Geoffrey C Williams

Geoffrey C Williams
University of Rochester | UR · Department of Medicine

MD PhD

About

223
Publications
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Publications

Publications (223)
Article
Given the centrality of sleep and work in most individuals’ lives, it is interesting to note that an empirical understanding of the association between what happens in the workplace and how well people sleep is in an early stage of development, at least relative to other topics that are of interest in the literature on stress and health. Using self...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Self-Determination Theory posits that managers' autonomy-supportive behavior and employees' autonomy causality orientation, are motivation constructs to explain internalization of values, functioning, and wellness at work. Hypothesis 1 tested whether profiles comprising perceived dental clinic managers' autonomy-supportive, as opposed...
Article
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Objectives: This study examined factors contributing to decision conflict and the decision support needs of PrEP-eligible Black patients. Methods:The Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF) was used to guide the development of a key informant guide used for qualitative data collection. Black patients assessed by healthcare providers as meeting the...
Article
Introduction: Healthcare settings can build towards a specific social environment, in which Black patients can make informed health decisions, including those about whether or not to use PrEP. We utilize self-determination theory for guidance to identify the extent to which current HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) decision support practices from...
Article
Background Identifying those at risk for suboptimal breastfeeding outcomes remains critical for improving maternal and child health. Prenatal breastfeeding motivation may be a key predictor useful for identifying those who would benefit from additional breastfeeding support. Research Aims To (1) validate a breastfeeding-specific adaptation of the...
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Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the development and preliminary effectiveness of a novel Prediabetes Decision Aid on adoption of intensive lifestyle interventions (ILIs) and metformin. Little research has focused on increasing uptake of these evidence-based treatments, especially among non-English speakers and those with low educat...
Article
Numerous studies have documented deteriorating occupational health among practicing physicians. This trend poses a serious risk not only for physicians but also for the many patients under their care. Past research finds that one protective factor involves the quality of physicians' motivation. When physicians are more autonomously motivated, they...
Article
According to the job demands–resources model, job demands (or hindrances) can drain energy and yield physiological and psychological costs by requiring sustained physical and/or mental effort at work. Using self‐determination theory, the current study examined the associations among role conflict (as a proxy for job demands), frustration of the bas...
Article
The syndemic effects of HIV infection, side effects of highly active antiretroviral medications, and age-related changes lead to increased risk for comorbidities and functional decline for older people with HIV. This proof of concept (PoC) study evaluated perceived usefulness, satisfaction, acceptability, intervention processes, resource management...
Article
Background Cancer-related fatigue is a significant problem and is associated with poor quality of life. Behavioral interventions include exercise and cognitive-behavioral therapy, which survivors may be unwilling or unable to adopt. Pharmacologic interventions (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been disappointing. One potential th...
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Full-text available
While evidence suggests that interventions based on self-determination theory have efficacy in motivating adoption and maintenance of health-related behaviors, and in promoting adaptive psychological outcomes, the motivational techniques that comprise the content of these interventions have not been comprehensively identified or described. The aim...
Article
Full-text available
There are no literature reviews that have examined the impact of health-domain interventions, informed by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), on SDT constructs and health indices. Our aim was to meta-analyze such interventions in the health promotion and disease management literatures. Studies were eligible if they used an experimen...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to test a self‐determination theory model with the following hypotheses: (1) Patients’ autonomous causality personality orientation and oral health care professionals’ autonomy‐supportive treatment styles, as perceived by patients, would both be positively indirectly associated with dental attendance through pat...
Article
The role of perceived need support from exercise professionals in improving mental health in old age was examined, thereby validating the short Health Care Climate Questionnaire. A total of 491 older people (M= 72.68 years; SD = 5.47) attending a health exercise program participated in this study. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be high (α = .90). Sa...
Article
Paying people to make healthier choices produces inconsistent and sometimes harmful results. Considering how payments can feel coercive is important for promoting long-term, holistic well-being.
Preprint
Full-text available
While evidence suggests that interventions based on self-determination theory can be effective in motivating adoption and maintenance of health-related behaviors, and in promoting adaptive psychological outcomes, the motivational techniques that comprise the content of these interventions have not been comprehensively identified or described. The a...
Article
Background: Damage to the insula disrupts nicotine-induced cravings and is associated with greater odds of cessation. The role of laterality in regulating these changes is unclear. Neuroimaging studies in cigarette smokers show left hemispheric activation during a period of forced withdrawal and right hemispheric activation after having just smoke...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND HIV pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for populations at high ongoing risk for infection.There are noted racial disparities in the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for African, Caribbean, and Canadian Black (Black) populations in Ontario. Although Blacks represent only 4.7% of the Ontari...
