Geir Bjorklund

Geir Bjorklund
Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM)

MD

About

318
Publications
336,638
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6,902
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Introduction
Geir Bjørklund is founder and president of the Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM) - a non-profit association based in Norway. At present (June 2015) the association has members from more than 60 countries. CONEM is established to facilitate research and information activities related to nutritional and environmental medicine. Email: bjorklund@conem.org; URL: www.conem.org
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - present
CONEM - Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine
Position
  • Founder and President
Description
  • This is a non-profit association founded and registered in Norway in 2013 (organization number NO 911 825 236).

Publications

Publications (318)
Article
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Polyphenols (PPs) are a large group of phytochemicals containing phenolic rings with two or more hydroxyl groups. They possess powerful antioxidant properties, multiple therapeutic effects, and possible health benefits in vivo and in vitro, as well as reported clinical studies. Considering their free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory propert...
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Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental pollutant with neurotoxic effects. Exposure to MeHg via consumption of seafood and fish can severely impact fetal neurobehavioral development even when MeHg levels in maternal blood are as low as about 5 μg/L, which the mother tolerates well. Persistent motor dysfunctions and cognitive deficits may res...
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Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are usually unable to express abdominal discomfort properly, and thus gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are sometimes shadowed by aggression, which is sometimes misunderstood as a behavioral characteristic of ASD. Several studies have reported interesting correlations between the severity of behavioral and...
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The COVID-19 outbreak seems to be the most dangerous challenge of the third millennium due to its highly contagious nature. Amongst natural molecules for COVID-19 treatment, the flavonoid molecule quercetin (QR) is currently considered one of the most promising. QR is an active agent against SARS and MERS due to its antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-i...
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Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) compounds leads to its accumulation in the body, with skin lesions and cancer being the most typical outcomes. Treating As-induced diseases continues to be challenging as there is no specific, safe, and efficacious therapeutic management. Therapeutic and preventive measures available to combat As toxicity refer to c...
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Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are a recognized risk factor for stroke. This relationship represents one aspect of the debated `Hcy hypothesis’. Elevated Hcy may be an independent and treatable cause of atherosclerosis and thrombotic vascular diseases. Further observations indicate that proper dietary supplementation with B-vitamins d...
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Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is an autosomal recessive hereditary pathology that develops with endocrine and non-endocrine manifestations in childhood. The classic triad of APS-1 includes chronic candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, adrenal insufficiency, and hypoparathyroidism. APS-1 is often accompanied by hypogonadis...
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There was a dramatic spread of three novel coronaviruses (CoVs) – severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 – from the beginning of the twenty-first century. All three infections share similar pathogenesis and clinical presentation, and human-to-human transmissi...
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Gut microbes share a symbiotic relationship with humans and perform several metabolic and physiological functions essential for human survival. It has been established in several scientific studies that obesity and other metabolic complications are always associated with disturbed gut microbiota profile, also called gut dysbiosis. In recent years,...
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Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis is based on randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of physical activity on weight loss in adults undergoing bariatric surgery. The study compared certain biomarkers for individuals with and without physical activity after bariatric surgery. Secondary, the study identified potential su...
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(1) Background: Italy accounts for more than 150,000 deaths due to the COVID-19 pandemic, leading the top rank in SARS-CoV-2-caused deceases in Europe. A survey on the different ways by which the COVID-19 pandemic emergency was managed in the foreign European countries compared to Italy is the purpose of this paper. (2) Methods: A literature search...
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The development of COVID-19 vaccines was promptly regulated to ensure the best possible approach. By January 2022, 75 candidates reached preclinical evaluation in various animal models, 114 vaccines were in clinical trials on humans, and 48 were in the final testing stages. Vaccine platforms range from whole virus vaccines to nucleic acid vaccines,...
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Background: Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) was investigated in cancer patients, as this group is often malnourished, in turn impairing survival. Methods: A heterogeneous group of cancer patients received either normal dietary counseling or MNT, but both groups were followed for 12 months in total. Results: With MNT based on Bioelectrical Impedan...
