Geoffrey R. Skoll

Geoffrey R. Skoll
State University of New York College at Buffalo | Buffalo State · Department of Criminal Justice

PhD

About

75
Publications
15,508
Reads
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453
Citations
Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
287 Citations
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Introduction
Geoffrey R. Skoll emeritus at the Department of Criminal Justice, State University of New York College at Buffalo, continuing to teach there online as well as at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Geoffrey does research in Cultural History, Anthropological Linguistics and Cultural Anthropology. Their current project Love and Revolution
Additional affiliations
September 2004 - May 2005
University of Wisconsin - Parkside
Position
  • Lecturer
September 1996 - May 2005
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (75)
Chapter
The chapter discusses to what extent rationality plays a leading role not only in forming a culture of fear in Western societies, but it also paves the way for undemocratic attitudes and reactions. Our founding parents envisaged a world where progress, rationality, and technology played a vital role in building a better place to live. They never im...
Chapter
Full-text available
In light of the recent revelations about the electronic surveillance by the US National Security Agency, this essay analyzes such surveillance as part of state strategies to control populations. It also examines the use of terror scares-that is, fear mongering-by states as the rationale for their control practices. It contrasts the origins of terro...
Chapter
This book is about an increasing awareness of the risks and safety challenges facing religious events/festivals on a global scale. The authors provide practical applications, models and illustrations of religious tourism and pilgrimage management from a variety of international perspectives. Beginning with a general section on risk management, cove...
Article
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TOURIST RISK: AN ALL ENCOMPASSING MODEL TO UNDERSTAND SAFETY IN TOURISM FIELDS Though risk perception theory has advanced a lot over the last decades, its preferred methodologies much of them closed-led questionnaires or intrusive instruments obscures the derived conclusions. This text aims not only to explore the problems and limitation of risk pe...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the recent revelations about the electronic surveillance by the US National Security Agency, this essay analyzes such surveillance as part of state strategies to control populations. It also examines the use of terror scares—that is, fear mongering—by states as the rationale for their control practices. It contrasts the origins of terro...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of neoliberalism in the early 1970s marked a new age for ethical practices. Although pragmatism as an approach to ethics pre-dated neoliberalism, the neoliberal approach to political economy ushered in a new kind of pragmatism, owing little to Jeremy Bentham, even less to the American philosophical pragmatists Charles S. Peirce, William...
Book
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Korstanje M & Skoll G (2016) EXPLORING THE ARCHETYPE OF AMERICANESS AND THE EXCEMPLARY PRINCIPLE: THE FEAR OF TRAVELING ABROAD. In Korstanje M (Ed) Terrorism in the global village, how terrorism affects our daily lives. New York, Nova Science Following a general introduction on colonialism, this essay reflects on the growth of US imperialism. It n...
Article
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Though tourism combines curiosity with security, over the recent decades, we are facing an inflation of risks that caused big problems for policy makers and officials interested in promoting tourism in their respective nations. As a result of this, one might speculate that the future of industry is uncertain. This essay review explores the already...
Book
Globalization of American Fear Culture traces the parallel development of three historical institutions: the generation of fear for controlling people, the US empire, and global capitalism. Through historical accounts and dialectical analysis the book offers the argument that a fear culture, US hegemony, and the globalization of capital are intertw...
Chapter
Globalizing a fear culture requires concerted ideological manipulation with local variations according to the value systems of different regions of the world and their associated cultural traditions. In the United States, the fear culture of the twenty-first century built on Red Scares and fears of crime. In other places, the traditions and therefo...
Chapter
In a sense, the United States has always been an imperialist project. It began as a settler country and British colony. Once formed as its own sovereign state after its revolutionary war, it proceeded to colonize westward, destroying peoples and cultures along the way. Its extra-continental imperialism did not begin until the end of the nineteenth...
Chapter
On February 6, 2015, US president Barack Obama presented a new national security strategy to the US Congress. It contained what on the surface might seem a more rational approach than the so-called Global War on Terrorism. Obama eschewed a terror focus. His eschewal does not portend well for the people of the world.
Chapter
Ulrich Beck (1986, 1989) called today a risk society. He argued that in the past, premodernity, people faced risks mainly from the natural environment. Modern times created a risk society in which the risks increasingly come from human activity. Beck acquired his cachet among segments of the intelligentsia largely for the same reason that his more...
Chapter
Building on the work of social analysts who have identified the emerging culture of fear in the United States, this chapter argues that the current fears about terrorism derive from deliberate campaigns by the world capitalism’s elites. It traces the history of political scares since the late nineteenth century to show an evolution from Red Scares...
