Gavin R Mccormack

Gavin R Mccormack
The University of Calgary | HBI · Department of Community Health Sciences

PhD, MSc

About

191
Publications
35,626
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,013
Citations

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
Full-text available
Background There is increasing evidence demonstrating the importance of the neighbourhood built environment in supporting physical activity. Physical activity provides numerous health benefits including improvements in health-related fitness (i.e., muscular, cardiorespiratory, motor, and morphological fitness). Emerging evidence also suggests that...
Article
Full-text available
Background A diverse range of interventions increase physical activity (PA) but few studies have explored the contextual factors that may be associated with intervention effectiveness. The built environment (BE) may enhance or reduce the effectiveness of PA interventions, especially interventions that encourage PA in neighbourhood settings. Several...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been shown to modify associations between the neighborhood built environment and physical activity, contradictory results exist. Objectives of this cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis were to: 1) examine whether overall neighborhood walkability and specific built characteristics were associat...
Article
Objectives Food insecurity is inadequate or insecure access to food due to financial constraints. Individuals experiencing food insecurity tend to have poorer diet quality compared to their food secure peers. Given the importance of maintaining healthful dietary patterns for optimal glycemic control, food insecurity is a considerable barrier to man...
Article
Objectives Improving diet quality among low-income populations remains a public health priority. In Canada, the British Columbia (BC) Farmers’ Market Nutrition Coupon Program (FMNCP) aims to improve the diet quality of low-income households by providing coupons to purchase healthy foods from BC farmers’ markets. This randomized controlled trial, co...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests that street connectivity is associated with physical activity, yet few studies have estimated its associations with sedentary behaviour. We estimated the associations between street connectivity (space syntax derived street integration) and sedentary behaviours among Canadian adults. Data were from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (n=14...
Article
Full-text available
There has been growing interest in the role of pet ownership, particularly dog ownership, in managing noncommunicable diseases. The built environment can act as a facilitator or barrier to owning a dog or dog walking. Nevertheless, limited studies conducted in different geographical contexts have examined how the built environment can influence dog...
Article
Full-text available
Background Walkability is a popular term used to describe aspects of the built and social environment that have important population-level impacts on physical activity, energy balance, and health. Although the term is widely used by researchers, practitioners, and the general public, and multiple operational definitions and walkability measurement...
Article
Full-text available
The workplace spatial environment has been identified as one of the correlates of workers’ active and sedentary behaviours. This study examined the associations of perceived workplace layout design with workers’ active and sedentary behaviour in office workers in Japan. Participants in this study (n=2,265) were recruited from a nationwide online su...
Article
Background: Health promotion interventions incorporating wearable technology or eHealth applications can encourage participants to self-monitor and modify their physical activity and sedentary behavior. In 2020, a Calgary (Canada) recreational facility developed and implemented a health promotion intervention (Vivo Play Scientist program) that pro...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Health-promotion interventions incorporating wearable technology or eHealth apps can encourage participants to self-monitor and modify their physical activity and sedentary behavior. In 2020, a Calgary (Alberta, Canada) recreational facility developed and implemented a health-promotion intervention (Vivo Play Scientist program) that prov...
Data
Source: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/dog-walking-dog-ownership-social-capital
Data
Source: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/dog-walking-dog-ownership-social-capital
Article
During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities have recommended outdoor activity while physical distancing. Quantitative evidence demonstrates reductions in physical activity have occurred during the early stages of the pandemic, yet other evidence on the use of outdoor recreational spaces, such as parks is mixed. Our qualitative study exp...
Article
Full-text available
Workplace settings – both internal and external – can influence the extent to which workers are physically active or sedentary. Although research has identified some indoor environmental attributes associated with sitting at work, few studies have examined associations of workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with workplace sitting t...
Data
Source: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/built-environment-design-cancer-prevention-inequality
Data
Source: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/built-environment-design-cancer-prevention-inequality
Article
Introduction Regular physical activity provides numerous health benefits. The neighbourhood built environment is important for supporting physical activity. Despite higher physical activity among public transit users, the effect of introducing Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) services on physical activity remains unclear. We undertook a natural experiment w...
Article
Background Walking is associated with the built environment, however, this association may be biased by residential self-selection. This study examined how walking duration changed with residential relocation, while accounting for unbalanced covariates that may contribute to residential self-selection, using two different propensity score inverse p...
Article
Background Few studies have investigated potential links between the built environment and health-related fitness, even though there is some evidence linking neighbourhood built environments to physical activity behaviors and chronic health conditions. Methods Following PRISMA guidelines eight databases were searched from inception to August 2020...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic changed daily routines, including physical activity, which could influence physical and mental health. In our study, we describe physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns in relation to the pandemic and estimate associations between anxiety and physical activity and sedentary behaviour in community-dwelling...
