Geoff Phillips

Geoff Phillips
University of Stirling · Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

93
Publications
34,817
Reads
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6,769
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - December 2014
Environment Agency UK
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Working on Water Framework Directive
October 1989 - December 2014
Environment Agency UK
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we de...
Article
Full-text available
Eutrophication caused by an excessive presence of nutrients is affecting large portions of European waters with more than 60% of the surface water bodies failing to achieve the primary ambition of water management in Europe, that of good ecological status (GES) with diffuse emission from agriculture being the second most important pressure affectin...
Article
One key component of any eutrophication management strategy is establishment of realistic thresholds above which negative impacts become significant and provision of ecosystem services is threatened. This paper introduces a toolkit of statistical approaches with which such thresholds can be set, explaining their rationale and situations under which...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The task group on supporting physico-chemical elements have reviewed information reported by Member States to WISE on the standards for general physico-chemical quality elements including nutrients. A wide range of supporting physico-chemical elements are used by Member States. This report focusses on those that are ecologically most relevant for i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The task group on supporting physico-chemical elements have reviewed information reported by Member States to WISE on the standards for general physico-chemical quality elements including nutrients. A wide range of supporting physico-chemical elements are used by Member States and this report provides a general introduction then focusses on those t...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient pollution remains one of the leading causes of river degradation, making it important to set thresholds that support good ecological condition, which is the main objective of managing Europe's aquatic environment. A wide range of methods has been used by European member states to set river nutrient thresholds in the past, and these vary gr...
Article
Full-text available
Climate and land-use change drive a suite of stressors that shape ecosystems and interact to yield complex ecological responses, i.e. additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects. Currently we know little about the spatial scale relevant for the outcome of such interactions and about effect sizes. This knowledge gap needs to be filled to underpin...
Chapter
Barton Broad is a very shallow lowland eutrophic lake, located in the Broads National Park, UK. The lake has been monitored over the last forty years, during which time a series of restoration measures has been undertaken. This started with the control of phosphorus from waste water treatment works (WWTW) to reduce phosphorus input to the lake, fol...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of European water policy is to achieve good ecological status in all rivers, lakes, coastal and transitional waters by 2027. Currently, more than half of water bodies are in a degraded condition and nutrient enrichment is one of the main culprits. Therefore, there is a pressing need to establish reliable and comparable nutrient criteria tha...
Article
Full-text available
European countries have defined >1000 national river types and >400 national lake types to implement the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). In addition, common river and lake types have been defined within regions of Europe for intercalibrating the national classification systems for ecological status of water bodies. However, only a low proportio...
Conference Paper
One hundred and forty river assessment methods have been intercalibrated and included in the European countries`countries`monitoring tool-kits. Half of these methods are based on primary producers: macrophytes (29 methods), phytobenthos (28), and phytoplankton (13). Biological assessment methods based on primary producers usually target nutrient en...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Water Framework Directive requires nutrient boundary concentrations to be established as part of the assessment of ecological status. In this report we use data and relationships developed during the intercalibration exercise for lakes and national monitoring data for rivers to determine ranges of potential nutrient (N & P) boundary concentrati...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this document is to help Member States achieve good ecological status (GES) in surface waters. It complements the common implementation strategy (CIS) Guidance document on eutrophication assessment in the context of European water policies (European Commission, 2009) by providing advice on how to link nutrient concentrations in surfa...
Article
Full-text available
The European Water Framework Directive has been adopted by Member States to assess and manage the ecological integrity of surface waters. Specific challenges include harmonizing diverse assessment systems across Europe, linking ecological assessment to restoration measures and reaching a common view on ‘good’ ecological status. In this study, nine...
Research
A Shiny application of a statistical toolkit to assist with the development of nutrient concentrations that would support good ecological status for the Water Framework Directive.
Article
Full-text available
European water policy has identified eutrophication as a priority issue for water management. Substantial progress has been made in combating eutrophication but open issues remain, including setting reliable and meaningful nutrient criteria supporting ʽgoodʼ ecological status of the Water Framework Directive. The paper introduces a novel methodolog...
Article
Full-text available
Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submer...
Article
We developed a model of the biogeochemical and sedimentation behaviour of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes, designed to be used in long-term (decades to centuries) and large-scale (10(4)-10(5)km(2)) macronutrient modelling, with a focus on human-induced changes. The model represents settling of inflow suspended particulate matte...
Research
Full-text available
Report on phytoplankton bloom metric. Deliverable D3-1-2. The enrichment of ecosystems with plant nutrients, or eutrophication, is one of the most widespread pressures affecting European freshwaters. There are numerous socio-economic problems associated with eutrophication, particularly with increasing frequency and intensity of harmful algal bloom...
Article
Full-text available
The Water Framework Directive is the first international legislation to require European countries to establish comparable ecological assessment schemes for their freshwaters. A key element in harmonising quality classification within and between Europe's river basins is an " Intercalibration " exercise, stipulated by the WFD, to ensure that the go...
Article
Full-text available
The European Water Framework Directive, which came into force in 2000, introduced a system of river basin management which required member states to develop a range of new biological assessment systems to determine the status of Europe’s surface waters. Member states were free to use existing methods or to develop new ones, which resulted in a larg...
Article
Full-text available
The use of geoengineering techniques for phosphorus management offers the promise of greater and quicker chemical and ecological recovery. It can be attractive when used with other restoration measures but should not be considered a panacea. The range of materials being proposed for use as well as the in-lake processes targeted for manipulation con...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation of the Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to establish and harmonize ecological status class boundaries for biological quality elements. In this paper, we describe an approach for defining ecological class boundaries that delineates shifts in lake ecosystem functioning and, therefore, provides ecologically meanin...