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Gut microbiota is emerging as a key regulator of many disease conditions and its dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders. More recently, gut microbiome alterations have been linked to neurodegeneration through the increasingly defined gut microbiota brain axis, opening the possibilit...
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Dysphagia is one of the most common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It can reduce the quality of life and increase the risk of mortality by developing complications such as aspiration pneumonia. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of dysphagia in MS patients and investigate the associations between dysphagia and...
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Bariatric surgery is an effective option for managing obesity and has gained general acceptance among patients in recent years. Generally, despite the high caloric intake, a bad nutritional habit of obese people results in the deficiency of several vitamins, minerals, and trace elements essential for body metabolism and normal physiological process...
Article
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It originated from the Chinese city of Wuhan and very quickly became a challenging public health problem. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization termed this potentially deadly disease a pandemic due t...
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Background: Discoloration of teeth occurs for various reasons. Common ingredients like substances from tea and coffee, as well as antibiotics like tetracycline, or food dyes, can percolate into the teeth, and, as such, these stains may persist in the porous structure of the enamel. Smoking is also contributory to dental discoloration, with toxins o...
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Prostate disorders are commonplace in medicine, especially in older men, with prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer being the most abundant pathologies. The complexity of this organ, however, turns treatment into a challenge. In this review, we aim to provide insight into the efficacy of alternative treatments, which are no...
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The COVID‐19 pandemic is a highly dramatic concern for mankind. In Italy, the pandemic exerted its major impact throughout the period of February to June 2020. To date, the awkward amount of more than 131,000 deaths have been reported. Post‐mortem autopsy was performed on a very modest number of patients who died from COVID‐19 infection, leading to...
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Introduction: The pain of the Achilles tendon and heel (ATHP) is a major concern, particularly for athletes, military people, and ordinary workers badly using inferior arts. Mineral displacement therapy to rescue the correct mineral balance in the osteoarticular districts can ameliorate heel pain. Methods: The present study investigated if treatmen...
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Background: Camel milk (CAM) regulates the inflammatory process, apoptotic pathways and oxidative stress. Thus, it is a therapeutic possibility for many autoimmune disorders, including autism. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an anti-inflammatory peptide that facilitates the immune regulatory functions by recruiting regulatory T cells to indu...
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The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has increased over the recent decades. Exposure to environmental contaminants may be a risk factor for the development of GDM, but this is heavily dependent on particular circumstances. Studies on various areas linking various factors are therefore needed. We examined the associations between se...
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The relatively widespread presence of environmental barium is raising a growing public awareness as it can lead to different health conditions. Its presence in humans may produce several effects, especially among those chronically exposed from low to moderate doses. Barium accumulation can mainly occur by exposure in the workplace or from drinking...
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Thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) belong to the pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family enzymes that reduce thioredoxin (Trx). The couple TrxR and Trx is one of the major antioxidant systems that control the redox homeostasis in cells. The thioredoxin system, comprised of TrxR Trx and NADPH, exerts its activities via a disulfide-dithiol ex...
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Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae) possesses a rich tropane alkaloids (TAs) spectrum. The plant contains, in particular, the allelopathic compounds scopolamine and atropine, which are poorly soluble in water, thus limiting their use in agrochemical formulations as biocidal and deterrent agents against herbivore insects. The efficacy of the hydrophob...
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Background The aim of the present study was to determine the type and percentage of referral situations, risk factors, associated syndromes, and parental awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children who visited the Medical Research Centre of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, specialized in ASD diagnosis and management. Methods...
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The role of adipocytes as modulatory cells in the micro-environment immune cells/stem cells is particularly intriguing to assess how reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a signaling task in the fine tuning of cell-to-cell communication in a tumor environment. This cross talking should have a major meaning in the pathogenesis and development of cancer...
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Iron deficiency (ID) is particularly frequent in obese patients due to increased circulating levels of acute-phase reactant hepcidin and adiposity-associated inflammation. Inflammation in obese subjects is closely related to ID. It induces reduced iron absorption correlated to the inhibition of duodenal ferroportin expression, parallel to the incre...
