Geoffrey M. Reed

Geoffrey M. Reed
Columbia University | CU · Department of Psychiatry

Ph.D.

About

237
Publications
320,938
Reads
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15,913
Citations
Citations since 2016
119 Research Items
9903 Citations
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Introduction
Senior Project Officer for the development of ICD-11 Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Dept of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization. I founded the WHO Global Clinical Practice Network (http://gcp.network): more that 14,000 health professionals in 154 countries contributing directly to ICD-11 Mental and Behavioural Disorders through participation in field studies. Professor and Scientific Co-Director, Columbia University Global Mental Health Program, New York, NY, USA.
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - present
Columbia University
Position
  • Professor
July 2016 - June 2018
Columbia University
Position
  • Professor
January 2015 - June 2016
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Founding of Center for Global Mental Health Research, a collaboration of the National Institute of Psiquiatría ‘Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz’, the Department of Psychology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, and the World Health Organization.
Education
September 1986 - January 1989
September 1984 - June 1986
September 1980 - June 1984

Publications

Publications (237)
Article
Full-text available
Reliable, clinically useful, and globally applicable diagnostic classification of mental disorders is an essential foundation for global mental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is nearing completion of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11). The present study assessed inter-...
Article
Full-text available
Following approval of the ICD‐11 by the World Health Assembly in May 2019, World Health Organization (WHO) member states will transition from the ICD‐10 to the ICD‐11, with reporting of health statistics based on the new system to begin on January 1, 2022. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse will publish Clinical Descriptions an...
Article
Full-text available
An update of the chapter on Mental, Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is of great interest around the world. The recent approval of the 11th Revision of the ICD (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization (WHO) raises broad questions about the status of nosolo...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Severe irritability has become an important topic in child and adolescent mental health. Based on the available evidence and on public health considerations, WHO classified chronic irritability within oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in ICD‐11, a solution markedly different from DSM‐5’s (i.e. the new childhood mood diagnosis, disrup...
Article
Full-text available
It has often been suggested that the field would benefit from a single, unified classification of mental disorders, although the priorities and constituencies of the two sponsoring organizations are quite different. During the development of the ICD-11 and DSM-5, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the APA made efforts toward harmonizing the tw...
Article
Full-text available
En mai 2019, l'Assemblée mondiale de la santé de l'Organisation mon-diale de la santé (OMS) a approuvé la Classification internationale des maladies et des problèmes de santé connexes (CIM-11) pour les statistiques de mortalité et de morbidité. La version statistique de la CIM-11 est entrée en vigueur le 1 er janvier 2022. Cet article décrit le pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of indicators consistent with Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD)—defined and operationalized according to the ICD-11 guidelines—in a large ( n = 4,633; 50.5% male; 49,5% female) probability-based German national sample. Methods Participants were aske...
Article
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Aim: This study aimed to identify whether clinicians' gender, clinical experience, and personal attitudes influenced their perception of criminality of specific sexual behaviours, their judgments about criminal liability if mentally disordered, and the need for treatment as part of criminal settings for those having ICD-11 paraphilic disorders. Me...
Article
Full-text available
Among the important changes in the ICD-11 is the addition of 21 new mental disorders. New categories are typically proposed to: a) improve the usefulness of morbidity statistics; b) facilitate recognition of a clinically important but poorly classified mental disorder in order to provide appropriate management; and c) stimulate research into more e...
Article
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Introduction: The ICD-11 includes a new grouping for "disorders specifically associated with stress" that contains revised descriptions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AjD) and new diagnoses in the form of complex PTSD (CPTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD). These disorders are similar in that they each require...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). A version of the ICD-11 for Mental, Behavioural and Neurodevelopmental Disorders for use in clinical settings, called the Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Requirements (CDDR), has also been developed. The CDD...
Article
Full-text available
Background COVID-19 has profoundly affected the work of mental health professionals with many transitioning to telehealth to comply with public health measures. This large international study examined the impact of the pandemic on mental health clinicians’ telehealth use. Methods This survey study was conducted with mental health professionals, pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objective: The most recent versions of the two main mental disorders classifications—the World Health Organization's ICD-11 and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM–5—differ substantially in their diagnostic categories related to transgender identity. ICD-11 gender incongruence (GI), in contrast to DSM-5 gender dysphoria (GD), is...
Article
Objective: ICD-11 clinical guidelines for mental and behavioral disorders must be tested in clinical settings to guarantee their usefulness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability and clinical utility of the ICD-11 guidelines for children and adolescents in assessing and diagnosing mood, anxiety, and fear-related...
Article
