Gavin B Stewart

Gavin B Stewart
Newcastle University | NCL

About

170
Publications
100,802
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,168
Citations
Citations since 2016
80 Research Items
6410 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
Gavin is interested in applied research synthesis (combining scientific information to inform policy). Primary interests are meta-analysis and decision support tools. Gavin's work on meta-analysis spans applied agriculture, food, rural development, ecology and medicine reflecting a belief in generic methods for Evidence Based X. Gavin is associate editor of research synthesis methods, peerJ and has editorial roles in the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - January 2013
The University of York
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2007 - December 2009
Bangor University
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (170)
Article
Full-text available
This overview examines research synthesis in applied ecology and conservation. Vote counting and pooling unweighted averages are widespread despite the superiority of syntheses based on weighted combination of effects. Such analyses allow exploration of methodological uncertainty in addition to consistency of effects across species, space and time,...
Article
Lowland heathland habitats are recognized to be of high conservation value throughout north-west Europe. Current management approaches focus on arresting natural succession to woodland, and include the use of vegetation cutting, burning and grazing by livestock. However, the introduction of grazing has proved controversial, highlighting the need fo...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetation trampling resulting from recreation can adversely impact natural habitats, leading to the loss of vegetation and the degradation of plant communities. A considerable primary literature exists on this topic, therefore it is important to assess whether this accumulated evidence can be used to reach general conclusions concerning vegetation...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen fertilisation is a common form of agricultural intensification, aimed at increasing biomass, which can affect plant species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Using a systematic review and meta-analysis of nitrogen fertilisation studies in European permanent grasslands, we asked: (i) what relationship form exists between nitrogen applica...
Poster
Full-text available
Trustworthiness in clinical trials for persistent pain with unexplained outlying results
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest around the world in more effectively linking public payments to the provision of public goods from agriculture. However, published evidence syntheses suggest mixed, weak or uncertain evidence for many agri-environment scheme options. To inform any future “public money for public goods” based policy, further synthesis work...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence-based medicine is replete with studies assessing quality and bias, but few evaluating research integrity or trustworthiness. A recent Cochrane review of psychological interventions for chronic pain identified trials with a shared lead author with highly divergent results. We sought to systematically identify all similar trials from this au...
Article
Full-text available
1. Variable study quality is a challenge for all the empirical sciences, but perhaps particularly for disciplines such as ecology where experimentation is frequently hampered by system complexity, scale and resourcing. The resulting heterogeneity, and the necessity of subsequently combining the results of different study designs, is a fundamental i...
Article
Full-text available
1. Aggregated species occurrence and abundance data from disparate sources are increasingly accessible to ecologists for the analysis of temporal trends in biodiversity. However, sampling biases relevant to any given research question are often poorly explored and infrequently reported; this can undermine statistical inference. In other disciplines...
Article
Consumer food waste, like many environmental behaviours, takes place in private, and is not directly subject to social monitoring. Nevertheless, social interactions can affect private opinions and behaviours. This paper builds an agent-based model of interactions between consumers heterogeneous in their sociability, their initial opinions and behav...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is a key limiting factor in crop growth and essential for agriculture. As plant uptake of P is inefficient, it is commonly applied to maintain crop yields leading to a range of negative environmental issues when applied in excess. Additionally, P in mineral fertilisers is derived from mined rock phosphate, which is a finite resource...
Preprint
Full-text available
1. Aggregated species occurrence and abundance data from disparate sources are increasingly accessible to ecologists for the analysis of temporal trends in biodiversity. However, sampling biases relevant to any given research question are often poorly explored and infrequently reported; this has the potential to undermine statistical inference. In...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumer food waste, like many environmental behaviours, takes place in private, and is not directly subject to social monitoring. Nevertheless, social interactions can affect private opinions and behaviours. This paper builds an agent-based model of interactions between consumers heterogeneous in their sociability, initial opinions and behaviours...
Preprint
Consumer food waste, like many environmental behaviours, takes place in private, and is not directly subject to social monitoring. Nevertheless, social interactions can affect private opinions and behaviours. This paper builds an agent-based model of interactions between consumers heterogeneous in their sociability, initial opinions and behaviours...
Article
Full-text available
Our primary research questions are: (1) What is the association between whole grains (WG) intake and the prevalence of NCDs (i.e., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, mortality) and their biomarkers? (2) Which biomarker(s) has/have the greatest association with WG intake when combining multiple biomarkers together in the same...