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Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the slow-motion disasters with imminent global health care burden. The current dietary management for NCD is dominated by the calorie balance model. Apart from the quantitative balance of calorie, healthy bioenergetics requires temporal eating and fasting rhythms, and the subsequent switching for different metabo...
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A fundamental metabolic feature of cancerous tissues is high glucose consumption. The rate of glucose consumption in a cancer cell can be 10-15 times higher than in normal cells. Isolation and cultivation of tumor cells in vitro highlight properties that are associated with an intensive glucose utilization, the presence of minimal oxidative metabol...
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Worldwide, scientists are looking for specific treatment for COVID-19. Apart from the antiviral approach, the interventions to support healthy immune responses to the virus are feasible through diet, nutrition, and lifestyle approaches. This narrative review explores the recent studies on dietary, nutritional, and lifestyle interventions that influ...
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Calcium is involved in bone metabolism, regulation of nerve signaling, and release of neurotransmitters. Phosphorus is a structural component of ATP, participates in metabolic energy regulation, and ensures stability to biological membranes and cells. Vitamin D and vitamin K are important for intestinal absorption and renal excretion of calcium and...
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Lethal or critical COVID-19 occurs most in infected hosts with certain risk factors such as advanced age or pre-existing disease. Host metabolic status significantly affects the clinical presentations of SARS-CoV2 infection. Individual risk management is thus crucial for preventing severe COVID-19. Such susceptibility is individual depending on a m...
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COVID-19 is a pandemic viral infection caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which is a global concern of the twenty-first century for its rapid spreading in a short period. Apart from its known acute respiratory involvements, the CNS manifestations of COVID-19 are common. These neurological symptoms are diverse and could range from mild nonspe...
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The mutation of the homeostatic iron regulatory genes (HFE) impaired the hepatic hepcidin transcription leading to the chronic excess of the iron pool, with the adverse consequences of free radical oxidative damages. We herein reported the findings of Thai family members who had the compound of uncommon HFE rs2794719, together with transferrin (TF)...
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Recently, a discussion has begun on the global management strategy against COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that individuals’ macro- and micronutrient status combined with antiviral drugs and herbs can be an ally against infection. The hypothesis is that people’s nutritional and oxidative scavenging capacity may provide fundamental data to predict...
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The recent pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus resulted in the greatest global health crisis since the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. There is limited knowledge of whether SARS-CoV-2 is physically associated with human metalloproteins. Recently, high-confidence, experimentally supported protein-protein interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human...
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The anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been suggested as promising agents against the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that induces COVID-19 and as a possible therapy for shortening the duration of the viral disease. The antiviral effects of CQ and HCQ have been demonstrated in vitro due to their ability to block virus...
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Background Dental plaque is a complex colorless film of bacteria that develops on the surfaces of teeth. Different mechanisms of microbial adhesion to tooth surfaces exist. Both non-specific and specific types of adherence have been anticipated. Highlight The present review evaluated the effect of sugar-rich diet and salivary proteins on oral hygi...
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This paper reviews the potential role of glutathione (GSH) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). GSH plays a key role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and maintenance of balance in intracellular redox pathways. Recent data showed that imbalances in the GSH redox system are an important factor in the pathophysiology of ASD. Furthermore, ASD is acco...
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Abstract: The present review aims to provide a complete and comprehensive summary of current literature relevant to oxysterols and related diseases. Oxidation of cholesterol leads to the formation of a large number of oxidized products, generally known as oxysterols. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of bile acids, steroid hormones, and 1,...
Article
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory tract virus that causes Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The virus originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has spread across the globe to-date. The disease ranges from asymptomatic carriers to symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cough, lung infections, and in...
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The causes of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy are classified as genetic or nongenetic, but environmental factors such as metal pollutants may interact with genetic susceptibility. The presence of metal particles has been detected in the myocardium, including in those patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. It is also known that hypersensitivity re...
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which is more prevalent among women of childbearing age. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a severe autoimmune disease of the CNS with similar prevalence features to MS and has recently been considered a different entity f...
