of the planet, including plate tectonics. The mantle is modeled as a viscous, incompressible, non-Newtonian fluid. The wide range of spatial scales, extreme variability and anisotropy in material properties, and severel...

We develop and validate a systematic approach to infer plate boundary strength and rheological parameters in models of mantle flow from surface velocity observations. Based on a realistic rheological model that includes yielding and strain rate weakening from dislocation creep, we formulate the inverse problem in a Bayesian inference framework. To...

This erratum corrects a mistake in the statement and proof of Lemma 3.6 in [R. Herzog, G. Stadler, and G. Wachsmuth, SIAM J. Control Optim., 50 (2012), pp. 943-963]. This mistake does not have an impact on any other results in the paper.

We address the problem of optimal experimental design (OED) for Bayesian
nonlinear inverse problems governed by PDEs. The goal is to find a placement of
sensors, at which experimental data are collected, so as to minimize the
uncertainty in the inferred parameter field. We formulate the OED objective
function by generalizing the classical A-optimal...

The majority of research on efficient and scalable algorithms in
computational science and engineering has focused on the forward problem: given
parameter inputs, solve the governing equations to determine output quantities
of interest. In contrast, here we consider the broader question: given a
(large-scale) model containing uncertain parameters,...

We address complications in the coupling of a dynamic ice sheet model (ISM) and forcing from an Earth System Model (ESM), which arise because of the unknown ISM initial conditions. Unless explicitly accounted for during ISM initialization, the ice sheet is far from thermomechanical equilibrium with the surface mass balance forcing from the ESM. Upo...

We address the problem of inferring mantle rheological parameter fields from surface velocity observations and instantaneous nonlinear mantle flow models. We formulate this inverse problem as an infinite-dimensional nonlinear least squares optimization problem governed by nonlinear Stokes equations. We provide expressions for the gradient of the co...

Motivated by the need for efficient and accurate simulation of the dynamics
of the polar ice sheets, we design high-order finite element discretizations
and scalable solvers for the solution of nonlinear incompressible Stokes
equations. In particular, we focus on power-law, shear thinning rheologies
commonly used in modelling ice dynamics and other...

We present a comparison of different multigrid approaches for the solution of
systems arising from high-order continuous finite element discretizations of
elliptic partial differential equations on complex geometries. We consider the
pointwise Jacobi, the Chebyshev-accelerated Jacobi and the symmetric successive
over-relaxation (SSOR) smoothers, as...

Geodetic surveys now provide detailed time series maps of anthropogenic land subsidence and uplift due to injection and withdrawal of pore fluids from the subsurface. A coupled poroelastic model allows the integration of geodetic and hydraulic data in a joint inversion and has therefore the potential to improve the characterization of the subsurfac...

We propose a nonsmooth continuum mechanical model for discontinuous shear thickening flow. The model obeys a formulation as energy minimization problem and its solution satisfies a Stokes type system with a nonsmooth constitute relation. Solutions have a free boundary at which the behavior of the fluid changes. We present Sobolev as well as Hölder...

This paper discusses the computation of derivatives for optimization problems
governed by linear hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations (PDEs)
that are discretized by the discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method. An efficient
and accurate computation of these derivatives is important, for instance, in
inverse problems and optimal control pr...

We address the numerical solution of infinite-dimensional inverse problems in
the framework of Bayesian inference. In the Part I companion to this paper
(arXiv.org:1308.1313), we considered the linearized infinite-dimensional
inverse problem. Here in Part II, we relax the linearization assumption and
consider the fully nonlinear infinite-dimensiona...

We present a scalable method for computing A-optimal designs for
infinite-dimensional Bayesian linear inverse problems governed by
time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). Our target application is
the problem of optimal allocation of sensors where observational data is
collected. Computing optimal designs is particularly challenging f...

We present a computational framework for estimating the uncertainty in the
numerical solution of linearized infinite-dimensional statistical inverse
problems. We adopt the Bayesian inference formulation: given observational data
and their uncertainty, the governing forward problem and its uncertainty, and a
prior probability distribution describing...

Several models of different complexity and accuracy have been proposed
for describing ice-sheet dynamics. We introduce a parallel, finite
element framework for implementing these models, which range from the
"shallow ice approximation" up through nonlinear Stokes flow. These
models make up the land ice dynamical core of FELIX, which is being
develo...

A new generation, parallel adaptive-mesh mantle convection code, Rhea, is described and benchmarked. Rhea targets large-scale mantle convection simulations on parallel computers, and thus has been developed with a strong focus on computational efficiency and parallel scala-bility of both mesh handling and numerical solvers. Rhea builds mantle conve...

We present a parallel multigrid method for solving variable-coefficient elliptic partial differential equations on arbitrary geometries using highly adapted meshes. Our method is designed for meshes that are built from an unstructured hexa-hedral macro mesh, in which each macro element is adaptively refined as an octree. This forest-of-octrees appr...

Quantifying uncertainties in large-scale simulations has emerged as the central challenge facing CS&E. When the simulations require supercomputers, and uncertain parameter dimensions are large, conventional UQ methods fail. Here we address uncertainty quantification for large-scale inverse problems in a Bayesian inference framework: given data and...

Fundamental issues in our understanding of plate and mantle dynamics remain unresolved, including the rheology and state of stress of plates and slabs; the coupling between plates, slabs and mantle; and the flow around slabs. To address these questions, models of global mantle flow with plates are computed using adaptive finite elements, and compar...

We propose an infinite-dimensional adjoint-based inexact Gauss–Newton method for the solution of inverse problems governed by Stokes models of ice sheet flow with nonlinear rheology and sliding law. The method is applied to infer the basal sliding coefficient and the rheological exponent parameter fields from surface velocities. The inverse problem...

We study optimal control problems in which controls with certain sparsity patterns are preferred. For time-dependent problems the approach can be used to find locations for control de-vices that allow controlling the system in an optimal way over the entire time interval. The approach uses a nondifferentiable cost functional to implement the sparsi...

We are interested in the solution of seismic inverse problems involving
the inference of earth properties from surface seismograms, along with
associated uncertainties. This problem can be cast as a large-scale
statistical inverse problem in the framework of Bayesian inference. The
complicating factors are the high-dimensional parameter spaces (due...

Modeling the dynamics of polar ice sheets is critical for projections of
future sea level rise. Yet, there remain large uncertainties in the
basal boundary conditions and in the non-Newtonian constitutive
relations employed within ice sheet models. In this presentation, we
consider the problem of estimating uncertainty in the solution of
(large-sca...

The In Salah project in Algeria has shown that CO2 injection into deep
saline aquifers leads to measurable and transient deformation of the
surface. Time-series measurements of surface deformation with PS-InSAR
and GPS are a promising monitoring tool for geological CO2 storage.
These measurements have to be integrated with other observations to
ext...

Ein neues Computermodell ermöglicht, die Strömungen im Erdmantel und die daraus resultierenden Plattenbewegungen so detailliert und wirklichkeitsgetreu wie nie zuvor nachzuvollziehen. Dazu passt es seine Auflösung variabel an die jeweiligen geologischen Strukturen an.

We discuss solution methods for inverse problems, in which the unknown parameters are connected to the measurements through a partial differential equation (PDE). Various features that commonly arise in these problems, such as inversions for a coefficient field, for the initial condition in a time-dependent problem, and for source terms are being s...