Book
Full-text available
One of the key actions identified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is to develop ecological assessment tools and carry out a European intercalibration (IC) exercise. The aim of the Intercalibration is to ensure that the values assigned by each Member State to the good ecological class boundaries are consistent with the Directive’s...
Book
Full-text available
One of the key actions identified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is to develop ecological assessment tools and carry out a European intercalibration (IC) exercise. The aim of the Intercalibration is to ensure that the values assigned by each Member State to the good ecological class boundaries are consistent with the Directive’s...
Book
Full-text available
One of the key actions identified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is to develop ecological assessment tools and carry out a European intercalibration (IC) exercise. The aim of the Intercalibration is to ensure that the values assigned by each Member State to the good ecological class boundaries are consistent with the Directive’s...
Book
Full-text available
One of the key actions identified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is to develop ecological assessment tools and carry out a European intercalibration (IC) exercise. The aim of the Intercalibration is to ensure that the values assigned by each Member State to the good ecological class boundaries are consistent with the Directive’s...
Book
Full-text available
One of the key actions identified by the Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) is to develop ecological assessment tools and carry out a European intercalibration (IC) exercise. The aim of the Intercalibration is to ensure that the values assigned by each Member State to the good ecological class boundaries are consistent with the Directive’s...
Article
Full-text available
Lake phytoplankton are adopted world-wide as a sensitive indicator of water quality. European environmental legislation, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), formalises this, requiring the use of phytoplankton to assess the ecological status of lakes and coastal waters. Here we provide a rigorous assessment of a number of proposed phytoplankton...
Article
Full-text available
1. A safe, clean water supply is critical for sustaining many important ecosystem services provided by freshwaters. The development of cyanobacterial blooms in lakes and reservoirs has a major impact on the provision of these services, particularly limiting their use for recre-ation and water supply for drinking and spray irrigation. Nutrient enric...
Article
Full-text available
Submerged macrophytes are important elements for the structure and functioning of lake ecosystems. In this study, we used chemical and maximum colonisation depth (C_max) data from 12 European countries in order to investigate how suitable C_max may describe the impact by eutrophication. The analyses include data from 757 lakes and 919 lake years co...
Article
Full-text available
Data on phytoplankton, macrophytes, ben-thic invertebrates and fish from more than 2000 lakes in 22 European countries were used to develop and test metrics for assessing the ecological status of European lakes as required by the Water Framework Directive. The strongest and most sensitive of the 11 metrics responding to eutrophication pressure were...
Article
Full-text available
Phytoplankton constitutes a diverse array of short-lived organisms which derive their nutrients from the water column of lakes. These features make this community the most direct and earliest indicator of the impacts of changing nutrient conditions on lake ecosystems. It also makes them particularly suitable for measuring the success of restoration...
Article
Phytoplankton data from 606 lakes were used to characterize indicator taxa of near-pristine reference conditions in clearwater and humic lowland lakes of Northern and Central Europe. Reference lakes were selected based on low pressure from catchment land-use, low population density and the absence of point sources. Reference lakes had low phytoplan...
Article
Full-text available
Despite improvements in wastewater treat-ment systems, the impact of anthropogenic nutrient sources remains a key issue for the management of European lakes. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides a mechanism through which progress can be made on this issue. The Directive requires a classification of the ecological status of phytoplankton, wh...
Article
Full-text available
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) has been published in 2000 and the process of its implementation has created a new paradigm in the understanding of ecological status of water bodies in Europe. The Directive explicitly requires that ecological status is assessed through the analysis of various characteristics of aquatic flora and fauna. An Inter...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of "reference conditions" describes the benchmark against which current conditions are compared when assessing the status of water bodies. In this paper we focus on the establishment of reference conditions for European lakes according to a phytoplankton biomass indicator--the concentration of chlorophyll-a. A mostly spatial approach (s...
Article
Full-text available
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires EU Member States to assess the “ecological status” of surface waters. As a component of ecological status, many European countries are developing a classification scheme for chlorophyll concentrations as a measure of phytoplankton biomass. The chlorophyll classification must be based on the degree of div...
Article
Aquatic macrophytes are one of the biological quality elements in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for which status assessments must be defined. We tested two methods to classify macrophyte species and their response to eutrophication pressure: one based on percentiles of occurrence along a phosphorous gradient and another based on trophic ranki...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe there is a renewed focus on relationships between chemical determinands and ecological impact as a result of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). In this paper we use regression analysis to examine the relationship of growing season mean chlorophyll a concentration with total phosphorus and total nitrogen using summary data from over 1,00...
Article
Defining the overall ecological status of lakes according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to be partially based on the species composition of the aquatic macrophyte community. We tested three assessment methods to define the ecological status of the macrophyte community in response to a eutrophication pressure as reflected by total phosph...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this synthesis is to present the key messages and draw the main conclusions from the work on lakes in the REBECCA project, pointing out their links to theoretical ecology and their applicability for the WFD implementation. Type-specific results were obtained from analyses of large pan-European datasets for phytoplankton, macrophyte...
Article
This paper reviews the ways that quality can be assessed in standing waters, a subject that has hitherto attracted little attention but which is now a legal requirement in Europe. It describes a scheme for the assessment and monitoring of water and ecological quality in standing waters greater than about 1 ha in area in England and Wales although i...
Article
The Water Framework Directive (WFD), requires European Member States to assess the “ecological status” of surface waters. As part of this, many European countries have developed an ecological quality classification scheme for chlorophyll concentrations as a measure of phytoplankton abundance. The assessment of ecological quality must be based on th...