Article
Full-text available
Background: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for populations at high ongoing risk for infection. There are noted racial disparities in the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) for African, Caribbean, and Canadian Black (ACB, black) populations in Ontario, Canada. Although blacks represent only 4.7% of...
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Full-text available
Objective: We tested the hypotheses that a dental intervention designed to promote oral care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict patients’ perceived autonomy support from oral health-care professionals, increases in eudaimonic well-being (i.e. both personal growth and purposeful behaviour go...
Article
Background: Poor occupational health among physicians poses a serious risk both to physicians themselves and the patients under their care. Prior research has found that occupational health among non-physicians is associated with both degree and type of work motivation. Objective: To assess the association between physician work motivation and th...
Article
Initiatives to improve hypertension control within academic medical centers and closed health systems have been extensively studied, but large community‐wide quality improvement (QI) initiatives have been both less common and less successful in the United States. The authors examined a community‐wide QI initiative across 226 843 patients from 198 p...
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Full-text available
Women with substance use disorders (SUDs) often experience inadequate health care, mental and physical health problems, trauma, lack of social support, and undermining of support for psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness needed for motivation and well-being. For women with SUD trying to reclaim sobriety and a healthy life, fa...
Article
Objective To compare motivational interviewing (MI) with conventional care regarding the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of adolescents with overweight/obesity. Methods RCT with parallel design, involving two groups: intervention group (MI group [MIG]) and control group (conventional intervention group [CIG]). The intervention included thre...
Article
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic condition that results in elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with consequent increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease events. Although it is considered an autosomal-dominant genetic condition, the underlying genetic causes of FH can be complex. Currently most...
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Conclusion: Our results provide additional evidence of the short-term usefulness of a school-based MI intervention on anthropometric outcomes of adolescents with obesity/overweight, demonstrating that pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention and management of pediatric obesity. Trial registration: The study is called IMAGINE an...
Chapter
In this chapter, we briefly provide future directions for study that we believe will broadly benefit the bees and people of Asia and abroad. Asia maintains the highest biodiversity of native honey bee species on the planet, in addition to the introduced European honey bee. This intermingling of species has promoted a number of virus-host shifts tha...
Book
This book provides insights to readers by local researchers on current bee diversity, bee flora, history of beekeeping, development of modern beekeeping and drawbacks especially bee diseases and parasite in different geographical areas in Asia. Asia is home to at least nine honey bee species, including the introduced European honey bee, Apis mellif...
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Full-text available
Purpose: To assess the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the Communication Evaluation in Rehabilitation Tool, which aims to externally assess physiotherapists competency in using Self-Determination Theory-based communication strategies in practice. Materials and methods: Audio recordings of initial consultations between 24 physioth...
Article
Background: Primary care physicians generally earn less than specialists. Studies of other occupations have identified perception of pay fairness as a predictor of work- and life-related outcomes. We evaluated whether physicians' pay fairness perceptions were associated with their work satisfaction, turnover intention, and personal health. Method...
Article
Studies on the cognitive working mechanism of smoking cessation in high-risk populations are few and much needed, and identifying long-term psychosocial factors to smoking cessation are relevant to improve intervention for cardiac patient groups. This longitudinal study followed patients who smoked and suffered an acute coronary syndrome from hospi...
Article
Studies on the cognitive working mechanism of smoking cessation in high-risk populations are few and much needed, and identifying long-term psychosocial factors to smoking cessation are relevant to improve intervention for cardiac patient groups. This longitudinal study followed patients who smoked and suffered an acute coronary syndrome from hospi...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The current study tested the hypothesis that a group-based physical activity (PA) intervention in the worksite would lead to increases in autonomous motivation and perceived competence for PA, self-administered regular PA, and cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as improvements in health (i.e., reduced blood pressure (BP), waist circumfer...
Article
Introduction: This study evaluates the association of baseline e-cigarette use with smoking cessation in a sample of 2-year college student smokers. Methods: Participants were 1,400 students from over 60 2-year colleges across 25 states who were current smokers enrolled in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (WATI) trial. Survey data at baseline, 1...
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Objective: Forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) is an adaptation of the assertive community treatment model and is designed to serve justice-involved adults with serious mental illness. This study compared the effectiveness of a standardized FACT model and enhanced treatment as usual in reducing jail and hospital use and in promoting enga...