Article
Full-text available
In this interdisciplinary article, we provided an evidence-based discussion on the role of the supportive built environment on cancer prevention. We also extended the theoretical thinking on the built environment-cancer links by raising possible equality challenges. Following the recent call in population-level interventions in cancer prevention, o...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. To examine the associations between domain-specific sedentary and active behaviours and workers’ presenteeism and absenteeism in a sample of company employees. Methods. This study recruited participants (n=2,466) from a nationwide online survey database (Japan,2019). Participants completed a questionnaire that captured data on relativ...
Article
It is believed youth snow‐sports injuries are preventable though adequate safety education. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ski and snowboard injury‐prevention video on youth safety knowledge. A cluster randomized‐controlled‐trial was conducted among grade 2‐9 students participating in a ski‐snowboard school program. The intervention gr...
Article
Full-text available
A rapidly growing body of literature has explored associations between built environment attributes, which are conducive to walking, and social capital. The current study aimed to build on the limitations of previous research. Specifically, this study estimated the associations between traditional and novel walkable built environment metrics and so...
Article
Objectives Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are higher among individuals with a lower, compared to those with a higher socioeconomic position (SEP). However, the contribution of modifiable risk factors to these inequities is not known. This study aimed to examine whether and to what extent modifiable risk factors mediate...
Article
Objectives Socioeconomic inequities in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are greater in females than males. However, the mechanisms underpinning the excess CVD risk conferred by low socioeconomic position (SEP) in females remain unclear. This study aimed to quantify the mediating effects of modifiable risk factors to associations between SEP and CVD m...
Article
Evidence of associations between neighbourhood built characteristics and sedentary behaviours is mixed. The study aim was to investigate the associations between objectively-derived neighbourhood built characteristics and self-reported sedentary behaviours among Canadian men and women. This study sourced survey data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence for social pathways to health benefits for dog owners appears positive but less well developed. Our study aimed to estimate the differences in social capital by dog ownership and dog walking status among young-to-middle aged adults and older adults in Japan. Data from 3,606 residents living in Japan were used. Data on social capital, dog o...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of this review is to summarize the current literature on the association between the neighborhood built environment and components of health-related fitness. The findings may be useful for policy-makers and health professionals to inform the development of health-supportive neighborhood built environments. Introduction:...
Article
Full-text available
Walk Score® is a free web-based tool that provides a walkability score for any given location. A limited number of North American studies have found associations between Walk Score® and perceived built environment attributes, yet it remains unknown whether similar associations exist in Asian countries. The study’s objective is to examine the covari...
Article
Public health measures introduced to combat the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the physical activity, health, and well-being of millions of people. This grounded theory study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected physical activity and perceptions of health among adults in a Canadian city (Calgary). Twelve adults (50% females; 20-70 years...
Article
Full-text available
Urban form can have an impact on health outcomes in children, and the synthesis of findings can identify gaps in the literature and regional reviews may help guide policymakers. This study aims to complete a scoping review of the research relating urban form to health outcomes in children and adolescents from urban Canadian settings. Thirteen onlin...
Article
Background Compared with those with a higher socio-economic position (SEP), individuals with a lower SEP have higher cancer morbidity and mortality. However, the contribution of modifiable risk factors to these inequities is not known. This study aimed to quantify the mediating effects of modifiable risk factors to associations between SEP and canc...
Article
Full-text available
Few longitudinal residential relocation studies have explored associations between urban form and physical activity, and none has used the Space Syntax theory. Using a Canadian longitudinal dataset (n=5944), we estimated: 1) differences in physical activity between non-movers, and those relocating to neighbourhoods with less or more integrated stre...
Article
Full-text available
In this interdisciplinary paper, we have identified key issues involved in the current knowledge on the built environments that support active behaviour and socioeconomic status disparity in cardiovascular disease and proposed future directions to further this research agenda.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sedentary behaviors and physical activity are likely to be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and sedentary lifestyles can increase subjective fatigue. The nonpharmaceutical policies imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also have adverse effects on fatigue. Objective: This study has two aims: to examine the changes in seden...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep duration is a risk factor for poor health and all-cause mortality. Evidence suggests that neighbourhood characteristics such as built environment and socioeconomic status (SES) may affect sleep duration in adults. This study examined the relationship between neighbourhood built environment (i.e., measured via the street pattern) and SES with...
Article
Full-text available
Walking and bicycling to school (active school transportation, AST) has been in decline for decades in North America and globally with the rise of automobility. This cross-sectional study estimated associations between the built environment and AST in seven Canadian communities. We observed the travel behaviours of almost 118,000 students at 552 sc...
