Gemma Clark

Gemma Clark
Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust · Department of Clinical Microbiology

PhD Microbiology

About

27
Publications
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1,123
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) comprise of four members of the genetically distinct genera of Respirovirus (HPIV1&3) and Orthorubulavirus (HPIV2&4), causing significant upper and lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, particularly in children. However, despite frequent molecular diagnosis, they are frequently considered coll...
Article
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has recently been identified in biennial epidemics coinciding with diagnoses of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis/myelitis (AFP/AFM). We investigated the prevalence, genetic relatedness and associated clinical features of EV-D68 in 193 EV-positive samples from 193 patients in late 2018, UK. EV-D68 was detected in 83 (58 %)...
Article
Full-text available
Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from international travel is a priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of travellers being required to quarantine for 14-days on return to England in Summer 2020. We identified 4,207 travel-related SARS-CoV-2 cases and their contacts, and identified 827 associated SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Overall, quarantine was as...
Preprint
Background Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) comprise of four members of the genetically distinct genera of Respirovirus (HPIV1&3) and Orthorubulavirus (HPIV2&4), causing significant upper and lower respiratory tract infections worldwide, particularly in children. However, despite frequent molecular diagnosis, they are frequently considered collec...
Preprint
Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are constituted by four members of the genetically distinct genera of Respirovirus (type 1 and 3) and Orthorubulavirus (type 2 and 4), causing significant upper and lower respiratory tract infections in both children and adults worldwide. However, despite frequent molecular diagnosis, they are frequently considere...
Article
In the early phases of the SARS coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, testing focused on individuals fitting a strict case definition involving a limited set of symptoms together with an identified epidemiological risk, such as contact with an infected individual or travel to a high-risk area. To assess whether this impaired our ability to dete...
Article
Full-text available
Background The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 was first identified in December, 2020, in England. We aimed to investigate whether increases in the proportion of infections with this variant are associated with differences in symptoms or disease course, reinfection rates, or transmissibility. Methods We did an ecological study to examine the associatio...
Article
Full-text available
Global dispersal and increasing frequency of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variant D614G are suggestive of a selective advantage but may also be due to a random founder effect. We investigate the hypothesis for positive selection of spike D614G in the United Kingdom using more than 25,000 whole genome SARS-CoV-2 sequences. Despite the availability o...
Article
Background: Human enteroviruses (EV) are the leading cause of viral meningitis. EV genotyping is predominantly performed through amplification and sequencing of viral capsid protein-1 (VP1), frequently by national reference laboratories (NRLs). Objective: To determine the frequency of genotyping failure in our NRL-submitted samples and apply a s...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 continues to cause a pandemic, having infected more than 20 million people globally. Successful elimination of the SARS-CoV-2 virus will require an effective vaccine. However, the immune correlates of infection are currently poorly understood. While neutralizing antibodies are believed to be essential for protection against infection, the...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the early phases of the SARS coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, testing focused on individuals fitting a strict case definition involving a limited set of symptoms together with an identified epidemiological risk, such as contact with an infected individual or travel to a high-risk area. To assess whether this impaired our ability to dete...
Article
Background Since its first isolation in 2005, Human Bocavirus (HBoV) has been repeatedly associated with acute respiratory tract infections, although its role in pathogenicity remains unclear due to high co-infection rates. Objectives To assess HBoV prevalence and associated disease in a cohort of respiratory patients in the East Midlands, UK betw...
Article
Full-text available
Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus causes trichodysplasia spinulosa, a skin infection, in immunocompromised persons, but the virus is rarely detected in respiratory samples. Using PCR, we detected persistent virus in respiratory and skin samples from an immunocompromised boy with respiratory signs but no characteristic skin spicules. This virus...
Data
Supplementary methods, primers for trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus amplification, and phylogenetic tree of the complete 5,232-bp trichodysplasia spinulosa–associated polyomavirus genome.
Article
Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most common intrauterine infection and the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Worldwide, the birth prevalence is estimated at 7 per 1000 with the highest rates seen in developing countries. The highest intrauterine transmission rates and risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae are associated with...
Article
Full-text available
In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as “living antibiotics” to combat antimicrobially-resist...
Article
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a public health concern worldwide, associated with waterborne outbreaks in developing countries and reported as an emerging zoonotic infection in high-income countries. A recent consensus proposal classified the isolates from human, swine, wild boar, deer, mongoose, rabbit and camel in seven genotypes within the...
Article
Full-text available
Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) are the major aetiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. The emergence of the CTX-M producing clone E. coli ST131 represents a major challenge to public health worldwide. A recent study on the metabolic potential of E. coli isolates demonstrated an association between the E. coli ST13...
Article
Full-text available
To determine variation at the genome level in Escherichia coli ST131 clinical isolates previously shown to be phenotypically diverse. The genomes of 10 ST131 isolates extensively characterized in previous studies were sequenced using combinations of Illumina and 454 sequencing technology. Whole-genome comparisons and phylogenetic comparisons were t...
Article
Full-text available
The current diagnostic standard procedure outlined by the Health Protection Agency for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in clinical laboratories does not report bacteria isolated from samples containing three or more different bacterial species. As a result many UTIs go unreported and untreated, particularly in elderly patients, where polymicrobial...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the molecular epidemiology and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections of elderly patients from community and hospital settings. Also, to determine whether the possession of antibiotic resistance and virulence-associated genes can be linked to patient location or the clonal group of the org...

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