Georg Homuth

Georg Homuth
University Medicine and Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald · Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, Department of Functional Genomics

Dr.

About

554
Publications
130,185
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40,961
Citations
Citations since 2017
207 Research Items
27459 Citations
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Publications

Publications (554)
Article
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Objective In acute pancreatitis (AP), bacterial translocation and subsequent infection of pancreatic necrosis are the main risk factors for severe disease and late death. Understanding how immunological host defence mechanisms fail to protect the intestinal barrier is of great importance in reducing the mortality risk of the disease. Here, we studi...
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Although the common pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is disputed, the gene TREML2 has been implicated in both conditions: its whole-blood gene expression was associated with WMH volume and its missense variant rs3747742 with AD risk. We re-examined those associations within one comprehensive dataset of t...
Preprint
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin condition and prior genome-wide association studies have identified 71 associated loci. In the current study we conducted the largest AD GWAS to date (discovery N=1,086,394, replication N=3,604,027), combining previously reported cohorts with additional available data. We identified 81 loci (29 n...
Article
Proteolytic cleavage of thyroglobulin (Tg) for thyroid hormone (TH) liberation is followed by TH release from thyroid follicles into the circulation, enabled by TH transporters. The existence of a functional link between Tg-processing cathepsin proteases and TH transporters has been shown to be independent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), due to its genomic heterogeneity and lack of effective treatment, despite decades of intensive research, will become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths by 2030. Step-wise acquisition of mutations, due to genomic instability, is considered to drive the development of PDAC; the KRAS mutation occ...
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Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by chronic inflammation and the progressive fibrotic replacement of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. We identify Treg cells as central regulators of the fibroinflammatory reaction by a selective depletion of FOXP3-positive cells in a transgenic mouse model (DEREG-mice) of experimental CP. In Treg-...
Preprint
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Lung function impairment underlies chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and predicts mortality. In the largest multi-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis of lung function to date, comprising 580,869 participants, 1020 independent association signals identified 559 genes supported by ≥2 criteria from a systematic variant-to-gene mapping framework. Th...
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We conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment (EA) in a sample of ~3 million individuals and identify 3,952 approximately uncorrelated genome-wide-significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A genome-wide polygenic predictor, or polygenic index (PGI), explains 12–16% of EA variance and contributes to risk predi...
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Human brain structure changes throughout the lifespan. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we identified common genetic variants that affect rates of brain growth or atrophy in what is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association...
Article
The original cohorts The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) comprises the two independent cohorts SHIP-START (recruited between 1997 and 2001) and SHIP-TREND (recruited between 2008 to 2012), which were established to examine the health and disease status of the general adult population in Northeast Germany given that this region had the lowest li...
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Many individual genetic risk loci have been associated with multiple common human diseases. However, the molecular basis of this pleiotropy often remains unclear. We present an integrative approach to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the PROCR locus, associated with lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk but higher venous thromboembolism...
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Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) often is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide interaction of MDD and cognitive function using data from four large European cohorts in a total of 3510 MDD cases and 6057 controls. In addition, we conducted analyses using polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on da...
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Background and aims A genome-wide significant association between anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) IgG titers and Toll-like receptor (TLR1/6/10) locus on 4p14 was demonstrated for individuals of European ancestry, but not uniformly replicated. We re-investigate this association in an updated genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis fo...
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Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use¹. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels², heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwi...
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Evidence from previous studies suggests that elevated body mass index (BMI) and genetic risk for obesity is associated with reduced brain volume, particularly in areas of reward-related cognition, e.g. the medial prefrontal cortex (AC-MPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the striatum and the thalamus. However, only few studies examined the interp...
Preprint
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Genetic variants within nearly 1,000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery. To expand our understanding of the underl...
Preprint
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A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We firs...
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Age at first sexual intercourse and age at first birth have implications for health and evolutionary fitness. In this genome-wide association study (age at first sexual intercourse, N = 387,338; age at first birth, N = 542,901), we identify 371 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 11 sex-specific, with a 5–6% polygenic score prediction. Heritability of...
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Previous genome-wide association studies revealed multiple common variants involved in eczema but the role of rare variants remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of rare variants in eczema susceptibility. We meta-analyze 21 study populations including 20,016 eczema cases and 380,433 controls. Rare variants are imputed with high ac...
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Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Identifying associations between gene expression levels and cIMT may provide insight to atherosclerosis etiology. Here, we use two approaches to identify associations between mRNA levels and cIMT: differential gene ex...
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Introduction Head motion during magnetic resonance imaging is heritable. Further, it shares phenotypical and genetic variance with body mass index (BMI) and impulsivity. Yet, to what extent this trait is related to single genetic variants and physiological or behavioral features is unknown. We investigated the genetic basis of head motion in a meta...
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Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking...
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Importance Most previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression have used data from individuals of European descent. This limits the understanding of the underlying biology of depression and raises questions about the transferability of findings between populations. Objective To investigate the genetics of depression among individual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by chronic inflammation and the progressive fibrotic replacement of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic tissue. We identified Tregs as central regulators of the fibroinflammatory reaction by a selective depletion of Foxp3-positive cells in a transgenic mouse model (DEREG-mice) of experimental CP. In Treg-dep...
Article
Pregnancy alters B cell development and function. B cell activation is initiated by antigens binding to the BCR leading to B cell survival, proliferation, antigen presentation and antibody production. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome profiling of splenic B cells from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) mice and identified 1136 genes exhibiti...
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Multiplex families with a high prevalence of a psychiatric disorder are often examined to identify rare genetic variants with large effect sizes. In the present study, we analysed whether the risk for bipolar disorder (BD) in BD multiplex families is influenced by common genetic variants. Furthermore, we investigated whether this risk is conferred...