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Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a complex, multisystem disease that is characterized by long-term fatigue, exhaustion, disabilities, pain, neurocognitive impairments, gastrointestinal symptoms, and post-exertional malaise, as well as lowered occupational, educational, and social functions. The clinical and biomarker diag...
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Since the first official report of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections in the city of Qom in mid-February, Iran has become the country most affected by the COVID-19 epidemic in the Middle East. All Iranian provinces are affected, although to a different extent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the distance from the epicenter of...
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Redox dysfunctions and neuro-oxidative stress play a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Glutathione (GSH) and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio are lowered in oxidative stress conditions and may lead to increased oxidative toxicity. GSH is involved not only in neuro-immune and neuro-oxidat...
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Concerns on health effects from uranium (U) mining still represent a major issue of debate. Any typology of active job in U mines is associated with exposure to U and its decay products, such as radon (Rn), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) and its decay products with alpha-emission and gamma radiation. Health effects in U miners have been investigated...
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Human life expectancy is increasing significantly over time thanks to the improved possibility of taking care of themselves and the higher availability of food, drugs, hygiene, services, and assistance. The increase in the average age of the population worldwide is, however, becoming a real concern, since aging is associated with the rapid increase...
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Many diseases, including caries, chronic inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and obesity, are associated with uncontrolled sugar consumption. Artificial sweeteners are commonly used in food and pharmaceutical industries as sugar substitutes for the prevention of several dental and body diseases; they also have a favorable impact on body weight as they...
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Background: Obesity is known to be a multifactorial disease. In its pathogenesis, different factors such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, genetic factors, environmental effects, vegetative disturbance, and unbalanced nutrition play a significant role. Methodology: This study describes the association of obesity and ins...
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Restoring the lost physiological functions of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important goal of PD therapy. The present article reviews a) novel drug targets that should be targeted to slow PD progression, and b) clinical and experimental research data reporting new treatments targeting immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathw...
Article
COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral st...
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between hair essential trace element and mineral content and ADHD in preschool (4–6 years old) and primary school children (6–10 years old) in relation to age and gender. Hair essential trace element and mineral content in 90 Russian children with ADHD and 90 age- and gender-mat...
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The present study addresses existing data on the affinity and conjugation of sulfhydryl (thiol; -SH) groups of low- and high-molecular-weight biological ligands with mercury (Hg). The consequences of these interactions with special emphasis on pathways of Hg toxicity are highlighted. Cysteine (Cys) is considered the primary target of Hg, and link i...
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In this study, the levels of concentration of carboxylic acids (benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and hippuric acid) in the urine of autistic children were investigated and compared. The increased excretion of carboxylic acids is related to excessive bacterial activity in the gut, called bacterial overgrowth, which ha...
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In recent decades, obesity has become one of the most common lifestyle-associated disorders. Obesity is a major contributing factor for several other lifestyles associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Although genetics and lifestyle have been directly implicated in the onset and progression o...
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Intestinal hyperpermeability is a complex metabolic process mediated by different pathways in close relation to the gut microbiota. Previous studies suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in different metabolic regulations, and its imbalance is associated with several metabolic diseases, including obesity. It is well known that intestinal hy...
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral/neurodevelopmental disorder. Some early studies indicated that increased intake of added sugars might have a role in ADHD. In the present study, we tested this possibility by evaluating the urinary excretion of oligosaccharides and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in ADHD and cont...
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There is an emerging body of evidence associating children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, intestinal infections, and increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, in many studies, large differences in the composition...
Article
Restoring the lost physiological functions of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important goal of PD therapy. The present article reviews a) novel drug targets that should be targeted to slow PD progression, and b) clinical and experimental research data reporting new treatments targeting immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathw...
Article
The role of glutathione in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is emerging as a major topic, due to its role in the maintenance of the intracellular redox balance. Several studies have implicated glutathione redox imbalance as a leading factor in ASD, and both ASD and many other neurodevelopmental disorders involve low levels of reduced glutathione (GSH...