Geoffrey I Mcfadden

Geoffrey I Mcfadden
University of Melbourne | MSD · School of BioSciences

BSc (Hons), PhD

About

419
Publications
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Publications

Publications (419)
Article
Self-adjuvanting vaccines consisting of peptide epitopes conjugated to immune adjuvants are a powerful way of generating antigen-specific immune responses. We previously showed that a Plasmodium-derived peptide conjugated to a rearranged...
Article
Chromerids are a group of alveolates, found in corals, that show peculiar morphological and genomic features. These organisms are evolutionary placed in-between symbiotic dinoflagellates and parasitic apicomplexans. There are two known species of chromerids: Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis. Here, the biochemical composition of C. velia c...
Article
Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease caused by parasites from the genus Plasmodium. Therapeutic resistance has been reported against all clinically available antimalarials, threatening our ability to control the disease and therefore there is an ongoing need for the development of novel antimalarials. Towards this goal, we identified the 2-(N...
Article
The algal cell wall is an important cellular component that functions in defense, nutrient utilization, signaling, adhesion, and cell‐cell recognition — processes important in the cnidarian–dinoflagellate symbiosis. The cell wall of symbiodiniacean dinoflagellates is not well characterized. Here, we present a method to isolate cell walls of Symbiod...
Article
Full-text available
Symbiodiniaceae algae are often photosymbionts of reef-building corals. The establishment of their symbiosis resembles a microbial infection where eukaryotic pattern recognition receptors (e.g. lectins) are thought to recognize a specific range of taxon-specific microbial-associated molecular patterns (e.g. glycans). The present study used the sea...
Article
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Thorough understanding of the role of CD4 T cells in immunity can be greatly assisted by the study of responses to defined specificities. This requires knowledge of Plasmodium-derived immunogenic epitopes, of which only a few have been identified, especially for the mouse C57BL/6 background. We recently developed a TCR transgenic mouse line, termed...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria remains a major cause of mortality in the world, and an efficient vaccine is the best chance of reducing the disease burden. Vaccination strategies for the liver stage of disease that utilise injection of living radiation‐attenuated sporozoites (RAS) confer sterile immunity, which is mediated by CD8⁺ memory T cells, with liver‐resident memo...
Article
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A highly protective vaccine will greatly facilitate achieving and sustaining malaria elimination. Understanding mechanisms of antibody-mediated immunity is crucial for developing vaccines with high efficacy. Here, we identify key roles in humoral immunity for Fcγ-receptor (FcγR) interactions and opsonic phagocytosis of sporozoites. We identify a ma...
Article
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Background Resistance to front-line antimalarials (artemisinin combination therapies) is spreading, and development of new drug treatment strategies to rapidly kill Plasmodium spp. malaria parasites is urgently needed. Azithromycin is a clinically used macrolide antibiotic proposed as a partner drug for combination therapy in malaria, which has als...
Article
Full-text available
The antibiotic actinonin kills malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by interfering with apicoplast function. Early evidence suggested that actinonin inhibited prokaryote-like post-translational modification in the apicoplast; mimicking its activity against bacteria. However, Amberg Johnson et al. (2017) identified the metalloprotease TgFtsH1 a...
Article
Full-text available
The antibiotic actinonin kills malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by interfering with apicoplast function. Early evidence suggested that actinonin inhibited prokaryote-like post-translational modification in the apicoplast; mimicking its activity against bacteria. However, Amberg Johnson et al. (2017) identified the metalloprotease TgFtsH1 a...
Article
Liver resident-memory CD8 ⁺ T cells (T RM cells) can kill liver-stage Plasmodium -infected cells and prevent malaria, but simple vaccines for generating this important immune population are lacking. Here, we report the development of a fully synthetic self-adjuvanting glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccine designed to efficiently induce liver T RM ce...
Article
Full-text available
The sea anemone, Exaiptasia diaphana, previously known as Exaiptasia pallida or Aiptasia pallida, has become increasingly popular as a model for cnidarian-microbiome symbiosis studies due to its relatively rapid growth, ability to reproduce sexually and asexually, and symbiosis with diverse prokaryotes and the same microalgal symbionts (family Symb...
Article
Full-text available