Background: We report results of an internet-based field study evaluating the diagnostic guidelines for ICD-11 mood disorders. Accuracy of clinicians' diagnostic judgments applying draft ICD-11 as compared to the ICD-10 guidelines to standardized case vignettes was assessed as well as perceived clinical utility. Methods: 1357 clinician members o...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: ICD-11 clinical guidelines for mental and behavioral disorders must be tested in clinical settings to guarantee their usefulness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability and clinical utility of the ICD-11 guidelines for children and adolescents in assessing and diagnosing mood, anxiety, and fear-relate...
Article
Background The diagnosis of paraphilic disorder is a complicated clinical judgment based on the integration of information from multiple dimensions to arrive at a categorical (present/absent) conclusion. The recent update of the guidelines for paraphilic disorders in ICD-11 presents an opportunity to investigate how mental health professionals use...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization (WHO) has officially approved the next version of its global diagnostic system, the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Eleventh Revision (ICD-11). Processes to implement the ICD-11 are now underway. Developing the ICD-11 chapter on Mental, Behavioural and Neurodevelopmental Disorders,...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health conditions in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region affect more than 10% of the population, with 140,000 lives lost annually to suicide. Comorbidity with other diseases is high. However, basic mental health care is received by less than a third of patients. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of mental h...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. This article presents the history and rationales of conceptualization and classification of homosexuality and transgender identity in both ICD and DSM. We review the efforts that have been made (and those that remain pending) to improve psychiatric classifications with new scientific knowledge, changing social attitudes and human righ...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem associated with increased risk of developing mental health conditions. Assessment of IPV in mental health settings is important for appropriate treatment planning and referral; however, lack of training in how to identify and respond to IPV presents a significant barrier to assessme...
Article
Objective One strategy for improving the clinical utility of mental health diagnostic systems is to better align them with how clinicians conceptualize psychopathology in practice. This approach was used in International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD‐11) development, but its underlying assumption—a link between taxonomic “fit” and c...
Article
Introduction: The 2 most well-known classification systems that include sexual medicine diagnoses are the International Classification of Diseases and Statistics (ICD) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Sexual medicine experts from international societies representing an array of disciplines have revised and redef...
Article
Background: The 11th edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is due to come into force in 2022. The goal of the present partial evaluation of the GeSiD study findings is to provide the first ever estimate of the prevalence of different types of sexual dysfunction in Germany as defined by the diagnostic guidelin...
Article
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Background For ICD-11, the WHO emphasized the clinical utility of communication and the need to involve service users and carers in the revision process.AimsThe objective was to assess whether medical vocabulary was accessible, which kinds of feelings it activated, whether and how users and carers would like to rephrase terms, and whether they used...
Article
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Background Transgender people are often victims of multiple types of violence across several areas of life due to society’s marked intolerance of gender nonconformity. Objective: This study seeks to describe experiences of violence in transgender individuals and explore the relationship between different types of violence and specific, high-risk ge...
Conference Paper
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Background and aims.– ICD-11 field studies are being conducted through the WHO’s International Field Study Centers in countries representing allWHOregions. Ecological Implementation field studies evaluate the clinical consistency and utility of the proposed guidelines in natural practice condition. In the Russian Federation, Moscow Research Institu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We report results of an internet-based field study evaluating the diagnostic guidelines for the newly introduced ICD-11 grouping of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD). We examined accuracy of clinicians’ diagnostic judgments applying draft ICD-11 as compared to the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines to standardized case vignett...
Article
Full-text available
In this web-based field study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of 10 selected mental disorders between the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG) and the ICD-10 CDDG using vignettes in a sample of 928 health professionals from all WHO regions. On average, the ICD-11 CCDG displayed significantly higher...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that has been shown to lead to serious mental health consequences. Due to its frequent co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders, it is important to assess for IPV in mental health settings to improve treatment planning and referral. However, lack of training in how to identify and re...
Article
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that has been shown to lead to serious mental health consequences. Due to its frequent co-occurrence with psychiatric disorders, it is important to assess for IPV in mental health settings to improve treatment planning and referral. However, lack of training in how to identify and re...
Chapter
The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the eleventh edition of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) chapter on mental and behavioural disorders represent interrelated milestones in the understanding of psychiatric (men...
Article
