Georg Haase

Georg Haase
French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Inserm · Motor Neuron Pathology and Therapy Institute of Systems Neuroscience

MD, PhD

About

65
Publications
10,199
Reads
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3,731
Citations
Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
1220 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
March 2018 - present
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Professor
January 2010 - present
INT Institute of Neuroscience
Position
  • Senior Team Leader
January 2003 - December 2009
INMED Institute of Neurobiology of the Mediterranean
Position
  • Junior Team Leader
Education
September 1993 - December 1999
Cochin Institute for Molecular Genetics
Field of study
  • Gene Therapy of Motor Neuron Disease
May 1986 - September 1989
Max Planck Institute for Medical Research
Field of study
  • Structural Biology

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of upper motor neurons (UMNs). Recent studies shed new light onto the cellular events that are particularly important for UMN maintenance including intracellular trafficking, mitochondrial energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. This revie...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Neurotrophic factors are endogenous survival factors for developing neurons during their programmed cell death, and represent therapeutic candidates in several neurodegenerative diseases. Studies in the developing spinal cord suggest that neurotrophic factors promote the survival of motor neurons in a combinatorial manner. To better un...
Poster
Full-text available
dissects out the role of Stathmin-1/2-triggered microtubule loss in mutant SOD1 motor neurons using both in vivo and ex vivo models
Article
Tubulinopathies constitute a family of neurodevelopmental/neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in several genes encoding tubulin isoforms. Loss-of-function mutations in TBCE , encoding one of the five tubulin-specific chaperones involved in tubulin folding and polymerization, cause two rare neurodevelopmental syndromes, hypoparathyroidis...
Article
Motor neuron diseases such as ALS are now recognized as multi-system disorders also involving various non-motor neuronal cell types. The precise extent and mechanistic basis of non-motor neuron damage in human ALS and ALS animal models remain however unclear. To address this, we here studied pmn (progressive motor neuronopathy) mice carrying a miss...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pathological Golgi fragmentation represents a constant pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its molecular mechanisms remain hitherto unclear. Results Here, we show that the severe Golgi fragmentation in transgenic mutant SOD1G85R and SOD1G93A mouse motor neurons is ass...
Article
Full-text available
The Golgi apparatus is a central organelle that lies at the heart of the secretory pathway sustaining the delivery of proteins from their site of synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum to their final destination, the extracellular medium, the plasma membrane and the endo-lysosomal system. It ensures post-translational protein modifications such as...
Book
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This eBook contains 13 reviews which address the molecular mechanisms of Golgi pathology in Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophies, and discuss their potential relevance to the pathological loss of neuronal cell bodies, axons and synapses.
Article
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Pathological alterations of the Golgi apparatus, such as its fragmentation represent an early pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and have been widely studied in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained cryptic. In principle, Golgi fragmentation may resu...
Article
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and incurable neurodegenerative disease. Human motor neurons generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) offer new perspectives for disease modeling and drug testing in ALS. In standard iPSc-derived cultures however, the two major phenotypic alterations of ALS - degeneration of motor neuron c...
Article
Full-text available
Golgi fragmentation is an early hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases but its pathophysiological relevance and molecular mechanisms are unclear. We here demonstrate severe and progressive Golgi fragmentation in motor neurons of progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice due to loss of the Golgi-localized tubulin-binding cofactor E (TBCE). Loss...
Article
Full-text available
In healthy adults, activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) and glycine receptors inhibits neurons as a result of low intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)), which is maintained by the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. A reduction of KCC2 expression or function is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders,...
Article
Exosomes are microvesicles released into the extracellular medium upon fusion to the plasma membrane of endosomal intermediates called multivesicular bodies. They represent ways for discarding proteins and metabolites and also for intercellular transfer of proteins and RNAs. In the nervous system, it has been hypothesized that exosomes might be inv...
Article