Preprint
This meta-analysis aims to update and improve upon a previous attempt at understanding the effects neonicotinoids have on non-target terrestrial arthropods. While the original authors carried out sufficient analysis on the data they collected, there are new methodologies that can improve the accuracy of the final effect sizes produced. This new met...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Uplandia: Making better policy in complex upland systems
Article
Full-text available
Since the early 1990s, ecologists and evolutionary biologists have aggregated primary research using meta-analytic methods to understand ecological and evolutionary phenomena. Meta-analyses can resolve long-standing disputes, dispel spurious claims, and generate new research questions. At their worst, however, meta-analysis publications are wolves...
Article
Full-text available
1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence-based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Presentation
Full-text available
Phosphorus is closely linked to other nutrient cycles, notably carbon and nitrogen, therefore, to understand potential risks to food production models are required that simulate integrated nutrient cycling over long timescales. The soil-plant system model N14CP meets these requirements and simulates both semi-natural and agricultural environments....
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of antidepressants for adults with chronic pain. We will achieve this by: assessing the efficacy of antidepressants by type, class and dose in improving pain, mood, patient global impression of change, p...
Article
Full-text available
1. To be effective, the next generation of conservation practitioners and managers need to be critical thinkers with a deep understanding of how to make evidence‐based decisions and of the value of evidence synthesis. 2. If, as educators, we do not make these priorities a core part of what we teach, we are failing to prepare our students to make an...
Article
Purpose Agri-food supply chains are facing a number of challenges, which cause inefficiencies resulting in the waste of natural and economic resources, and in negative environmental and social impacts. Food waste (FW) is a result of such inefficiencies and supply chain actors search for economically viable innovations to prevent and reduce it. This...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Traditional approaches to reviewing literature may be susceptible to bias and result in incorrect decisions. This is of particular concern when reviews address policy- and practice-relevant questions. Systematic reviews have been introduced as a more rigorous approach to synthesizing evidence across studies; they rely on a suite of evidence-based m...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest around the world in more effectively linking public payments to the provision of public goods from agriculture. However, published evidence syntheses suggest mixed, weak or uncertain evidence for many agri-environment scheme options. To inform any future “public money for public goods” based policy, further synthesis work...
Preprint
Full-text available
Variable study quality is a challenge for all the empirical sciences, but perhaps particularly for disciplines such as ecology where experimentation is frequently hampered by system complexity, scale, and resourcing. The resulting heterogeneity, and the necessity of subsequently combining the results of different study designs, is a fundamental iss...
Article
In this reply, we confirm that the results of the original paper are robust and that our conclusions were correct: densities of Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres were lower on sites located further from undisturbed refuges. There are two points of learning here: (i) taking the findings of a paper based purely on what is published is normal but th...
Article
There is an immediate need for a change in research workflows so that pre-existing knowledge is better used in designing new research. A formal assessment of the accumulated knowledge prior to research approval would reduce the waste of already limited resources caused by asking low priority questions.
Article
Full-text available
Capsule: Wintering Ruddy Turnstones Arenaria interpres occur in higher densities and their populations decline less on, or close to, offshore refuges than on mainland sites subject to greater levels of human disturbance. Aim: To compare wintering densities of Ruddy Turnstones and changes in counts across time from sites with differing levels of hum...
Chapter
The generation of food waste at both the supplier and the consumer levels stems from a complex set of interacting behaviours. Computational and mathematical models provide various methods to simulate, diagnose and predict different aspects within the complex system of food waste generation and prevention. This chapter outlines four different modell...
Preprint
With the possible development of a shale gas industry within the UK, many review studies have been written in an attempt to further understand and identify potential environmental impacts related to shale gas extraction. However, until now, these review studies have not been critically assessed to determine their rigor. This article outlines the pr...
Preprint
Where research does not lead to benefits to society, it may be considered a waste of resources, especially when publicly funded. A formal assessment of the accumulated knowledge prior to research approval would reduce the waste of already limited resources caused by asking low priority questions. There is an urgent need for a change in research wor...
Article
Full-text available
Many members of the public and important stakeholders operating at the upper end of the food chain, may be unfamiliar with how food is produced, including within modern animal production systems. The intensification of production is becoming increasingly common in modern farming. However, intensive systems are particularly susceptible to production...
Article
Full-text available
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are presented as highly connected: an ‘interrelated’ and ‘indivisible’ agenda with a need for policy coherence for implementation. We analyse the relationships among the goals using formal systems analysis and find that the connections between goals are uneven, with a failure to integrate gender equality, pe...
