Geoffrey W Guy

Geoffrey W Guy
GW Pharmaceuticals and The Guy Foundation

MB BS LRCP MRCS LMSSA Dip Pharm Med BSc DSc
Chairman and Founder of the Guy Foundation

About

80
Publications
45,346
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,344
Citations

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
The consensus on the origins of life is that it involved organization of prebiotic chemicals according to the underlying principles of thermodynamics to dissipate energy derived from photochemical and/or geochemical sources. Leading theories tend to be chemistry-centric, revolving around either metabolism or informationcontaining polymers first. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation as a biological concept has been around a long time and derives from the Latin “to set on fire” and refers to the redness and heat, and usually swelling, which accompanies injury and infection. Chronic inflammation is also associated with ageing and is described by the term “inflammaging”. Likewise, the biological concept of hormesis,...
Article
Full-text available
We, and others, have suggested that as the SARS-CoV-2 virus may modulate mitochondrial function, good mitochondrial reserve and health could be key in determining disease severity when exposed to this virus, as the immune system itself is dependent on this organelle’s function. With the recent publication of a paper showing that long COVID could be...
Article
Full-text available
The cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), is part of the plant's natural defense system that when given to animals has many useful medicinal properties, including activity against cancer cells, modulation of the immune system, and efficacy in epilepsy. Although there is no consensus on its precise mode of action as it affects many cellular targets, CBD d...
Article
Full-text available
Acetate is one of the main short chain fatty acids produced in the colon when fermentable carbohydrates are digested. It has been shown to affect normal metabolism, modulating mitochondrial function, and fatty acid oxidation. Currently, there is no clear consensus regarding the effects of acetate on tumorigenesis and cancer metabolism. Here, we inv...
Article
Full-text available
Infection with SARs-COV-2 displays increasing fatality with age and underlying co-morbidity, in particular, with markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes, which seems to be associated with a "cytokine storm" and an altered immune response. This suggests that a key contributory factor could be immunosenescence that is both age-related and life...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing societal changes in views on medical and recreational roles of cannabis increased the use of concentrated plant extracts with a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of >90%. Even though prenatal THC exposure is widely considered adverse for neuronal development, equivalent experimental data for young age cohorts are largely lacking. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
Medicine has utilised plant‐based treatments for millennia, but precisely how they work is unclear. One approach is to use a thermodynamic viewpoint that life arose by dissipating geothermal and/or solar potential. Hence, the ability to dissipate energy to maintain homeostasis is a fundamental principle in all life, which can be viewed as an accret...
Article
Full-text available
Membrane vesicles (MVs) released from bacteria participate in cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. Roles for MVs in antibiotic resistance are gaining increased attention and in this study we investigated if known anti-bacterial effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid from Cannabis sativa, could be in part attributed to effect...
Article
Full-text available
Membrane vesicles (MVs) released from bacteria participate in cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. Roles for MVs in antibiotic resistance are gaining increased attention and in this study we investigated if known anti-bacterial effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid from Cannabis sativa, could be in part attributed to effect...
Article
Full-text available
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with poor prognosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key-mediators for cellular communication through transfer of proteins and genetic material. Cancers, such as GBM, use EV release for drug-efflux, pro-oncogenic signaling, invasion and...
Article
Full-text available
Exosomes and microvesicles (EMV) are lipid bilayer-enclosed structures, released by cells and involved in intercellular communication through transfer of proteins and genetic material. EMV release is also associated with various pathologies, including cancer, where increased EMV release is amongst other associated with chemo-resistance and active t...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional wisdom states Cannabis sativa originated in Asia and its dispersal to Europe depended upon human transport. Various Neolithic or Bronze age groups have been named as pioneer cultivators. These theses were tested by examining fossil pollen studies (FPSs), obtained from the European Pollen Database. Many FPSs report Cannabis or Humulus (...
Article
Full-text available