Chapter
Along with the national debt there arose an international credit system, which often conceals one of the sources of primitive accumulation in this or that people. Thus the villainies of the Venetian system of robbery formed one of the secret foundations of Hollands wealth in capital, for Venice in her years of decadence lent large sums of money to...
Chapter
This chapter treats the establishment of the foundation of the postmodern empire that took place in the last two decades of the twentieth century and was realized in the twenty-first century. Two occurrences demarcate the era: the end of the Cold War and 9/11. These historical developments made manifest changes in the world capitalist system. The h...
Chapter
If you know this and don’t know anything else, you know more than if you know everything else and don’t know this: “The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system,...
Research
Full-text available
The introductory chapter of my book, 'Globalization of American Fear Culture,' in press by Palgrave Macmillan
Research
Full-text available
A critique of recent attacks against Alice Goffman's book
Article
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Terrorism-led studies pointed out to tourism as a pleasure industry where visitors experience hedonism and luxury. Many analysts see in tourism a secular activity that intrudes in the religious forms of Middle East, while others signals to the resentment generated by unlimited luxury and ostentation these types of establishment offer. A third view...
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RRRRRRR: En los últimos años, los cientistas sociales se han visto atraídos por el unilateralismo estadounidense en política internacional. Sus observaciones coinciden en resaltar el sentido de especialidad promovido por los estadounidenses para verse asimismo frente a otros. En este sentido, el presente trabajo examina las causas culturas y social...
Chapter
This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the intrinsic details that have a crucial role to play within the religious tourism and pilgrimage management process. This 2nd edition lays a foundation for scholars, practitioners and students who do not study management, but who are concerned with the appearance and development of religious tourism and...
Book
Dialectics in Social Thought examines the work of thinkers who used dialectics in their attempts to understand the world. Among them are foundational thinkers such as Marx, Freud, and Nietzsche; seminal social critics of the last century such as Camus and Sartre; and current contributors like Badiou, Rancière, and Žižek.
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Heritage has played a pivotal role in configuring the sustainable economies of many communities. However, if the process is not duly planned, serious problems may surface. Although the adoption of a new heritage and heritage tourism has been broadly examined by tourism-related scholars, less attention has been given to the notion of gentrification...
Article
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As the last attacks on Boston showed terrorism is based not only on speculation but also on surprise. Terrorists do not want to destroy or to kill everybody, their goal is aimed to inflict and administrate fear to the witnesses. The fact is that tourism and mega-events represented a fertile source to perpetrate terrorist attacks, not only for the c...
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This essay argues that tourists are not just coincidental victims of terrorism. Instead tourists and terrorists articulate and interpret a dialectical relationship between states and global capital. In this respect, tourists and terrorists are inextricably intertwined. Moreover, tourists are labeled as worthy victims because of their class and stat...
Chapter
Karl Marx studied philosophy, not economics or politics. Nonetheless, he is best known for his political economic theories, or more accurately, his critique of contemporary political economic thought culminating in his three-volume work, Capital. Some more recent analysts, most notably, Louis Althusser (1965; Althusser and Balibar 1968), claim that...
Chapter
Theodor Adorno began his book-length critique of Husserl and phenomenology by saying that the dialectic continually breaks through every attempt at a starting point that phenomenology can muster: “The dialectic, which utterly refuses to be committed to the distinction between matter and method. It does not so much oppose phenomenology with a positi...
Chapter
These epigraphs come from french resistance fighters during the Second World War. Although uttered sixty years apart, they express the essence of the rebellious spirit. Such a spirit collaborates with dialectical thought. Friedrich Nietzsche served as their foundational thinker who cleared the ground for them. Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus buil...
Chapter
The present crisis in the first decades of the twentieth century has a mirror image from a century ago. The crisis of the twenty-first century grows out of the last decades of the twentieth century, whereas the last decades of the nineteenth set the stage for the bloody global warfare of the twentieth century. It also served as the foundation for t...
Chapter
The epigraph at the top of this chapter, from a poem by James Russell Lowell, refers to the crisis caused by slavery in the United States in the mid-nineteenth century. James Russell Lowell was an abolitionist who saw slavery as a moral evil and as presenting a political and economic crisis. Eventually, this crisis led to the US Civil War and a tra...
Chapter
Perhaps not as vast as the so-called sea of the Talmud, psychoanalytic psychology, nevertheless, offers a complex system of thought. Its logic posits two dialectical opposites, a dialectical pair, as the basis for human psychic life. Only late in his research did Freud try to formulate a metapsychology, as he called it, a systematic theory.