Article
Full-text available
The choice of animal-based traits to identify and deal with production diseases is often a challenge for pig farmers, researchers and other related professionals. This systematic review focused on production diseases, that is, the diseases that arise from management practices, affecting the digestive, locomotory and respiratory system of pigs. The...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation decisions are challenging, not only because they often involve difficult conflicts among outcomes that people value, but because our understanding of the natural world and our effects on it is fraught with uncertainty. Value of Information (VoI) methods provide an approach for understanding and managing uncertainty from the standpoint...
Preprint
The proposed protocol is for a rapid evidence synthesis analysis into the use of livestock exclusion fencing as an on-farm intervention for improving water quality. The primary objectives are to assess the use of livestock exclusion fencing to improve water quality by reducing nutrient load, the presence of faecal indicator organisms and sediment l...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed protocol is for a rapid evidence synthesis analysis into the use of livestock exclusion fencing as an on-farm intervention for improving water quality. The primary objectives are to assess the use of livestock exclusion fencing to improve water quality by reducing nutrient load, the presence of faecal indicator organisms and sediment l...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the effectiveness of soil loosening to ameliorate compaction caused by cattle treading from dairy production on UK dairy farms. The review will synthesise relevant literature that explores the impacts that can be derived from mechanical soil loosening for improved soil quality, productivity (i.e. yield) and...
Preprint
This is a protocol for a rapid review of the effectiveness of soil loosening to ameliorate compaction caused by cattle treading from dairy production on UK dairy farms. The review will synthesise relevant literature that explores the impacts that can be derived from mechanical soil loosening for improved soil quality, productivity (i.e. yield) and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This is an update of the original Cochrane review first published in Issue 1, 2003, and previously updated in 2009, 2012 and 2014. Chronic pain, defined as pain that recurs or persists for more than three months, is common in childhood. Chronic pain can affect nearly every aspect of daily life and is associated with disability, anxiety...
Preprint
The proposed protocol is for a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between vitamin A and body mass. The primary objective is to explore the mechanisms between vitamin A and adiposity such as inflammation, dietary intake and body fat. The secondary objective is to look at the extent to which vitamin A is stored in different adipo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed protocol is for a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between vitamin A and body mass. The primary objective is to explore the mechanisms between vitamin A and adiposity such as inflammation, dietary intake and body fat. The secondary objective is to look at the extent to which vitamin A is stored in different adipo...
Article
Full-text available
Flood risk and associated impacts are major societal and policy concerns following widespread flooding in December 2015, which cost the UK economy an estimated £5billion. Increasing advocacy for alternatives to conventional hard engineering solutions is accompanied by demands for evidence. This study provides a systematic review and meta‐analysis o...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed protocol is for a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of whole-grains (WG) on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity. The primary objectives is to explore the mechanisms of WG intake on multiple biomarkers of NCDs such as fasting glucose, fasting insulin and ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proposed protocol is for a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of whole-grains (WG) on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity. The primary objectives is to explore the mechanisms of WG intake on multiple biomarkers of NCDs such as fasting glucose, fasting insulin and ma...
Article
Meta-analysis is the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results. Since the term and modern approaches to research synthesis were first introduced in the 1970s, meta-analysis has had a revolutionary effect in many scientific fields, helping to establish evidence-based practice and to resolve seemingly contradictory research outcomes. At...
Article
As part of an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management (EBFM), the heterogeneity of biological communities, key ecological processes and human uses must be understood. Although fishing effort distribution and marine habitat distribution and use are increasingly well understood, little research has quantified spatio-temporal changes in fishi...
Article
Full-text available
Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socio-economic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches...
Article
In developed countries, the largest share of food waste is produced at household level. Most studies on consumers’ food waste use models that identify covariates as significant when in fact they may not be, particularly where these models use many variables. Here, using EU-level Eurobarometer data from 2013, we use alternative analytical methods th...
Article
Considerable research effort is invested in the development of evidence to help policy makers and industry deal with the challenges associated with existing and emerging food safety threats. This research aimed to elicit expert views regarding the relationship between the drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks, in order to facilitate th...
Data
Model average coefficients for the full model including interaction terms. The variables are sorted by z value. (DOCX)
Data
Selected models and averaged coefficients (sorted by z value) for the model with discard behaviour variables excluded. (DOCX)
Data
Selected models and averaged coefficients (sorted by z value) for the model with local authority and discard behaviours excluded. (DOCX)
Data
Selected models and averaged coefficients (sorted by z value) for the model with local authority excluded. (DOCX)
Article
Background Antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major threat to public health and there is much current activity to ameliorate that threat. However, the relative contributions that potential sources of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria represent are not well established. Over-prescription of antimicrobials by clinicians is one source of sele...