Gavin David Perkins

Gavin David Perkins
The University of Warwick · Warwick Clinical Trials Unit

MB ChB, MMEd, MD, FRCP, FFICM, FIMC RCS(Ed), FERC

About

655
Publications
207,329
Reads
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29,502
Citations
Citations since 2016
293 Research Items
21275 Citations
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Publications

Publications (655)
Article
Full-text available
Aims The Prehospital Optimal Shock Energy for Defibrillation (POSED) study will assess the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomised controlled study of clinical effectiveness in UK ambulance services to identify the optimal shock energy for defibrillation. Methods POSED is a pragmatic, allocation concealed, open label, cluster randomised, co...
Article
Full-text available
Background The aim of the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) network is to provide high quality evidence on epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Europe by supporting and developing cardiac arrest registries and performing European-wide studies. To date, the EuReCa ONE and EuReCa TWO studies have involved around 28 coun...
Article
Importance The administration of a high fraction of oxygen following return of spontaneous circulation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest may increase reperfusion brain injury. Objective To determine whether targeting a lower oxygen saturation in the early phase of postresuscitation care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest improves survival at hospi...
Article
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Recent evidence showing the clinical effectiveness of drug therapy in cardiac arrest has led to renewed interest in the optimal route for drug administration in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Current resuscitation guidelines support use of the intravenous route for intra-arrest drug delivery, with the intraosseous route reserved for patients...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study sought to identify the availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in schools in the region served by West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Trust (WMAS), United Kingdom, and the number of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) that occurred at or near to schools. A secondary aim was to explore the cost...
Article
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Background Current measures of health-related quality of life are neither sufficiently sensitive or specific to capture the complex and heterogenous nature of the recovery and survivorship associated with cardiac arrest. To address this critical practice gap, we plan a mixed-methods study to co-produce and evaluate a new cardiac arrest-specific pat...
Article
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Aim To determine the optimal first-shock energy level for biphasic defibrillation and whether fixed or escalating protocols for subsequent shocks are most effective. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, the Web of Science and national and international trial registry databases for papers published from database inception...
Article
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Background As an emergency care and treatment planning process (ECTP), a key feature of the Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) is the engagement of patients and/or their representatives in conversations about treatment options including, but not limited to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, qualitative r...
Article
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Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may be of benefit in ARDS due to immunomodulatory and reparative properties. This trial investigates a novel CD362 enriched umbilical cord derived MSC product (REALIST ORBCEL-C), produced to Good Manufacturing Practice standards, in patients with moderate to severe ARDS due to COVID-19 and ARDS due to oth...
Article
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Background Despite increasing emphasis on integrating emergency care and treatment planning (ECTP) into routine medical practice, clinicians continue to delay or avoid ECTP conversations with patients. However, little is known about the clinical logics underlying barriers to ECTP conversations. Objective This study aims to develop an ethnographic...
Article
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a global public health issue experienced by ≈3.8 million people annually. Only 8% to 12% survive to hospital discharge. Early defibrillation of shockable rhythms is associated with improved survival, but ensuring timely access to defibrillators has been a significant challenge. To date, the development of public-ac...
Article
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a global public health issue experienced by ≈3.8 million people annually. Only 8% to 12% survive to hospital discharge. Early defibrillation of shockable rhythms is associated with improved survival, but ensuring timely access to defibrillators has been a significant challenge. To date, the development of public-ac...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Usefulness of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in weaning patients with non-hypercapnic hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) is unclear. The study aims to assess in patients with non-hypercapnic hARF, the efficacy of NIV after early extubation, compared to standard weaning. Methods: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, w...
Article
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The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Tre...
Article
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Background: Using straight-line distance to estimate the proximity of public-access Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) or volunteer first-responders to potential out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) does not reflect real-world travel distance. The difference between estimates may be an important consideration for bystanders and first-resp...
Article
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Background Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) are considered ‘aerosol-generating procedures’ in the treatment of COVID-19. Objective To measure air and surface environmental contamination with SARS-CoV-2 virus when CPAP and HFNO are used, compared with supplemental oxygen, to investigate the potential ris...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may be of benefit in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to immunomodulatory, reparative, and antimicrobial actions. ORBCEL-C is a population of CD362 enriched umbilical cord-derived MSCs. The REALIST phase 1 trial investigated the safety and feasibility of ORBCEL-C in patients with moderate to...
Article
Full-text available
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation initiated a continuous review of new, peer-reviewed published cardiopulmonary resuscitation science. This is the fifth annual summary of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Tre...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early defibrillation is an essential element of the chain of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes aim to place automated external defibrillators (AED) in areas with high OHCA incidence, but there is sometimes a mismatch between AED density and OHCA incidence. Objectives This s...
Article
Full-text available
Severe sepsis is a time critical condition which is known to have a high mortality rate. Evidence suggests that early diagnosis and early administration of antibiotics can reduce morbidity and mortality from sepsis. The prehospital phase of emergency medical care may provide the earliest opportunity for identification of sepsis and delivery of life...
Article
Background Survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) depends on the Chain of Survival, which spans from bystander cardio-pulmonary resuscitation to in-hospital treatment. There is an increased interest in regionalisation of post-OHCA care, which includes ambulances bypassing the nearest hospital in favour of OHCA centres. This study...
Article
Full-text available
Importance In patients who require mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, further reduction in tidal volumes, compared with conventional low tidal volume ventilation, may improve outcomes. Objective To determine whether lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation using extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal improves outcomes...
Article
