Geoffrey Underwood

Geoffrey Underwood
University of Nottingham | Notts · School of Psychology

About

223
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (223)
Article
Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the rel...
Article
Full-text available
The current study explored attentional processing of social and non-social stimuli in ASD within the context of a driving hazard perception task. Participants watched videos of road scenes and detected hazards while their eye movements were recorded. Although individuals with ASD demonstrated relatively good detection of driving hazards, they were...
Article
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Previous research suggests people with ASD may have various difficulties in processing and interacting with motion in the environment. We investigated whether individuals with ASD have difficulty judging the location of moving objects in a driving context using a time-to-arrival task. Methods Participants with and without ASD viewed scenes that si...
Book
It's a widely recognised trend that powered-two-wheelers (PTWs) use has been steadily increasing and is projected to increase further. While providing benefits to the community in the form of reduced traffic congestion and environmental benefits, the risks to PTW riders remain and visibility will always be a key issue. Increasing Motorcycle Conspic...
Article
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Research on the acceptability of assistive systems for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is a pressing issue. The use of safety-enhancing assistive systems for motorised vehicles, including advanced driver assistance systems and in-vehicle information systems is widespread in many countries. Yet, there is only a limited number of...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects shadowed a passage of prose delivered to the right ear and were asked to tap to occurrences of a target in a second passage delivered to the left ear. Group 1 was asked to tap to occurrences of a vowel sound, Group 2 to occurrences of a word, Group 3 to occurrences of a member of a conceptual class of words. The items fulfilling these spec...
Article
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The "low-prevalence effect" refers to the fact that observers often fail to detect rare targets (<5 % prevalence) during visual search tasks. Previous research has demonstrated robust prevalence effects in real-world tasks that employ static images, such as airport luggage screening. No published research has examined prevalence effects in dynamic...
Article
Newly qualified drivers are known to have greater crash involvement than more experienced drivers, but does the on-road driving behaviour of young novices differ from that of older novices who might be expected to be more mature and to have different driving needs? Both younger and older novices were compared with experienced drivers in their behav...
Article
How does driving experience help in the development of situation awareness? A comparison of detection rates of roadway hazards that involved other road users by inexperienced and experienced car drivers and experienced motorcycle riders with car driving experience was conducted under laboratory conditions. Motorcycle rider-drivers, due to their gre...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to detect hazards in video clips of driving has been inconsistently linked to driving experience and skill. One potential reason for the lack of consistency is the failure to understand the structural differences between those hazards that discriminate between safe and unsafe drivers, and those that do not. The current study used a car...
Article
Humans have an ability to rapidly detect emotive stimuli. However, many emotional objects in a scene are also highly visually salient, which raises the question of how dependent the effects of emotionality are on visual saliency and whether the presence of an emotional object changes the power of a more visually salient object in attracting attenti...
Article
Eye-fixation studies indicate that viewers characteristically look briefly at the picture, then read the text, and then, if necessary, they look more carefully at the picture. The gist of a picture can be acquired with a very brief glimpse, and can help or hinder in the identification of objects in the picture, but it cannot support a decision abou...
Article
Complex stimuli and tasks elicit particular eye movement sequences. Previous research has focused on comparing between these scanpaths, particularly in memory and imagery research where it has been proposed that observers reproduce their eye movements when recognizing or imagining a stimulus. However, it is not clear whether scanpath similarity is...
Book
Whether reading, looking at a picture, or driving, how is it that we know where to look next - how does the human visual system calculate where our gaze should be directed in order to achieve our cognitive aims? Of course, there is an interaction between the decisions about where we should look and about how long we should look there. However, our...
Chapter
The information that a driver uses is predominantly visual, and wide ranges of specific driving behaviors, from navigation to anticipation of hazardous events, are primarily dependent on the optimum deployment of attention through overt eye movements. Essentially, eye movements consist of two primary events: fixations and saccades. Fixations are pe...
Article
How should we assess the comparability of driving on a road and “driving” in a simulator? If similar patterns of behaviour are observed, with similar differences between individuals, then we can conclude that driving in the simulator will deliver representative results and the advantages of simulators (controlled environments, hazardous situations)...
Article
Two recent papers (Foulsham, Barton, Kingstone, Dewhurst, & Underwood, 2009; Mannan, Kennard, & Husain, 2009) report that neuropsychological patients with a profound object recognition problem (visual agnosic subjects) show differences from healthy observers in the way their eye movements are controlled when looking at images. The interpretation of...