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Critical theory is associated with what historically became known as the Frankfurt School of social thought. As with many other schools identified after they have already begun, the Frankfurt School was not as unified as its name implies. Nonetheless, the thinkers involved in the Frankfurt School shared a common project: the critique of their conte...
Chapter
E. Adamson hoebel (1972) described culture as an integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristic of the members of a society and not a result of biological inheritance. Wikipedia has the following definition of society: “a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations.” As definitions go, the foregoing...
Chapter
The year 1968 marked a turning point in the global social order. Everything changed after 9/11. The years between laid the necessary groundwork for the years after 9/11. Had something like the planes crashing into the World Trade Center and Pentagon occurred in, say, 1967, the postmodern world would have looked very different. This chapter contains...
Article
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After the Chernobyl’s and Three Miles’s accidents, the relation between technology and risk started to be questioned. Social scientist posited considerable criticism against technology and how its interventions may engender new dangers. However, these views ignored the fact that risks are not just a result of technology, but also depend upon the tr...
Article
Full-text available
Building on the work of social analysts who have identified the emerging culture of fear in the USA, this article argues that the current fears about terrorism derive from deliberate campaigns by the world capitalism's elites. It traces the history of political scares since the late 19th century to show an evolution from red scares to terrorism. Wh...
Article
Full-text available
Article
A neighborhood in a US city seems to present a possibly unique exception to empirical generalizations and explanations of urban decline and occasional rehabilitation. Resisting decline, gentrification, and outside interests and actors, the neighborhood generated a subculture created by working class artists. As a valuable occasion for revising urba...
Article
One of the most troubling aspects of cultural studies, is the lack of comparative cases to expand the horizons of micro-sociology. Based on his, the present paper explores the effects of gentrification in one neighborhood, Riverwest in Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA. This essay-review explores the role of arts, not only as creating an image of neighborho...
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This methodological essay describes and advocates using certain psychoanalytic techniques for ethnography. It focuses on the self analysis of the eth-nographer using evenly hovering attention, dream analysis, and free association. It presents an argument that using those techniques enhances the goal of ethnography as a human science and of social r...
Article
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Many scholars in recent years have focused their efforts on revealing the connection of philosophy and authority. Basically, from Nietzsche onwards, philosophy has witnessed ongoing efforts for will to power by some philosophers and of course this motivated many philosophers to take part in politics. Nonetheless, this moot point engendered a seriou...
Book
Full-text available
A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites promote fear of crime and terrorism to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion. This eboo...
Chapter
Terry Eaglet on began his 1996 critique of postmodernism by distinguishing culture and history. “The word postmodernism generally refers to a form of contemporary culture, whereas the term postmodernity alludes to a specific historical period” (vii). “Culture” in Eagleton’s usage seems to refer to the arts, broadly speaking. In this discussion, in...
Chapter
The United States—especially since the 9/11 attacks, but beginning even before—ran the biggest counterterror apparatus in the world. It has many components including the military and various national defense and intelligence agencies. A main part of the counterterror effort involves the criminal justice system. The 9/11 attacks transformed this alr...
Chapter
The United States of America has always been a torturing state, but it has professionally institutionalized the practice only recently. Its political leaders offer denials, but blatant practices and tortuous legal arguments make the denials oxymoronic. The history of torture by the United States supports a more general theoretical proposition: the...
Chapter
The collapse of capitalism does not presage the socialist utopia upon which twentieth century revolutionaries pinned their hopes. Nor does it mean the end of capital as the basis for the economy. The capitalism that is collapsing is the kind of political economy regnant since the early nineteenth century, centered first in northern Europe, then in...
Chapter
States’ engines of social control are the most fearsome: camps (Lagers), gallows, ghettos, gulags, and prisons. The state uses them to control domestic, but not always internal, enemies. Against foreign enemies, it employs war. These engines of domestic control depend on popular compliance—that is, the state could not long maintain them unless the...
Chapter
The rise of iconic representation as the dominant form of communication and consciousness marks an even greater epochal shift than the transition from a capitalist to a postcapitalist world system of political economy. The shift from the logocentric to the iconocentric began approximately in the mid-twentieth century. The advent of television signa...
Chapter
Stanley Cohen, who made famous the expression “moral panic” in his 1980 study of the Mods and Rockers, said that “social control” is a Mickey Mouse term (1985:2). Regardless of its membership among rodentia, the term is so broad and abstract as to lend itself to Mickey Mouse usage. When Edward A. Ross introduced the term into sociology in his 1901...
Chapter
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the world system entered a state of chaos. The global elites resorted to authoritarianism to maintain their positions. Their principal method secured fear through order maintenance. That order, of course, meant the hierarchical social order. Two analysts of political economy, David Harvey and Immanuel W...
