Geoff Der

Geoff Der
Medical Research Council (UK) | mrc · MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit

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178
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Publications

Publications (178)
Article
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Amidst public health campaigns urging people to sit less as well as being more physically active, this paper investigates how older adults make sense of their sedentary behaviour. Using an accounts framework focusing on how people rationalise their sitting practices, we analysed data from 44 qualitative interviews with older adults. All interviewee...
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Background Sedentary behaviour is related to poorer health independently of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wellbeing or symptoms of anxiety or depression predict sedentary behaviour in older adults. Method Participants were drawn from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) (n...
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Objective: The present study tested the association between both mothers' and offspring's intelligence and offspring's body mass index (BMI) in youth. Method: Participants were members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) Children and Young Adults cohort (n = 11,512) and their biological mothers who were members of the NLS...
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Objective We investigated the association between intelligence in youth and a range of health-related behaviours in middle age. Method Participants were the 5347 men and women who responded to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY-79) 2012 survey. IQ was recorded with the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) when participants were...
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Background and objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults' risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and wome...
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The Seniors USP study measured sedentary behaviour (activPAL3, 9 day wear) in older adults. The measurement protocol had three key characteristics: enabling 24-hour wear (monitor location, waterproofing); minimising data loss (reducing monitor failure, staff training, communication); and quality assurance (removal by researcher, confidence about we...
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Higher cognitive ability is associated with being more physically active. Much less is known about the associations between cognitive ability and sedentary behavior. Ours is the first study to examine whether historic and contemporaneous cognitive ability predicts objectively measured sedentary behavior in older age. Participants were drawn from 3...
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Background: Sedentary behaviour is a public health concern that requires surveillance and epidemiological research. For such large scale studies, self-report tools are a pragmatic measurement solution. A large number of self-report tools are currently in use, but few have been validated against an objective measure of sedentary time and there is n...
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Background: Higher early-life intelligence is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in adulthood, though this association is apparently hardly attenuated when accounting for early-life socio-economic status (SES). However, the use of proxy measures of SES means that residual confounding may underestimate this attenuation. In the present stud...
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Objectives To examine the association between intelligence measured in childhood and leading causes of death in men and women over the life course. Design Prospective cohort study based on a whole population of participants born in Scotland in 1936 and linked to mortality data across 68 years of follow-up. Setting Scotland. Participants 33 536 m...
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Objectives: To investigate whether sedentary behaviour in older adults is associated with a systematic and comprehensive range of socioeconomic position(SEP) measures across the life course. SEP measures included prospective measures of social class, income, educational qualifications and parental social class and contemporaneous measures of area d...
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Sedentary behaviour is an emerging risk factor for poor health. This study aimed to identify ecological determinants of sedentary behaviour, for which evidence is currently scarce. The study participants were community dwelling adults from, respectively, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 271, mean age 79) and the 1930s (n = 119, mean age 83) and 1...
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Background There is increasing recognition that sedentary behaviour (defined as any waking activity with an energy expenditure <1.5 METs in a seated or reclining posture) is a risk factor for poor health. However, neighbourhood influences on sedentary behaviour are poorly understood. Methods Participants were drawn from 1930s and 1950s birth c...
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Background: Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use self- or parental recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. Methods: We followed the M...
Data
Data S1. Sensitivity Analysis for Patients With Diabetes, Affluent Socio‐economic Class, for Patients With Results of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Available and for Patients With Results of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption Available at Baseline Table S1. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), and Presence of Depressi...
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Background Few cognitive epidemiology studies on mental health have focused on the links between pre-morbid intelligence and self-reports of common mental disorders, such as depression, sleep difficulties, and mental health status. The current study examines these associations in 50-year-old adults. Methods The study uses data from the 5793 partic...
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Background: Tests requiring the pronunciation of irregular words are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability in patients with clinical diagnoses, and prior cognitive ability in normal ageing. However, scores on these word-reading tests correlate with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a widely used screening test for possible...
Article
The authors studied the joint effect of blood pressure (BP) and depression on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with existing cardiometabolic disease. A cohort of 35,537 patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes, or stroke underwent depression screening and BP measurement recorded concurrently. The authors used Cox's...
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Introduction: Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Methods: Prevalence estimates for regular smoking we...
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Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 S...
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Background: The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods: Participants were the 5793 participants...
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Background The association of premorbid cognitive ability with all-cause mortality is well established. Less is known about specific causes. All-cause mortality is relatively uninformative about aetiology and more evidence is needed for specific causes, particularly the major causes of death. Critics of IQ point to possible cultural biases and the...