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Genetic factors are assumed to contribute to memory performance, especially genes affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed to evaluate leading functional genetic variants of the dopamine system, Catechol‐O‐methyltransferase (COMT) SNP rs4680 and Brain‐derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) SNP rs6265, previously found to be associated with...
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Gallstone disease affects up to twenty percent of the population in western countries and is a significant contributor to morbidity and health care expenditure. Intestinal microbiota have variously been implicated as either contributing to gallstone formation or to be affected by cholecystectomy. We conducted a large-scale investigation on 404 gall...
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Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain st...
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Background: The thyroid hormone (TH) metabolite 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) is considered as a potential drug for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on its prominent anti-steatotic effects in murine models of obesity without the detrimental thyromimetic side effects known for classical TH. To expand our understanding of...
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To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide associa...
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The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory1,2, neurologic³ and neoplastic diseases⁴. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure r...
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (G...
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Purpose Exocrine pancreatic function is critically involved in regulating the gut microbiota composition. At the same time, its impairment acutely affects human metabolism. How these 2 roles are connected is unknown. We studied how the exocrine pancreas contributes to metabolism via modulation of gut microbiota. Design Fecal samples were collected...
Preprint
Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain str...
Article
Full-text available
The thyroid gland is both a thyroid hormone (TH) generating as well as a TH responsive organ. It is hence crucial that cathepsin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the precursor thyroglobulin is regulated and integrated with the subsequent export of TH into the blood circulation, which is enabled by TH transporters such as monocarboxylate transporter...
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A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors determines the individual risk of depressive disorders. Vitamin D has been shown to stimulate the expression of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin production in the brain. Therefore, we investigate the hypothesis that serum vitamin D...
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Abstract This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci as...
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Objective The intestinal microbiome affects the prevalence and pathophysiology of a variety of diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. A reduced taxonomic or functional diversity of the microbiome was often observed in association with poorer health outcomes or disease in general. Conversely, factors or manifest diseases that determine the lo...
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Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by intracellular accumulations of α-synuclein and nerve cell loss in striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures. Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported potential involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in MSA pathogenesis. However, genetic e...
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Introduction: Exocrine pancreatic function is a critical host factor in determining the intestinal microbiota composition. Diseases affecting the exocrine pancreas could therefore influence the gut microbiome. We investigated the changes in gut microbiota of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Methods: Patients with clinical and imaging evi...
Article
Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare LEP mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an ex...
Article
Osteoporosis is a debilitating and costly disease that causes fractures in 33% of women and 20% of men over the age of 50 years. Recent studies have shown that beta blocker (BB) users have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased risk of fracture compared to non‐users. The mechanism underlying this association is thought to be due to suppres...
Preprint
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The size of the human head is determined by growth in the first years of life, while the rest of the body typically grows until early adulthood. Such complex developmental processes are regulated by various genes and growth pathways. Rare genetic syndromes have revealed genes that affect head size, but the genetic drivers of variation in head size...
Preprint
Full-text available
The intestinal microbiome is implicated as an important modulating factor in multiple inflammatory neurologic and neoplastic diseases. Recent genome-wide association studies yielded inconsistent, underpowered and rarely replicated results such that the role of human host genetics as a contributing factor to microbiome assembly and structure remains...
Article
Full-text available
Background Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. Methods We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide assoc...
Preprint
Full-text available
To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed whole-genome genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,473 individuals (25 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: we detected only 9 out of 410 genera in more than 95% of the samples. A genome-wide...
Article
Background: Pathological conditions of the thyroid hormone (TH) system are routinely diagnosed using serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is sufficient in most cases. However, in certain conditions, such as resistance to TH due to mutations in THRB (RTHb) or TSH-releasing pituitary adenoma (TSHoma), TSH may be insuffici...
Article
Determination of the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroid hormones (fTHs) is crucial for assessing thyroid function. However, as a result of inter-individual genetic variability and different environmental factors individual set points exist for TSH and fTHs and display considerable variation. Furthermore, under specific pat...
Article
Thyroid hormone metabolites (THM) with few or no iodine substituents such as 3,5-T2, the thyronamines 3-T1AM and T0AM, and their oxidation products, the thyroacetic acids (TA) formed by monoamine oxidases, have recently attracted major interest due to their metabolic actions which are in part distinct from those of the classical thyromimetic hormon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human brain structure changes throughout our lives. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental, and neurodegenerative diseases. While heritable, specific loci in the genome that influence these rates are largely unknown. Here, we sought to find common genetic variants that affect rates of b...
Article
Full-text available
Helicobacter (H.) pylori is the most important cause for peptic ulcer disease and a risk factor for gastric carcinoma. How colonization with H. pylori affects the intestinal microbiota composition in humans is unknown. We investigated the association of H. pylori infection with intestinal microbiota composition in the population-based cohort Study-...
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Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery +...
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Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK...
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Background: 15% of atopic dermatitis liability-scale heritability could be attributed to 31 susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies, with only three of them (IL13, IL6R, and FLG) resolved to protein-coding variants. Objective: We examined whether a significant portion of unexplained atopic dermatitis heritability is fur...
Article
Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In numerous studies based predominantly on rodent models, administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2), a metabolite of the thyroid hormones (TH) thyroxine (T4) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), was reported to cause beneficial health effects, including reversal of steatohepatosis and prevention of insulin resistance, in most instances...
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Background & aims: Pancreatitis starts with primarily sterile local inflammation that induces systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) followed by compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). We investigated mechanisms of these processes in mice and human serum. Methods: We induced severe acute pancreatitis by partial duct liga...