Debates over Cannabis sativa L. and C. indica Lam. center on their taxonomic circumscription and rank. This perennial puzzle has been compounded by the viral spread of a vernacular nomenclature, “Sativa” and “Indica,” which does not correlate with C. sativa and C. indica. Ambiguities also envelop the epithets of wild-type Cannabis: the spontanea ve...
Article
Full-text available
We are able to read this because of quantum and thermodynamic principles that via an inorganic proton gradient, possibly generated 4.2 billion years ago, gave rise to a system that has an awareness of time and space by using energy to integrate information. Life can be described as a dissipative system driven by an energy gradient that uses informa...
Article
Full-text available
A sufficiently complex set of molecules, if subject to perturbation, will self-organize and show emergent behaviour. If such a system can take on information it will become subject to natural selection. This could explain how self-replicating molecules evolved into life and how intelligence arose. A pivotal step in this evolutionary process was of...
Article
Chronic diseases are due to deviations of fundamental physiological systems, with different pathologies being characterised by similar malfunctioning biological networks. The ensuing compensatory mechanisms may weaken the body's dynamic ability to respond to further insults and reduce the efficacy of conventional single target treatments. The multi...
Patent
Full-text available
Processes for preparing extracts of natural products such as plant material, and for preparing purified extracts from crude extracts of natural products, by extraction with hot gas. Apparatus suitable for use in preparing extracts of natural products are also described.
Patent
Full-text available
The present invention relates to the use of one or more cannabinoids in combination with one or more anti-psychotic medicaments for use in the prevention or treatment of psychosis and psychotic disorders. Preferably the one or more cannabinoids are taken from the group: cannabidiol (CBD); cannabidiolic acid (CBDA); tetrahydrocannbidivarin (THCV); t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Hormesis describes an adaptive process to resist stress. It is characterised by the biphasic response to 1000s of compounds, including natural signalling molecules. The underlying molecular pathways are activated by both exercise and calorie restriction, and appear to slow the ageing process by up-regulating somatic maintenance, mitochondrial funct...
Article
Full-text available
Mankind is facing an unprecedented health challenge in the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes. We propose that this is the inevitable (and predictable) consequence of the evolution of intelligence, which itself could be an expression of life being an information system driven by entropy. Because of its ability to make life more adaptable and...
Patent
Full-text available
The present invention relates to treatment of cancer related pain and constipation. Preferably the subject in need is administered a combination of the cannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). More preferably the cannabinoids are in a predefined ratio by weight of approximately 1:1 of CBD to THC.
Article
Full-text available
The "classic" endocannabinoid (eCB) system includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the eCB ligands anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their metabolic enzymes. An emerging literature documents the "eCB deficiency syndrome" as an etiology in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, psychological disorders, and ot...
Article
Full-text available
This Phase I study aimed to assess the potential drug-drug interactions (pharmacokinetic [PK] and safety profile) of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex (®), nabiximols) in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer (rifampicin) or inhibitors (ketoconazole or omeprazole). Thirty-six healthy male subjects...
Article
Approximately one third of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia do not achieve adequate symptom control with standard antipsychotic drugs (APs). Some of these may prove responsive to clozapine, but non-response to APs remains an important clinical problem and cause of increased health care costs. In a significant proportion of patients, schizophre...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor inverse agonists improve type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia but were discontinued due to adverse psychiatric effects. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a neutral CB1 antagonist producing hypophagia and body weight reduction in lean mice. We investigated its effects in dietary-induced (DIO) and genetica...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a construct based on the discovery of receptors that are modulated by the plant compound tetrahydrocannabinol and the subsequent identification of a family of nascent ligands, the 'endocannabinoids'. The function of the ECS is thus defined by modulation of these receptors-in particular, by two of the best-describ...
Article
Purpose: A Phase I study to assess the single and multipledose pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety and tolerability of oromucosally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, in healthy male subjects. Methods: Subjects received either single doses of THC/CBD spray as multiple sprays [...
Article
Purpose: To assess the effect of food on the single-dose bioavailability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, when administered to healthy male subjects. Methods: Twelve subjects took part in this fed-fasted cross-over study and received a single dose of THC/CBD spray (4 sprays = 10....