Background: Women's experiences of female sexual difficulties are shaped by cultural expectations. Aim of the study: To investigate the cultural validity and clinical utility of the classification of female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) in the International Classification of Diseases - 11th Revision (ICD-11) among Indian Women. Methods: A purposiv...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the then proposed International Classification of Diseases version 11 (ICD-11) diagnostic guidelines for Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood in a sample of transgender people accessing multidisciplinary health care services at specialised organisations in Lebanon. The cross-sectiona...
Article
Background. This article reports the results of one of a series of global field studies implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the accuracy, clinical utility, and global applicability of the new diagnostic guidelines for Mental, Behavioural and Neurological Disorders included in the next version of WHO’s International Classi...
Article
Full-text available
Background The 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Disorders (ICD-11) has been released. In order to test the clinical consistency and the clinical utility of the proposed guidelines the World Health Organization (WHO) has carried out the Ecological Implementation Field Studies in various countries. In this pa...
Article
Although mental disorders are a leading cause of disability in the Arab region, which includes 5·54% of the global population, Arab countries produce only 1·0% of the global output of peer-reviewed publications in mental health research. Various stakeholders, including Arab mental health researchers, institutional and funding agency officials, and...
Article
Introduction: Recently the guidelines for the diagnosis of paraphilic disorders in the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Eleventh Revision (ICD-11), have been published. Aim: This article analyzes legal, regulatory, and policy issues relevant to the potential effects of the changes for the classification of pa...
Article
Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has made substantial changes to the classification of paraphilic disorders for the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), recently approved by the World Health Assembly. The most important is to limit paraphilic disorders primarily to...
Article
Pairwise similarity judgments and card sorting methodologies are different ways of generating data for similarity matrices used in various analyses such as multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Pairwise similarity judgments are considered the gold standard methodology, but can be cumbersome for large numbers of stimuli given the geometric...
Article
Full-text available
As a way of including meaningful consideration of culture in the diagnostic process, the World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse constituted a Working Group to develop guidance on cultural considerations for the ICD-11 classification of mental disorders, based on the current state of clinically applicable inf...
Article
Developed in collaboration with WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, this study (conducted in India, the UK, and the USA) integrated feedback from mental health service users into the development of the chapter on mental, behavioural, and neurodevelopmental disorders for ICD-11. The ICD-11 will be used for health reporting from Janu...
Article
The Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) was formally published in May 2019. Alcohol use disorders form a key part of the section of Disorders due to Substance Use and Addictive Behaviours. This review describes and discusses the alcohol diagnoses within this section of ICD-11, including Alcohol Dependence, Har...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is used globally by 194 WHO member nations. It is used for assigning clinical diagnoses, providing the framework for reporting public health data, and to inform the organization and reimbursement of health services. Guided by o...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization (WHO) is about to publish the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Disorders (ICD-11). A pre-final version has been disseminated in 2018, in order to allow the 194 member States to provide suggestions for amendments and to prepare shared strategies for the implementation of the diag...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND. For the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases, the WHO recommended to rename transgender transidentity as “gender incongruence”, to remove it from the chapter of mental and behavioral disorders, and to put it in a new category titled “Conditions related to sexual health”. This should contribute to reduce stigmatis...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To describe self-reported experiences of gender incongruence related to discomfort and body changes to be more congruent to the desired gender, and to examine whether experiences of psychological distress related to gender identity were more strongly related to the experience of gender incongruence per se or to experiences of social rej...
Article
A major goal for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) is to increase the clinical utility of the diagnostic system. Schizoaffective disorder has a history of poor diagnostic reliability due to the similarities and overlap in symptoms that it shares with other disorders, esp...
Article
Full-text available
Background We present the work conducted to arrive at deriving behavioural indicators that could be used to guide clinical judgement in determining the presence and severity of deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour for the purpose of making a diagnosis of disorders of intellectual development. Methods An interdisciplinary exp...
Article
Classifications of psychotic disorders are moving towards utilizing dimensional symptom domains as the preferred mechanism for describing psychotic symptomatology. The ICD-11 has proposed six symptom domains (Positive symptoms, Negative symptoms, Depressive symptoms, Manic symptoms, Psychomotor symptoms, and Cognitive symptoms) that would be rated...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse is updating the diagnostic guidelines for mental and behavioural disorders intended for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD‐11). When ratified and implemented, the ICD‐11 will serve as a global standard used across the world...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we report the clinical utility of the diagnostic guidelines for ICD‐11 mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders as assessed by 339 clinicians in 1,806 patients in 28 mental health settings in 13 countries. Clinician raters applied the guidelines for schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders, mood disorders (depre...