Gediminas Cepinskas

Gediminas Cepinskas
Lawson Health Research Institute · Centre for Critical Illness Research

Professor

About

149
Publications
20,045
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3,524
Citations
Introduction
Gediminas (Gedas) Cepinskas is a Research Scientist and Director at the Centre for Critical Illness Research, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON and a Professor at the Dept. Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Current projects focus on 'Modulation of inflammation by carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs)' and pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease.
Additional affiliations
July 2007 - present
Western University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that exogenously administered CO is beneficial for the resolution of acute inflammation. In this study, we assessed the role of CO liberated from a systemically administered tricarbonyldichlororuthenium-(II)-dimer (CORM-2) on modulation of liver inflammation during sepsis. Polymicrobial sepsis in mice was induced by cecal lig...
Article
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One of the cardinal signs of acute inflammation is neutrophil (PMN) emigration across the endothelium and into the affected tissue. We have previously shown that human PMN migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers is dependent on PMN-derived elastase. However, whether migrating PMN release elastase into the extracell...
Article
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) contributes to the pathophysiology of numerous systemic inflammatory disorders through: 1) direct peroxidation of targets and 2) producing strong oxidizing compounds, e.g. hypohalous acids, particularly hypochlorous acid, which furthers oxidant damage and contributes to the propagation...
Article
Huvec: PMN co-cultures were perfused for additional 15 minutes with PMN-free medium containing CORM-401/inactive CORM-401. The experiments were videorecorded (phase-contrast microscopy), and PMN adhesion/migration were assessed off-line. In parallel, CORM-401-dependent modulation of PMN chemotaxis, F-actin expression/distribution, and actin-regula...
Article
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Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus. Patients admitted to the ICU suffer from microvascular thrombosis, which may contribute to mortality. Our aim was to profile plasma thrombotic factors and endothelial injury markers in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 ICU patie...
Article
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The endothelial glycocalyx is a gel-like layer on the luminal side of blood vessels that is composed of glycosaminoglycans and the proteins that tether them to the plasma membrane. Interest in its properties and function has grown, particularly in the last decade, as its importance to endothelial barrier function has come to light. Endothelial glyc...
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Despite decades of preclinical research, no experimentally derived therapies for sepsis have been successfully adopted into routine clinical practice. Factors that contribute to this crisis of translation include poor representation by preclinical models of the complex human condition of sepsis, bias in preclinical studies, as well as limitations o...
Article
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In sepsis-induced inflammation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) contribute to vascular dysfunction. The serine proteases proteinase 3 (PR3) and human leukocyte elastase (HLE) are abundant in PMNs and are released upon degranulation. While HLE’s role in inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction is well studied, PR3’s role is largely uninvest...
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A full understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in the etiopathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is lacking. A critical role for leukocyte proteolytic activity (e.g., elastase and cathepsin G) has been proposed. While leukocyte elastase’s (HLE) role has been documented, the potential contribution of proteinase 3 (PR3), a s...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global health care emergency. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological profiling of critically ill COVID-19 patients was performed to determine their humoral response. Blood was collected from critically ill ICU patients, either COVID-19 positive (+) or COVID-19 negative (−), to measure anti-SARS-C...
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Introduction: COVID-19 is associated with a novel multi-system inflammatory syndrome that shares some characteristics with Kawasaki's Disease. The syndrome manifestation is delayed relative to COVID-19 onset, with a spectrum of clinical severity. Clinical signs may include persistent fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac inflammation and/or sho...
Article
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Objectives:. Coronavirus disease 2019 continues to spread worldwide with high levels of morbidity and mortality. We performed anticoronavirus immunoglobulin G profiling of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients to better define their underlying humoral response. Design:. Blood was collected at predetermined ICU days to measure immunoglobu...
Article
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Background COVID19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been associated with severe inflammation leading to organ dysfunction and mortality. Our aim was to profile the transcriptome in leukocytes from critically ill patients positive for COVID19 compared to those negative for COVID19 to better understand the COVID19-associated host response. F...