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Objective: To examine the relation between reaction time in adolescence and subsequent symptoms of anxiety and depression and investigate the mediating role of sociodemographic measures, health behaviors, and allostatic load. Methods: Participants were 705 members of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Choice reaction time was measured at age...
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Greater cognitive ability in childhood is associated with increased longevity, and speedier reaction time (RT) might account for much of this linkage. Greater bodily symmetry is linked to both higher cognitive test scores and faster RTs. It is possible, then, that differences in bodily system integrity indexed by symmetry may underlie the associati...
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Background and objectives: Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression; however, it is possible this link is bidirectional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety....
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Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip st...
Article
Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip st...
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Depression is two to three times more common in patients with cardiometabolic disease than in healthy individuals, but less is known about the association between cardiovascular risk factor values and depressive symptoms in these patients. We aimed to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in pa...
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Depression is common in patients with cardiometabolic diseases but little is known about the relationship, if any, between cardiovascular risk factor values and depressive symptoms in patients with these conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors and concurrent depressive symptoms in pati...
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To investigate the association of reaction time with cancer incidence. 6900 individuals aged 18 to 94 years who participated in the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey in 1984/1985 and were followed for a cancer registration for 25 years. Disease surveillance gave rise to 1015 cancer events from all sites. In general, there was essentially no clear patt...
Article
It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that in humans, females have longer telomeres than males and that this association becomes stronger with increasing age. Searches were conducted in EM...
Article
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that females have longer telomeres than males, although results from studies have been contradictory. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that in humans, females have longer telomeres than males and that this association becomes stronger with increasing age. Searches...
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Objective Psychological factors such as the stress of caregiving are emerging as predictors of telomere length, an index of biological aging. However, although lifetime major depressive disorder is associated with shorter telomeres, less is known about depressive symptoms. Depression and depressive symptoms are associated with a range of morbiditie...
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Background: Although bodily symmetry is widely used in studies of fitness and individual differences, little is known about how symmetry changes across development, especially in childhood. Aims: To test how, if at all, bodily symmetry changes across childhood. Study design: We measured bodily symmetry via digital images of the hands. Particip...
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Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing...
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It has been hypothesized that one way in which lower socioeconomic status (SES) affects health is by increasing the rate of biological aging. A widely used marker of biological aging is telomere length. Telomeres are structures at the ends of chromosomes that erode with increasing cell proliferation and genetic damage. We aimed to identify, through...
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The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim...
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For asthma and psychological morbidity, it is well established that higher prevalence among males in childhood is replaced by higher prevalence among females by adolescence. This review investigates whether there is evidence for a similar emerging female 'excess' in relation to a broad range of physical morbidity measures. Establishing whether this...
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It has been argued recently that blunted cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress have adverse behavioural and health corollaries that reflect dysregulation of the neural systems that support motivation. We examined the association between cardiovascular reactions to a standard stress task, the paced auditory serial arithmetic rest, a...
Article
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Intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT IIV) is considered to be an index of central nervous system functioning. Such variability is elevated in neurodegenerative diseases or following traumatic brain injury. It has also been suggested to increase with age in healthy ageing. To investigate and quantify age differences in RT IIV in healthy...
Data
Scatterplots of effect sizes for old-young differences in raw (left panel) and mean-adjusted (right panel) simple reaction time intra-individual variability (SRT IIV) and the three covariates: old group age mean (top panel), number of trials (middle panel) and the length of preparatory interval (bottom panel). Circles are proportional to study weig...
Data
Scatterplots of effect sizes for old-young differences in raw (left panel) and mean-adjusted (right panel) choice reaction time intra-individual variability (CRT IIV) and the three covariates: old group age mean (top panel), number of trials (middle panel) and the length of preparatory interval (bottom panel). Circles are proportional to study weig...
Data
Search terms used for each database. (DOCX)
Article
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The search for biomarkers of aging (BoAs) has been largely unsuccessful to-date and there is widespread skepticism about the prospects of finding any that satisfy the criteria developed by the American Federation of Aging Research. This may be because the criteria are too strict or because a composite measure might be more appropriate. Telomere len...
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Exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress may be involved in the etiology of cardiovascular pathology. The present analysis examined the association between the magnitude of systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactions to stress and cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were 431 (229 women) from the West of Scot...
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Background There is a strong case for early identification of factors predicting life-course-persistent conduct disorder. The authors aimed to identify factors associated with repeated parental reports of preschool conduct problems. Method Nested case–control study of Scottish children who had behavioural data reported by parents at 3, 4 and 5 yea...
Article
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Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is strongly associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality, but it is not known if the same is true for telomere length, a marker often used to assess biological ageing. The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study was used to investigate this and consists of three cohorts aged approximately 35 (N = ...
Data
Significance values for the sex interaction term in the main analysis GLMs. (DOCX)
Data