Apicomplexan parasites are unicellular eukaryotic pathogens that must obtain and combine lipids from both host cell scavenging and de novo synthesis to maintain parasite propagation and survival within their human host. Major questions on the role and regulation of each lipid source upon fluctuating host nutritional conditions remain unanswered. Ch...
Article
Full-text available
The mutualistic symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates supports one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, coral reefs. Cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses are broadly species-specific, but little is known about the mechanisms underpinning this specificity. Here, we explored the ability of three genotypes of the sea...
Article
Full-text available
Apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii possess an unusual heme biosynthesis pathway whose enzymes localize to the mitochondrion, cytosol or apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid present in most apicomplexans. To characterize the involvement of the apicoplast in the T. gondii heme biosynthesis pathway, we investigated the role of the ap...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis underpins the evolutionary success of corals reefs. Successful exchange of molecules between the cnidarian host and the Symbiodiniaceae algae enables the mutualistic partnership. The algae translocate photosynthate to their host in exchange for nutrients and shelter. The photosynthate must traverse multiple m...
Preprint
Full-text available
The sea anemone, Exaiptasia diaphana, commonly known as Exaiptasia pallida or Aiptasia pallida, has become increasingly popular as a model for cnidarian-microbiome symbiosis studies due to its relatively rapid growth, ability to reproduce sexually and asexually, and symbiosis with diverse prokaryotes and the same microalgal symbionts (family Symbio...
Article
Prasinophytes (Chlorophyta) are a diverse, paraphyletic group of planktonic microalgae for which benthic species are largely unknown. Here, we report a sand‐dwelling, marine prasinophyte with several novel features observed in clonal cultures established from numerous locations around Australia. The new genus and species, which we name Microrhizoid...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In multicellular organisms, alternative splicing is central to tissue differentiation and identity. Unicellular protists lack multicellular tissue but differentiate into variable cell types during their life cycles. The role of alternative splicing in transitions between cell types and establishing cellular identity is currently unknow...
Article
Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, syn. Fagara zanthoxyloides, is a tree growing in West Africa and is used in traditional medicine against a variety of diseases, including malaria. In the work reported here, root bark and stem bark extracts of this tree, as well as compounds isolated from the extracts, have been investigated for activity in vitro against...
Article
Insecticide-impregnated bed nets have saved millions from fatal malaria, but their effectiveness is waning due to mosquito insecticide resistance. A new strategy (Paton et al., Nature, 2019) to deliver parasiticidal compounds into mosquitoes to kill transmission-stage parasites could enhance the effectiveness of bed nets and get around the perennia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Apicomplexan parasites are unicellular eukaryotes responsible for major human diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. Apicomplexan parasites must obtain and combine lipids both from host cell scavenging and de novo synthesis to maintain parasite propagation and survival within their human host. Major questions on the actual role for each lipi...
Article
Full-text available
Alternative splicing is a widespread, essential, and complex component of gene regulation. Apicomplexan parasites have long been recognized to produce alternatively spliced transcripts for some genes and can produce multiple protein products that are essential for parasite growth. Recent approaches are now providing more wide-ranging surveys of the...
Article
Full-text available
Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp. manufacture a complex arsenal of secreted proteins used to interact with and manipulate their host environment. These proteins are organised into three principle exocytotic compartment types according to their functions: micronemes for extracellular attachment and motility, rhop...
Article
Liver tissue-resident memory T (Trm) cells migrate throughout the sinusoids and are capable of protecting against malaria sporozoite challenge. To gain an understanding of liver Trm cell development, we examined various conditions for their formation. Although liver Trm cells were found in naive mice, their presence was dictated by antigen specific...
Chapter
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Plastids are key organelles in both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms. In photosynthetic organisms, plastids can be readily purified using differential centrifugations due to the high density of photosynthetic membranes or thylakoids. The apicomplexan plastid (the apicoplast) is an essential nonphotosynthetic plastid that lacks thylako...