Article
This study investigated the antispasticity potential of Sativex in mice. Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis was induced in adult ABH mice resulting in hind limb spasticity development. Vehicle, Sativex, and baclofen (as a positive control) were injected intravenously and the "stiffness" of limbs assessed by the resistance for...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols (Sativex, GW Pharma Ltd. Salisbury, UK), an oromucosal spray primarily containing delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). This was a single‐dose, randomized, double‐blind, crossover study comparing nabiximols (4, 8, and 16 consecutive sprays: 10.8...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the human population in the western world has access to unlimited calories and leads an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. The propensity to undertake voluntary exercise or indulge in spontaneous physical exercise, which might be termed "exercise salience", is drawing increased scientific attention. Despite its genetic aspects, this complex...
Article
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the abuse potential and cognitive effects of nabiximols (Sativex ® , GW Pharma Ltd. Salisbury, UK), an oromucosal spray primarily containing delta‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Methods This was a single‐dose, randomized, double‐blind, crossover study comparing nabiximols (4, 8, and 16 con...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) was only 'discovered' in the 1990s. Since then, many new ligands have been identified, as well as many new intracellular targets--ranging from the PPARs, to mitochondria, to lipid rafts. It was thought that blocking the CB-1 receptor might reverse obesity and the metabolic syndrome. This was based on the idea that t...
Article
Full-text available
The metabolic syndrome may have its origins in thriftiness, insulin resistance and one of the most ancient of all signalling systems, redox. Thriftiness results from an evolutionarily-driven propensity to minimise energy expenditure. This has to be balanced with the need to resist the oxidative stress from cellular signalling and pathogen resistanc...
Article
Full-text available
The Gulf is experiencing a pandemic of lifestyle-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with rates exceeding 50 and 30%, respectively. It is likely that T2DM represents the tip of a very large metabolic syndrome iceberg, which precedes T2DM by many years and is associated with abnormal/ectopic fat distribution, pathological systemic o...
Article
Full-text available
1. The History of Cannabis As a Medicine: Ethan Russo 2. Growth and Morphology of Medicinal Cannabis: David Potter 3. The Breeding of Cannabis Cultivars for Pharmaceutical End-uses: Etienne De Meijer 5. Preclinical Pharmacology: Rik Musty 6. Receptors and Pharmacodynamics Natural and Synthtic Cannabinoids and Endocannabinoids: Roger Pertwee 7. Phar...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of m...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the current knowledge of physiological and clinical effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and presents a rationale for their combination in pharmaceutical preparations. Cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor effects as well as non-receptor mechanisms are explored, such as the capability of THC and CBD to act as...
Article
The use of cannabis for medical purposes is a controversial but an important topic of public and scientific interest. We report on the results of a self-administered questionnaire study conducted in the United Kingdom between 1998 and 2002. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items and included demographic data, disease and medication use patterns an...
Article
Cannabis sativa, is a rich source of a variety of compounds, including cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids. Their content depends upon the plant genetics, growth conditions, time of harvest and drying conditions. To date, more than 60 different cannabinoids have been identified in the plant. Cannabis has been used medicinally for 4000 years and...
Article
Primary objectives of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetic characteristics of CBME when administered sublingually in different ratios, to determine if the pharmacokinetic profiles of THC and its metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC are different when administered sublingually in different formulations, and to characterise the pharmacokinetic profile...
Article
Full-text available
This Phase I, open label, four-way crossover study pertains to pharmacokinetic parameters of four cannabis based medicine extracts (CBME). Sublingual, buccal and oro-pharyngeal test treatments (GW-1000-02) consisted of 25 mg cannabidiol (CBD) + 25 mg Δ-tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC) per ml formulated in ethanol (eth):propylene glycol (PG) (50:50), wit...
Article
This study was the first study of GW's CBME in man. It was performed in six healthy subjects, employing test treatments consisting of CBD:THC sublingual drops (GW-1011-01): 5 mg Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) + 5 mg cannabidiol (CBD) per ml of glycerol:ethanol (Eth):propylene glycol (PG) (4:4:2), with peppermint flavouring, High CBD sublingual drops...