Full-text available
Three neurodegenerative diseases affecting upper and/or lower motor neurons have been associated with loss of ALS2/Alsin function: juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, primary lateral sclerosis and infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis. The distinct neuronal vulnerability and the role of glia in these diseases remains, however,...
Article
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Stem cell-based therapies hold therapeutic promise for degenerative motor neuron diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and for spinal cord injury. Fetal neural progenitors present less risk of tumor formation than embryonic stem cells but inefficiently differentiate into motor neurons, in line with their low expression of motor neuron-sp...
Article
Cell death plays an important role both in shaping the developing nervous system and in neurological disease and traumatic injury. In spite of their name, death receptors can trigger either cell death or survival and growth. Recent studies implicate five death receptors--Fas/CD95, TNFR1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-1), p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin r...
Article
Full-text available
Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mtSOD1) causes dominantly inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanism for mtSOD1 toxicity remains unknown. Two main hypotheses are the impairment of proteasomal function and chaperone depletion by misfolded mtSOD1. Here, we employed FRET/FLIM and biosensor imaging to quantitatively localize ubiquitina...
Article
Full-text available
Axonal degeneration represents one of the earliest pathological features in motor neuron diseases. We here studied the underlying molecular mechanisms in progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice mutated in the tubulin-specific chaperone TBCE. We demonstrate that TBCE is a peripheral membrane-associated protein that accumulates at the Golgi apparat...
Article
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disorders are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, foot and hand deformities, and electrophysiological changes. The CMT4H subtype is an autosomal recessive demyelinating form of CMT that was recently mapped to a 15.8-Mb r...
Article
Recessive mutations in alsin, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for the GTPases Rab5 and Rac1, cause juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS2) and related motoneuron disorders. Alsin function in motoneurons remained unclear because alsin knock-out mice do not develop overt signs of motoneuron degeneration. To generate an alsin loss-of-functi...
Article
Full-text available
The reasons for the cellular specificity and slow progression of motoneuron diseases such as ALS are still poorly understood. We previously described a motoneuron-specific cell death pathway downstream of the Fas death receptor, in which synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is an obligate step. Motoneurons from ALS model mice expressing mutant SOD1 showe...
Article
In contrast to mouse embryonic stem cells and in spite of overlapping gene expression profiles, neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the embryonic spinal cord do not respond to physiological morphogenetic stimuli provided by Sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid and do not generate motor neurons upon differentiation. Transcription factors expressed in...
Article
Full-text available
Slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mutant mice express a chimeric nuclear protein that protects sick or injured axons from degeneration. The C-terminal region, derived from NAD(+) synthesizing enzyme Nmnat1, is reported to confer neuroprotection in vitro. However, an additional role for the N-terminal 70 amino acids (N70), derived from multiubiqu...
Chapter
Human Motor Neuron Diseases Familial ALS Linked to SOD1 MutationsJuvenile ALS Linked to Alsin MutationsCell Culture Models of Motoneuron Degeneration Neuronal Cell LinesIsolated Motoneuron CulturesOrganotypic CulturesAnimal Models of Motor Neuron Disease Axotomy ModelsMutant SOD1 Micepmn MiceFuture Neuroprotective Approaches Axonal ProtectionMutant...
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (encoded by SOD1), one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), lead to progressive death of motoneurons through a gain-of-function mechanism. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by viral vectors allows for long-term reduction in gene expression and represents an attractive therapeutic appr...
Article
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Mice that are homozygous with respect to the progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mutation (chromosome 13) develop a progressive caudio-cranial degeneration of their motor axons from the age of two weeks and die four to six weeks after birth. The mutation is fully penetrant, and expressivity does not depend on the genetic background. Based on its p...
Article
Death pathways restricted to specific neuronal classes could potentially allow for precise control of developmental neuronal death and also underlie the selectivity of neuronal loss in neurodegenerative disease. We show that Fas-triggered death of normal embryonic motoneurons requires transcriptional upregulation of neuronal NOS and involves Daxx,...
Article