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Abstract Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 continues to spread rapidly with high mortality. We performed metabolomics profiling of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients to understand better the underlying pathologic processes and pathways, and to identify potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Design: Blood was collected at pred...
Article
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Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU have high mortality. The host response to coronavirus disease 2019 has only been partially elucidated, and prognostic biomarkers have not been identified. We performed targeted proteomics on critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients to better understand their pathophysiologic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: COVID19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been associated with severe inflammation leading to organ dysfunction and mortality. Our aim was to profile the transcriptome in leukocytes from critically ill patients positive for COVID19 compared to those negative for COVID19 to better understand the COVID19 associated host response....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: COVID19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been associated with severe inflammation leading to organ dysfunction and mortality. Our aim was to profile the transcriptome in leukocytes from critically ill patients positive for COVID19 compared to those negative for COVID19 to better understand the COVID19 associated host response....
Article
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Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection to which there is no community immunity. Patients admitted to ICUs have high mortality, with only supportive therapies available. Our aim was to profile plasma inflammatory analytes to help understand the host response to coronavirus disease...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background COVID-19 is associated with a novel multi-system inflammatory syndrome that shares some characteristics with Kawasaki’s Disease. The syndrome manifestation is delayed relative to COVID-19 onset, with a spectrum of clinical severity. Clinical signs may include persistent fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac inflammation and/or shock....
Article
Objective: Limb compartment syndrome (CS), a complication of trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death; ischemia and inflammation contribute to microvascular dysfunction and parenchymal injury. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) has been shown to protect microvascular perfusion and reduce inflammation in animal models of CS. The...
Article
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Alveolar macrophages are key contributors to both the promotion and resolution of inflammation in the lung and are categorized into pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. The change in M1/M2 balance has been reported in various pulmonary diseases and is a target for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to assess...
Article
Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation protects organ by reducing inflammation and cell death during transplantation processes in animal model. However, using CO in clinical transplantation is difficult due to its delivery in a controlled manner. A manganese-containing CORM-401 has recently been synthesized which can efficiently deliver 3 mol...
Article
Objectives: Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing m...
Article
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The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multiple-protein complex that controls the maturation and release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effects/mechanisms of CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3)-dependent modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac...
Article
Objective: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a limb- and life-threatening complication of acute limb ischemia and musculoskeletal trauma. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have recently been shown to protect microvascular perfusion and to reduce inflammation and injury in various ischemic animal models. The purpose of this study was to examin...
Article
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Aims: Compartment syndrome results from increased intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) causing local tissue ischaemia and cell death, but the systemic effects are not well described. We hypothesised that compartment syndrome would have a profound effect not only on the affected limb, but also on remote organs. Methods: Using a rat model of compart...
Article
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Objective: Diabetic ketoacidosis in children is associated with vasogenic cerebral edema, possibly due to the release of destructive polymorphonuclear neutrophil azurophilic enzymes. Our objectives were to measure plasma azurophilic enzyme levels in children with diabetic ketoacidosis, to correlate plasma azurophilic enzyme levels with diabetic ke...
Article
Background: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in children is associated with cerebrovascular-related complications. We recently reported that DKA facilitates leukocyte adherence to the brain microvascular endothelium. Adhered leukocytes can release enzymes that instigate vascular dysfunction. Our aims were to measure plasma levels of leukocyte-derived m...
Article
Background The outcome of the severe systemic disorders (e.g. sepsis, acute lung injury) largely depends on the efficacy of resolution of inflammation. We have reported that water-soluble carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) suppresses inflammatory activation in neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells and offers protection against sepsi...
Article
A common complication of type-1 diabetes mellitus is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a state of severe insulin deficiency. A potential harmful consequence of DKA therapy in children is cerebral edema (DKA-CE); however, the mechanisms of therapy-induced DKA-CE are unknown. Our aims were to identify the DKA treatment factors and membrane mechanisms that...
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Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a state of acute brain dysfunction in response to a systemic infection. We propose that systemic inflammation during sepsis causes increased adhesion of leukocytes to the brain microvasculature, resulting in blood brain barrier dysfunction. Thus, our objectives were (1) to measure inflammatory analytes in p...