Article
Evidence from eye-tracking experiments has provided mixed support for saliency map models of inspection, with the task set for the viewer accounting for some of the discrepancies between predictions and observations. In the present experiment viewers inspected pictures of road scenes with the task being to decide whether or not they would enter a h...
Article
How does the structure of a database influence the user's organisation of information within it, and the user's retrieval of information from it? Three experiments investigated how young children (9–11 years of age) organised and retrieved words from a number of structures. Subjects were given sets of 10 to 12 words and asked to organise them on pa...
Article
Is attention necessary for reading? Whilst subjects named simple line-drawings which were exposed briefly in these experiments, irrelevant words were also displayed for short intervals. The naming latencies to the drawings varied as a function of attentional selectivity and as a function of the semantic association between picture and word. With fo...
Article
Working memory theory attributes the between-language difference in bilingual memory span to variation in speech rate and the time-based constraint of the phonological loop. We present two experiments examining the relationship between reading rate and memory span for Arabic numerals (e.g. 1, 2 and 3) and digit words (e.g. one, two and three) in bo...
Article
It has been proposed that prohibition and obligation be represented in different ways in reasoning with deontic information (Bucciarelli & Johnson-Laird, 2005). Obligations are salient in permissible situations and prohibitions in impermissible situations. In some specific cases, differential initial representations are also consistently predicted...
Article
Full-text available
The Itti and Koch (Vision Research 40: 1489–1506, 2000) saliency map model has inspired a wealth of research testing the claim that bottom-up saliency determines the placement of eye fixations in natural scenes. Although saliency seems to correlate with (although not necessarily cause) fixation in free-viewing or encoding tasks, it has been suggest...
Article
Full-text available
How does describing a previously viewed picture affect our memory for it? Does verbalisation affect our eye movements even when the picture has disappeared? When viewing a photograph, the sequences of eye movements we make (‘scanpaths’) are influenced by both bottom-up visual saliency and top-down cognitive knowledge. Recognition memory is enhanced...
Article
The current experiment addressed the question, is enhanced memory for emotional pictures due to increased attention to affective stimuli? Participants viewed pairs of pictures (emotional-neutral or neutral-neutral) whilst their eye movements were recorded; participants had to decide which picture out of each pair they preferred. There was increased...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the differences between novices and experienced drivers in their distribution of visual attention under different levels of cognitive load imposed by different types of road, and as reflected in their visual search strategies. The task involved a 20-min drive on various roads while the drivers' eye movements were recorded. T...
Article
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An experiment is reported, which was designed to determine how the perceptual span of pianists varies with developing skill and cognitive load. Eye-movements were recorded as musical phrases were presented through a gaze-contingent window, which contained one beat, two beats, or four beats. In a control condition, the music was presented without a...
Article
Does the presence of people in a natural scene affect the way that we inspect that picture? Previous research suggests that we have a natural tendency to look at the social information before other items in a scene. There is also evidence that accuracy of visual memory and the way we move our eyes are related. This experiment investigated whether e...
Article
Models of eye movement control in natural scenes often distinguish between stimulus-driven processes (which guide the eyes to visually salient regions) and those based on task and object knowledge (which depend on expectations or identification of objects and scene gist). In the present investigation, the eye movements of a patient with visual agno...
Article
Memory for scenes is important. How we use memory when directing eye movements during visual search is an important aspect of visual cognition. To investigate the use of gaze during recall for objects and location, we asked subjects to look at an image containing objects randomly placed within a grid on a white background, after which they were ask...
Article
How does expertise in the analysis of particular images influence the effects of visual saliency upon attention? Expert analysts of aerial photographs and untrained viewers undertook change-detection and location memory tasks using aerial photographs with eye movements recorded throughout. Experts were more accurate in both tasks. Significant diffe...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the sources of visual information that are involved in the anticipation of collisions we recorded eye movements while participants made relative timing judgments about approaching vehicles at a junction. The avoidance of collisions is a critical aspect in driving, particularly where cars enter a line of traffic from a side road, and...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether individuals with ASD (autistic spectrum disorders) are able to identify driving hazards, given their difficulties processing social information, Klin et al. (Archives of General Psychiatry 59: 809-816, 2002). Twenty-three adult males with ASD and 21 comparison participants viewed 10 video clips containing driving haz...