Target innervation by specific neuronal populations involves still incompletely understood interactions between central and peripheral factors. We show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), initially characterized for its role as a survival factor, is present early in the plexus of the developing forelimb and later in two muscles...
Article
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Among all vectors designed for gene therapy purposes, adenovirus appears to be the most efficient in vivo vehicle to transduce the broadest spectrum of cellular targets. However, the deleterious immunogenicity of this viral vector impedes its use in chronic diseases. Non-viral vectors, such as naked DNA, are attractive alternatives for safety and t...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is mainly a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of cortical and spinal motoneurons. Some familial ALS cases (FALS) have been linked to dominant mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Transgenic mice overexpressing a mutated form of human SOD1 with a Gly93Ala substi...
Article
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a potent neurotrophic factor for motoneurons but its clinical use in motor neuron diseases is precluded by side effects on the heart and liver. We explored the possibility of targeting CT-1 to neurons by coupling with the tetanus toxin fragment TTC. Genetic fusion proteins between CT-1 or GFP and TTC were produced in Esche...
Article
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by homozygous deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene on Chr.5q13. SMA spans from severe Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (SMA 1) to relatively benign Kugelberg-Welander disease (SMA 3). Onset before birth possibly aggravates the clinical course, because immature motoneurons do...
Article
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Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its relative neurturin (NTN) are potent trophic factors for motoneurons. They exert their biological effects by activating the RET tyrosine kinase in the presence of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked co-receptor, either GFRalpha1 or GFRalpha2. By whole-mount in situ hybridization on embryo...
Article
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Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), an IL-6-related cytokine, causes hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and has pleiotropic effects on various other cell types, including motoneurons. Here, we analyzed systemic CT-1 effects in progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mice that suffer from progressive motoneuronal degeneration, muscle paralysis, and premature death. A...
Article
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Replication defective viral vectors provide a potentially useful means of gene transfer to oligodendrocytes and thus for studying the pathogenesis of white matter disease. In this study we have examined the expression pattern of E1/E3 deleted adenoviral vectors expressing the reporter gene LacZ (AdlacZ) as a means of establishing the value of these...
Article
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The severe neurodegenerative disorder, Tays-Sachs disease, is caused by a beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency which prevents the formation of lysosomal heterodimeric alpha-beta enzyme, hexosaminidase A (HexA). No treatment is available for this fatal disease; however, gene therapy could represent a therapeutic approach. We previously have...
Article
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has demonstrated therapeutic effects in several mouse mutants with motoneuronal degeneration. However, the poor bioavailability and toxic side effects of recombinant CNTF protein have complicated its use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CNTF gene transfer strategies were developed but faced the ques...
Article
Several neurotrophic factors (CNTF, BDNF, IGF-1) have been suggested for the treatment of motor neuron diseases. In ALS patients, however, the repeated subcutaneous injection of these factors as recombinant proteins is complicated by their toxicity or poor bioavailability. We have constructed an adenovirus vector coding for neurotrophin-3 (AdNT-3)...
Article
We transferred a reporter gene to Schwann cells to test whether they might serve as an endoneurial delivery system for therapeutic proteins. A replication-defective adenoviral vector carrying the gene for beta-galactosidase (lacZ) was injected into the distal segment of intact or crushed sciatic nerves of adult rats, and the expression of lacZ was...
Article
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Synthesis of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and its specific receptor (CNTFRalpha) is widespread in the intact CNS, but potential biological roles for this system remain elusive. Contradictory results have been obtained concerning a possible effect on the morphological and biochemical phenotype of astrocytes. To reassess this question, we h...
Article
Full-text available
Motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy cause progressive paralysis, often leading to premature death. Neurotrophic factors have been suggested as therapeutic agents for motor neuron diseases, but their clinical use as injected recombinant protein was limited by toxicity and/or poor bioavailabil...