Article
Compartment syndrome, a devastating consequence of limb trauma, is characterised by severe tissue injury and microvascular perfusion deficits. We hypothesised that leucopenia might provide significant protection against microvascular dysfunction and preserve tissue viability. Using our clinically relevant rat model of compartment syndrome, microvas...
Article
Brain injury causes dysfunction of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is comprised of perivascular astrocytes whose end-feet ensheath brain microvascular endothelial cells. We investigated trauma-induced morphological changes of human astrocytes (HA) and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in vitro, including the potential...
Article
Objective Exogenously administered carbon monoxide (CO) interferes with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment to the inflamed organs. The mechanisms of CO-dependent modulation of vascular pro-adhesive phenotype, a key step in PMN recruitment, are unclear.Methods We assessed the effects/mechanisms of CO liberated from a water-soluble CORM-3...
Chapter
Trauma is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. The primary aims of trauma resuscitation are to restore intravascular volume and to optimize both organ perfusion and tissue oxygen delivery. The most common organ system injured in pediatric trauma is the brain, suffering direct mechanical insult and indirect reperfusion insult from r...
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Aims The present study was to investigate the role of calpain in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in endothelial cells and endothelium-dependent vascular dysfunction under experimental conditions of diabetes. Methods and results Exposure to high glucose activated calpain, induced apoptosis and reduced nitric oxide (NO) production without c...
Article
To examine the protective effects of carbon monoxide (CO), liberated from a novel CO releasing molecule (CORM-3), on the function of compartment syndrome (CS)-challenged muscle in a rodent model, thus providing for a potential development of a pharmacologic adjunctive treatment for compartment syndrome. Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups: sh...
Article
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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children is associated with intracranial vascular complications, possibly due to leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Our aim was to determine if DKA-induced inflammation promoted leukocyte adhesion to activated human cerebrovascular endothelium. Plasma was obtained from children with type-1 diabetes, either in acute D...
Article
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Recent findings indicate that carbon monoxide (CO) in non-toxic doses exerts a beneficial anti-inflammatory action in various experimental models. However, the precise anti-inflammatory mechanism of CO in the intestine remains unclear. Here, we assessed the effects of a novel water-soluble CO-releasing molecule, CORM-3, on trinitrobenzene sulfonic...
Article
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Translational research often involves tissue sampling and analysis. Blood is by far the most common tissue collected. Due to the many difficulties encountered with blood procurement from children, it is imperative to maximize the quality and stability of the collected samples to optimize research results. Collected blood can remain whole or be frac...
Article
Objective: To determine if the DKA-induced inflammation in juvenile mice provokes activation and dysfunction of CVECs. Methods: DKA in juvenile mice was induced with administration of STZ and ALX. Blood from DKA mice was assessed for cytokines and soluble cell adhesion proteins, and either DKA plasma or exogenous compounds were applied to immort...
Article
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In the setting of acute lung injury, levels of circulating inflammatory mediators have been correlated with adverse outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated that injured, mechanically ventilated lungs represent the origin of the host inflammatory response; however, mechanisms which perpetuate systemic inflammation remain uncharacterized. We hyp...
Article
Purpose: Organ cold storage and subsequent transplantation are associated with significant ischemia-reperfusion injury, leading to cell death, graft inflammation and decreased graft function. Materials and methods: CORM-3s reduce oxidative stress and prevent inflammation in kidneys stored at 4C and subsequently transplanted. Graft survival and f...
Article
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has recently been classified as a member of the gasotransmitter family. Its physiological and pathophysiological effects are rapidly expanding with numerous studies highlighting the protective effects of H2S on ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in various organ syste...
Article
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) that contributes to a high incidence of secondary organ complications, particularly after a cervical or high-level thoracic injury. Because liver plays a key role in initiating and propagating the SIR, the aim of this study was to assess the effects that SCI at diffe...
Article
The brain of the infant and young child is a developing, dynamic, structure subject to functional remodelling under the influence of factors responsible for optimal neuronal development and synaptogenesis. It exhibits age dependent variation in metabolic rate, blood flow, and ability to tolerate oxidative stress. It is also characterized by an exub...