Chapter
Rebels have many ways to revolt. Rulers have only two ways to resist them: terror and restraint. Rulers either control the masses through fear—the way Machiavelli recommended in The Prince—or they use physical or symbolic restraints. Typically, rulers employ both kinds of restraints. Late modern strategies of restraints increasingly took an actuari...
Book
This book casts a critical eye on scholarship in the field of criminal justice, and offers some new orientations to help develop explanations for twenty-first century criminology and criminal justice studies.
Chapter
The reaction of the U.S. ruling class to the ferment of the 1960s partially relied on an intellectual foundation. It was not an unthinking, emotion-laden response, even when its public manifestations took populist form. The first wave of American neoconservative intellectuals came to prominence in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the reaction w...
Chapter
Unlike previous chapters, this one benefits from a preliminary road map; nothing detailed, just a sketch. The following framework draws on Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory, especially as he applied it to contemporary conditions in his 2003 The Decline of American Power. Wallerstein has developed world systems theory since the 1970s. Othe...
Chapter
Confusion about the nature of theories plagues the field of criminal justice. An article by Michael Tonry serves as an example. “Looking Back to See the Future of Punishment in America” (Tonry 2007) contains, inter alia, a discussion of penological theories. The reason for choosing this article has much to do with what it and its author are not. Fi...
Chapter
With the exception of a few pockets such as classical Athens and ancient Rome, theories about criminal justice outside the modern West rely mainly on inference from the societies’ laws. Prehistoric societies require a double inference, since archaeology cannot say much about criminal justice practices, let alone theories. For those societies, conte...
Chapter
Jürgen Habermas has argued against neoconservatism in both its German and American versions. His attack has included contemporaries, but his aim focuses on Carl Schmitt. The battleground is the rule of law, authority, and collective decision making in modern mass societies.
Chapter
This study casts a critical eye on criminal justice through a sociological lens. It focuses primarily on the United States but also on other capitalist countries. Two terminological problems arise. First, sociology should be understood in the broadest sense. It does not refer just to the academic discipline but to a viewpoint on humans and their wo...
Chapter
The failed world revolution of 1968 may have signaled the beginning of the end for the global hegemony of what Wallerstein (2004) called centrist liberalism, but that was not the first time liberalism came under attack. Famously, the reactionary right, spearheaded by the National Socialists, successfully defeated Weimar liberalism in Germany by the...
Chapter
Whenever social scientists start breaking theories into two opposing ategories, look out! Control and containment are just around the corner. Consider how “conflict versus consensus” defangs challenges to the received wisdom of sociology. Marxian thought in criminal justice now has to fit into either “instrumental” or “structural” approaches. These...
Chapter
Even mildly critical appraisals of American criminal justice around the turn of the twenty-first century mention Willie Horton. Horton, a convicted murderer serving time in Massachusetts, committed rape and armed robbery while out of prison on a state furlough. The advisers to George H. W. Bush’s 1988 run for the presidency created an advertising c...
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Bronislaw Malinowski (1926) provides a point of departure. Arguing against Maine (1861) and others including Durkheim, Malinowski averred that the Trobiand Islanders had law although theirs was a society based on kinship, a tribal society, or as he put it a “savage” society. First, he found that crime and custom coexisted. They were different, if n...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past several years, military and intelligence personnel of the United States have tortured captives, gained information from others' torture of captives, or sent captives to be tortured. Even aside from statutory law and international treaties and conventions to which the United States is party, prohibition of torture by agents of the stat...
Article
Full-text available
Terrorism is a notoriously plastic word, depending on user, audience, and political context. This paper focuses on shifts in its meanings since the early 1970s. As federal statutes made terrorism a criminal offense, common usage changed from a broad meaning to one that specified terrorism as a political crime. The argument is that the state shapes...
Article
Full-text available
Using the Mexico-US border, this article argues for an expanded definition of 'tourist' to include those who travel to produce, and not only to consume tourist attractions. Millions of people have crossed the Mexico-US border to contribute to productivity, and much of it their productivity supports the tourist industry in the United States. With th...

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Projects (2)
Project
The aspects that defined beautiness varied on culture and time. In the industrial world, what was beaty was related to visual experience, to gaze and the expetaction of protection. Now all these mainstream values have set the pace to death which is the only attractative factor. As the classic tourist destinations has been avoided by darker options as sites whipped by natural disasters or places of mass death and suffering, this suggests we are next to face a new phacet of capitalism. This new climate is dubbed as "THANA CAPITALISM".