Article
Full-text available
How do sequences of eye fixations match each other when viewing a picture during encoding and again during a recognition test, and to what extent are fixation sequences (scan patterns) determined by the low-level visual features of the picture rather than the domain knowledge of the viewer? The saliency map model of visual attention was tested in t...
Article
Models of eye movement control in natural scenes often distinguish between stimulus-driven processes (which guide the eyes to visually salient regions) and those based on task and object knowledge (which depend on expectations or identification of objects and scene gist). In the present investigation, the eye movements of a patient with visual agno...
Conference Paper
Background: Research has shown that those with ASD excel on visual search tasks that require them to find a target stimulus within a figure or array of objects (e.g. Shah and Frith, 1983, O’Riordan et al., 2001). These findings can be explained by various theories of perceptual processing in ASD including Enhanced Perceptual Functioning (Mottron &...
Chapter
Two experiments examined the eye movements made when remembering pictures of real-world objects and scenes, and when those images are imagined rather than inspected. In Experiment 1 arrays of simple objects were first shown, and eye movements used to indicate the location of an object declared as having been present in the array. Experiment 2 inves...
Article
Full-text available
When inspecting an image for the first time, how does the viewer decide where to look next? The sal- iency map hypothesis proposes that viewers initially analyse the image for variations in low-level visual features including intensity, colour, and edge orientation, and that their eyes are guided towards the most salient region. The saliency of obj...
Article
One of the key perceptual errors that contributes to accidents on the road is ‘looking but failing to see’. Though this has previously been attributed to failures of attention or time gaps, the recent change blindness literature suggests another alternative. Researchers have proposed that we have a poor memory for the visual world, and as such, par...
Article
Full-text available
While visual saliency may sometimes capture attention, the guidance of eye movements in search is often dominated by knowledge of the target. How is the search for an object influenced by the saliency of an adjacent distractor? Participants searched for a target amongst an array of objects, with distractor saliency having an effect on response time...
Article
Considerable research efforts are currently being devoted to analysing the role that the attentional system plays in determining driving behaviour, with the ultimate objective of reducing the number of attention-related accidents. The present study aims to assess the influence of differences in the functioning of the three attentional networks (exe...
Conference Paper
How does knowledge of a domain influence the way in which we inspect artefacts from within that domain? Eye fixation scanpaths were recorded as trained individuals looked at images from within their own domain or from another domain. Sequences of fixations indicated differences in the inspection patterns of the two groups, with knowledge reflected...
Article
Is the sequence of eye-movements made when viewing a picture related to encoding the image into memory? The suggestion of a relationship is supported by studies that have found that scanpaths are more similar over multiple viewings of a stimulus than would be expected by chance. It has also been found that low-level visual saliency contributes to t...
Article
Rensink [Rensink, R. A. (2004). Visual sensing without seeing. Psychological Science, 15(1), 27-32] has presented evidence suggesting visual changes may be sensed without an accompanying visual experience. Here, we report two experiments in which we monitored observers' eye-movements whilst they searched for a difference between two simultaneously...
Article
The eye movements made by viewers of natural images often feature a predominance of horizontal saccades. Can this behaviour be explained by the distribution of saliency around the horizon, low-level oculomotor factors, top-down control or laboratory artefacts? Two experiments explored this bias by recording saccades whilst subjects viewed photograp...
Conference Paper
Background: Klin, Jones, Schultz and Volkmar (2003) identify driving as a ‘challenging task’ for individuals with ASD. However, an increasing number of individuals with ASD have been applying for driving licenses. One aspect of driving which might pose a particular challenge is hazard perception, as many hazards involve the perception or anticipa...
Chapter
This chapter contains section titled:
Conference Paper
How does visual saliency determine the attention given to objects in a scene, and is the detection of change dependent upon the conspicuity of the changed object? Viewers’ eye movements were recorded during the inspection of pictures of natural scenes. Two versions of a scene were compared to determine whether or not they were the same. The two ima...
Article
Full-text available
When comparing two target elements placed on the same convoluted curve, response times are dependent on the distance between the targets along the curve, despite being separated by a constant Euclidean distance. The present study assessed whether such line tracing is obligatory across the whole of the line even when the task demands do not require...
Article
Eye movements were recorded during the display of two images of a real-world scene that were inspected to determine whether they were the same or not (a comparative visual search task). In the displays where the pictures were different, one object had been changed, and this object was sometimes taken from another scene and was incongruent with the...