As more people are surviving cardiac arrest, focus needs to shift towards improving neurological outcomes and quality of life in survivors. Brain injury after resuscitation, a common sequela following cardiac arrest, ranges in severity from mild impairment to devastating brain injury and brainstem death. Effective strategies to minimise brain injur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) are considered "aerosol-generating procedures" (AGPs) in the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to measure air and surface environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 virus when CPAP and HFNO were used, compared with supplemental oxygen, to investigate the potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Background Emergency Care and Treatment Plans are recommended for all primary care patients in the United Kingdom who are expected to experience deterioration of their health. The Recommended Summary Plan for Emergency Care and Treatment (ReSPECT) was developed to integrate resuscitation decisions with discussions about wider goals of care. It summ...
Article
These guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Cardiac Arrest under Special Circumstances are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the modifications required for basic and advanced life support for the prevention and treat...
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Advanced Life Support guidelines are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the prevention of and ALS treatments for both in-hospital cardiac arrest and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Ethics guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the ethical, routine practice of resuscitation and end-of-life care of adults and children. The guideline primarily focus on major ethical practice interventions (i.e. advance directives, advance care planning, and shared decision making), decision mak...
Article
Full-text available
Informed by a series of systematic reviews, scoping reviews and evidence updates from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, the 2021 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines present the most up to date evidence-based guidelines for the practice of resuscitation across Europe. The guidelines cover the epidemiology of cardiac arrest;...
Article
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these basic life support guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include cardiac arrest recognition, alerting emergency services, chest compressions, rescue breaths, automated external d...
Article
In this section of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021, key information on the epidemiology and outcome of in- and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are presented. Key contributions from the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) collaboration are highlighted. Recommendations are presented to enable health systems to develop regis...
Article
Background Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still low. For every minute without resuscitation the likelihood of survival decreases. One critical step is initiation of immediate, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this subgroup analysis of data collected for the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest Stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background COVID-19 has become the most common cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) worldwide. Features of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation partially distinguish it from ‘classical’ ARDS. A Research and Development (RAND) analysis gauged the opinion of an expert panel about the management of ARDS with and without COVID-1...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adrenaline has been used as a treatment for cardiac arrest for many years, despite uncertainty about its effects on long-term outcomes and concerns that it may cause worse neurological outcomes. Objectives: The objectives were to evaluate the effects of adrenaline on survival and neurological outcomes, and to assess the cost-effectiv...
Article
Objective To compare the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus usual care for prehospital patients with severe respiratory distress. Methods We conducted a parallel group, individual patient, non-blinded randomised controlled trial in Western Australia between March 2016 and December 2018. Eligible patients were aged ≥40 ye...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Alveolar macrophage dysfunction may contribute to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) pathogenesis, however this has been little studied. Objective: To investigate the pathophysiological link between alveolar macrophage efferocytosis, alveolar neutrophil apoptosis and clinical outcomes in ARDS patients, and to determine whether ef...
Article
Full-text available
Background Newly-developed suction-based airway clearance devices potentially provide a novel way to improve outcome in patients with foreign body airway obstruction. We conducted a randomised controlled crossover manikin trial to compare the efficacy and usability of two of these devices with abdominal thrusts. Methods We randomised participants...
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Advanced Life Support guidelines, are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the prevention of and ALS treatments for both in-hospital cardiac arrest and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Article
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these basic life support guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include cardiac arrest recognition, alerting emergency services, chest compressions, rescue breaths, automated external d...
Article
Full-text available
In this section of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021, key information on the epidemiology and outcome of in and out of hospital cardiac arrest are presented. Key contributions from the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) collaboration are highlighted. Recommendations are presented to enable health systems to develop regist...
Article
Informed by a series of systematic reviews, scoping reviews and evidence updates from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, the 2021 European Resuscitation Council Guidelines present the most up to date evidence-based guidelines for the practice of resuscitation across Europe. The guidelines cover the epidemiology of cardiac arrest;...
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Ethics guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations for the ethical, routine practice of resuscitation and end-of-life care of adults and children. The guideline primarily focus on major ethical practice interventions (i.e. advance directives, advance care planning, and shared decision making), decision mak...
Article
These European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Cardiac Arrest in Special Circumstances guidelines are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the modifications required to basic and advanced life support for the prevention and treatment of car...
Article
Background Acute respiratory failure is a life-threatening emergency. Standard prehospital management involves controlled oxygen therapy. Continuous positive airway pressure is a potentially beneficial alternative treatment; however, it is uncertain whether or not this treatment could improve outcomes in NHS ambulance services. Objectives To asses...
Article
Aim This study examined the association between admission to a cardiac arrest centre and survival to hospital discharge for adults following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods We undertook a multicentre retrospective observational study of patients transferred to hospital after OHCA of presumed cardiac aetiology in three ambulance serv...
Article
Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves cardiac arrest survival. Cough CPR, percussion pacing and precordial thump have been reported as alternative CPR techniques. We aimed to summarise in a systematic review the effectiveness of these alternative CPR techniques. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library on...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In 2013, a single-centre study reported the safe use of esmolol in patients with septic shock and tachycardia who required vasopressor therapy for more than 24 hours. Although not powered to detect a change in mortality, marked improvements were seen in survival (adjusted HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.59; p<0.001). Beta blockers are on...