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Objective: To assess the effect of an intervention designed to enhance physiotherapists' communication skills on chronic low back pain patients' adherence to home-based rehabilitation recommendations. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: Publicly funded physiotherapy clinics in Dublin, Ireland; PARTICIPANTS: Physiotherapists (...
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PurposeThis systematic review aims to explain the heterogeneity in results of interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating for overweight and obese adults, by exploring the differential effects of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics. Methods The inclusion criteria specified RCTs with ? 12 weeks...
Article
Background: Research into the factors associatedwith the use of differentmotivational strategies by exercise professionals is of empirical and practical utility. Purpose Grounded in self-determination theory, this study sought to analyze putative antecedents, mediators, and work-related well- and ill-being consequences of two types of motivational...
Article
Intervention: three face-to-face 30min' interviews three months apart (only MIG interviews were based on MI principles). Outcomes: change in Children Depression Inventory (CDI) scores. We used a mixed repeated-measures ANOVAs analysis to assess the group vs time interaction. Effect size was calculated for ANOVA with difference of means of the to...
Article
Introduction Smoking urges are fundamental aspects of nicotine dependence that contribute significantly to drug use and post-quit relapse. Recent evidence has indicated that damage to the insular cortex disrupts smoking behaviors and claims to reduce urges associated with nicotine use, although tools that assess urge have yet to be used to validate...
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Full-text available
Introduction: Self-Determination Theory explores the process through which a person acquires motivation to initiate new behaviours related to health and to maintain them over time. This study aimed to determine the overall fit of Self-Determination Theory Model for Health Behavior to the data obtained from a sample of smokers hospitalized with acut...
Article
As the nature of work has changed in recent decades, employees are increasingly exposed to psychological demands in the workplace, which have associated consequences for employees, organizations, and society. Using self-determination theory, this study examined the dark side of work, in which frustration of basic psychological needs is associated w...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to examine whether patient perceptions of autonomy support from the treatment team in a vocational rehabilitation program will be associated with change (increase) in need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, perceived competence, well-being, physical activity, and return to work (RTW), and whether the sel...
Article
Objectives: Combination therapy for tobacco dependence is becoming a standard of care. We sought to compare benefits and adverse events for combination therapy versus monotherapy for smokers in The Smokers' Health Project. Methods: This secondary data analysis was derived from adult smokers (n = 198) who initially smoked 15 or more cigarettes pe...
Article
A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely,...
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Patient motivation is important in managing medication regimens such as antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS. We tested whether self-determination theory could predict adherence behavior among 115 HIV-positive patients in the China Adherence through Technology Study, a randomized controlled trial of an intervention using text reminders and support...
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in Relat...
Article
This study tested a physical activity intervention and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health-behavior change and health among 108 adult patients with both diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomly assigned to an organized physical activity intervention group (led by instructors) o...
Article
Objective: Provider communication that supports patient autonomy has been associated with numerous positive patient outcomes. However, to date, no research has examined the relationship between perceived provider communication style and patient-assessed decision quality in breast cancer. Methods: Using a population-based sample of women with loc...
Article
Purpose: To describe how tailoring financial incentives for healthy behaviors to employees' goals, values, and aspirations might improve the efficacy of incentives. Design/methodology/approach: We integrate insights from self-determination theory (SDT) with principles from behavioral economics in the design of financial incentives by linking how...
Article
Health avatars were created to deliver previously tested live interventions for tobacco dependence and cholesterol management. The exploratory aims were to develop and test whether the avatar can be reliably assessed for autonomy supportiveness using the Health Care Climate Questionnaire and estimate the mean changes in motivation variables and cor...
Article
The present study investigated how both mindfulness and managerial autonomy support affect work adjustment. Two hundred and fifty-nine working adults were recruited online, and they were assessed for individual differences in mindfulness and the autonomy-supportive versus controlling style of their management at work. Also assessed were indicators...
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Full-text available
Background and aims: Current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence are generally well tolerated, but have relatively high rates of relapse. They target primarily the brains' mesocorticolimbic 'reward' pathway. However, recent evidence suggests that the insular cortex, a central cerebral hemispheric region historically overlooked in addiction mo...
Article
There is a lack of research on the use of electronic tools that guide patients toward reducing their cardiovascular disease risk. We conducted a 9-month clinical trial in which participants who were at low (n = 100) and moderate (n =