Article
Full-text available
There are two theories that attempt to explain how attention is deployed when lines are traced. Initially, it was believed that a covert zoom lens moved along the line. Recent evidence has, however, suggested that attention spreads along the line, rather than moving along it, perhaps as part of an effortful object-parsing process. Three experiments...
Article
Full-text available
The binocular Esterman visual field test (EVFT) is the current visual field test for driving in the UK. Merging of monocular field tests (Integrated Visual Field, IVF) has been proposed as an alternative for glaucoma patients. To examine the level of agreement between the EVFT and IVF for patients with binocular paracentral scotomata, caused by eit...
Article
Full-text available
Saliency map models account for a small but significant amount of the variance in where people fixate, but evaluating these models with natural stimuli has led to mixed results. In the present study, the eye movements of participants were recorded while they viewed color photographs of natural scenes in preparation for a memory test (encoding) and...
Article
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition g...
Article
Full-text available
Identification of a second target is often impaired by the requirement to process a prior target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). This is termed the attentional blink. Even when the first target is task irrelevant an attentional blink may occur providing this first target shares similar features with the second target (contingent captu...
Chapter
Early studies of the inspection of scenes suggested that eye fixations are attracted to objects that are incongruent with the gist of a picture, whereas more recent studies have questioned this conclusion. The two experiments presented in the chapter investigate the potency of incongruent objects in attracting eye fixations during the inspection of...
Book
Full-text available
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background There is no question that, once binocular scotomata in certain locations within the visual field reach a critical size, they must affect driving performance. The difficulty is determining the level at which binocular visual field loss in the presence of good visual acuity begins to impact on driving safety. The majority...
Article
Full-text available
Inexperienced drivers are particularly vulnerable to road traffic accidents, and inattention emerges as a factor in these accidents. What do these drivers attend to and how can their observation skills be developed? When drivers scan the road around them, differences are observed as function of driving experience and training, with experienced driv...
Article
To determine the influence of response organization factors in selective attention, a comparison was made between the shadowing and monitoring techniques of attention control and a one-trial serial recall technique in which subjects were instructed to remember one message (attended channel) of a dichotic presentation. Detections of semantic targets...
Article
Full-text available
Saliency models of eye guidance during scene perception suggest that attention is drawn to visually conspicuous areas having high visual salience. Despite such low-level visual processes controlling the allocation of attention, higher level information gained from scene knowledge may also control eye movements. This is supported by the findings of...
Article
Full-text available
Salience-map models have been taken to suggest that the locations of eye fixations are determined by the extent of the low-level discontinuities in an image. While such models have found some support, an increasing emphasis on the task viewers are performing implies that these models must combine with cognitive demands to describe how the eyes are...
Article
Full-text available
Models of low-level saliency predict that when we first look at a photograph our first few eye movements should be made towards visually conspicuous objects. Two experiments investigated this prediction by recording eye fixations while viewers inspected pictures of room interiors that contained objects with known saliency characteristics. Highly sa...
Article
The optimum positioning of roadside advertisements is recognized by the industry as an important factor in attracting the attention of passing drivers. Less acknowledged is the possibility that the location of an advertisement may distract attention from vital driving-related information. This study compared street-level advertisements (SLAs; predo...
Conference Paper
Novice drivers have more accidents compared to experienced drivers. One aim of driving research is to develop a diagnostic test which correlates with driving ability. The current study attempts to distinguish between drivers of varying levels of skill and experience and a simple diagnostic test was developed based on judgements of headway. This tes...
Article
Full-text available
What attracts attention when we inspect a scene? Two experiments recorded eye movements while viewers inspected pictures of natural office scenes in which two objects of interest were placed. One object had low contour density and uniform colouring (a piece of fruit), relative to another that was visually complex (for example, coffee mugs and comme...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the fact that previous visual memory paradigms have imposed encoding and retrieval constraints, the present article presents two experiments that address how observers allocate eye movements in memory and comparison processes in the absence of constraints. A comparative visual search design (Pomplun, Sichelschmidt, et al., 2001) was ut...
Article
This discussion is a review of experimental work designed to determine whether pictures have an effect upon the derivation of meaning from the text printed in children's reading materials. Many reading schemes emphasize the use of illustration, but for a number of different purposes ranging from the provision of a referent for a specific word, to t...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether 11-year-old children in Singapore, from English Dominant or English Non-Dominant backgrounds, read better orally when words were presented in list or text. The children read words in passage and in list form presented in counterbalanced order. In a study of good, average and poor readers, Nicholson (19...