Article
Full-text available
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that is the target of several classes of herbicides. Malaria parasites contain a plant-like ACC, and this is the only protein predicted to be biotinylated in the parasite. We found that ACC is expressed in the apicoplast organelle in liver- and blood-stage malaria parasites; however, it is a...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria parasites alternate between intracellular and extracellular stages and successful egress from the host cell is crucial for continuation of the life cycle. We investigated egress of Plasmodium berghei gametocytes, an essential process taking place within a few minutes after uptake of a blood meal by the mosquito. Egress entails the rupture o...
Article
Malaria parasites contain a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which is considered an excellent drug target due to its bacterial-like ancestry. Numerous parasiticidals have been proposed to target the apicoplast, but few have had their actual targets substantiated. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) production is the sole required function of the apicopl...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an MHC class II (I-A(b))-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line that produces CD4(+) T cells specific for Plasmodium species. This line, termed PbT-II, was derived from a CD4(+) T cell hybridoma generated to blood-stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). PbT-II cells responded to all Plasmodium species and stages tested so far, including rode...
Article
Full-text available
Background The clinical symptoms of malaria are caused by the asexual replication of Plasmodium parasites in the blood of the vertebrate host. To spread to new hosts, however, the malaria parasite must differentiate into sexual forms, termed gametocytes, which are ingested by a mosquito vector. Sexual differentiation produces either female or male...
Article
The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. We selected 27 candi...
Article
Full-text available
The cryptomonad nucleomorph is a vestigial nucleus of a eukaryotic red alga engulfed by a phagotrophic protist and retained as a photosynthetic endosymbiont. This review recounts the initial discovery and subsequent characterisation of the cryptomonad nucleomorph focusing on the key role of Peter Sitte and his protégés in our understanding of secon...
Article
Actin has important roles in Plasmodium parasites but its exact function in different life stages is not yet fully elucidated. Here we report the localization of ubiquitous actin I in gametocytes of the rodent model parasite P. berghei. Using an antibody specifically recognizing F-actin and deconvolution microscopy we detected actin I in a punctate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Symbiosis is an evolutionary strategy that facilitates the survival of most species across a diversity of habitats. The foundation of coral reefs relies on the endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. The algae transfer up to 95% of their photosynthate to their host, promoting coral gr...
Poster
Full-text available
Initial host-symbiont recognition is constituted by a complex series of inter-partner molecular signalling events, also known as winnowing stages. This study aims to investigate the first steps in the establishment of symbiosis between the coral model Exaiptasia pallida and Symbiodinium dinoflagellates, using three main approaches.
Data
Table S1. The Full Results of the Screen Including Vector IDs, RGR Measurements, Confidence Limits, and Phenotype Calls, Related to Figure 1 The latest data are also available to browse interactively or download as a customisable CSV at http://plasmogem.sanger.ac.uk
Data
Table S3. Genes Clustered by Location or Function, Related to Figures 2, 4, 6, and S4
Data
Table S5. Two-Way and Three-Way Orthologs for P. berghei, T. gondii, and P. falciparum and Available Phenotype Data, Related to Figure 3
Data
Table S2. The Data Underpinning the Comparison of Gene Properties in the Screen Compared with the Genome, Related to Figure S1
Data
Conserved Plasmodium genes of unknown function which belong to the ookinete cluster (cluster 9), but have a barseq phenotype in asexual blood stages are highlighted and may be filtered in column L. The expression data were from RNA sequencing experiments reported by Otto et al. (2014).
Data
The file archive includes an R-markdown document, which will reproduce all bioinformatic procedures conducted.
Data
Table S6. Phases at which P. berghei Genes Were Gained, with Phenotyping Data, Related to Figure 5 This includes genes which are required for normal asexual blood stage growth and that belong to groups of orthologs acquired by the ancestral hematozoan, suggesting they may be important for the intraerythrocytic lifestyle of malaria parasites.
Data
Table S8. Summary of the Phenotyping Data, Gene Identifiers, and Known or Putative Functions of the Transporters Shown in Figure 6B, Related to Figure 6
Data
Table S7. All GO Enrichment Data Including which Genes Are Responsible for Enrichment, Related to Figures 6 and S4