Article
Most walkability indices do not capture the topological structure of urban forms. Space syntax concept models these topological relationships. We estimated associations between the space syntax measure of street integration and walkability (SSW) and neighborhood-specific leisure (LW) and transportation (TW) walking among 4422 Canadian adults. Stree...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Few studies have examined the associations between urban design attributes and older adults' physical function. Especially, it is not well known how built-environment attributes may influence physical function in Asian cities. The aim of this study was to examine associations between objectively measured environmental attributes of walk...
Article
Full-text available
Realtors match home-seekers with neighborhoods that have built and social characteristics they desire to pursue active lifestyles. Studies have yet to explore realtors’ perspectives on neighborhood design that supports active living. Using qualitative description, our study was to explore the perceptions and understandings of neighborhood design (w...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Sedentary behaviors and physical activity are likely to be affected by the COVID-19 outbreak, and sedentary lifestyles can increase subjective fatigue. The nonpharmaceutical policies imposed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic may also have adverse effects on fatigue. OBJECTIVE This study has two aims: to examine the changes in sedenta...
Article
Full-text available
Background Accumulating evidence suggests that the built environment is associated with physical activity. The extent to which the built environment may support adherence to physical activity interventions is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the neighbourhood built environment constrains or facilitates adherence and steps t...
Article
Full-text available
The public health emergency response to the COVID-19 virus has involved physical distancing strategies to reduce person-to-person transmission. Pandemics, including COVID-19, may influence changes to physical activity and sedentary behaviours among children. However, the role of parent anxiety related to COVID-19 on children's physical activity and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many desk-based workers can spend more than half of their working hours sitting, with low levels of physical activity. Workplace neighbourhood built environments may influence workers’ physical activities and sedentary behaviours on workdays. We reviewed and synthesised evidence from observational studies on associations of workplace ne...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence suggests a positive effect of dog ownership on physical activity. However, most previous studies used self-reported physical activity measures. Additionally, it is unknown whether owning a dog is associated with adults’ sedentary behaviour, an emerging health risk factor. In this study, physical activity and sedentary behaviour were object...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies examine associations between objectively-calculated neighbourhood built environment attributes and objectively-assessed sedentary behaviour in different geographical locations, especially in highly-populated environments. Additionally, no study, to our knowledge, has investigated associations between objective measures of neighbourhood...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To synthesize literature on the associations between the built environment and physical activity among adults with low socio-economic status (SES) in Canada.Methods Using a pre-specified study protocol (PROSPERO ID: CRD42019117894), we searched seven databases from inception to November 2018, for peer-reviewed quantitative studies that (1...
Data
The media coverage: https://www.ucalgary.ca/news/why-healthy-communities-may-equal-healthy-heart
Article
This study estimated the associations between neighbourhood characteristics and self-reported body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) risk categories among Canadian men and women. Using data from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project (n = 14,550), we estimated 3- and 4-way intersections, business destinations, populat...
Data
Source: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/neighbourhood-built-environment-and-cardiovascular-disease
Data
The infographic: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/is-the-built-environments-associated-with-sedentary-behaviour
Data
The infographic: https://www.behealthylivinglab.com/post/building-active-and-fit-communities-1
Article
Objectives: Neighbourhood characteristics can impact the health of residents. This study investigated associations between objectively-derived neighbourhood characteristics, including novel space syntax metrics, and self-reported body mass index (BMI) among Canadian men and women. Methods: Our study included survey data collected from a random cro...
Article
Full-text available
There is a dearth of evidence about how high-density living may influence dog-walking behaviour. We examined associations between neighbourhood built environment attributes and dog-ownership and dog-walking behaviour in Japan. Data from 1,058 participants were used. The dog ownership was 18.8%. All neighbourhood built attributes (excluding availabi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Low-income populations have poorer diet quality and lower psychosocial well-being than their higher-income counterparts. These inequities increase the burden of chronic disease in low-income populations. Farmers’ market subsidies may improve diet quality and psychosocial well-being among low-income populations. In Canada, the British C...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of the neighbourhood built environment for reducing sedentary behaviour has been highlighted in the recent research building on the socio-ecological models. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the associations between objectively-measured environmental attributes and domain-specific sedentary behaviours in different geographic...
Article
Awareness of the effect of the neighbourhood built environment on cardiovascular diseases is growing. In this Comment, we identify major conceptual, methodological and policy-relevant issues in research related to the built environment and describe potential future directions to improve the scientific rigour of research in this field.
Article
Full-text available
There are many health benefits of regular physical activity and improving physical fitness levels can reduce the risk of chronic disease. Accumulating evidence suggests the neighborhood built environment is important for supporting physical activity; however, few studies have investigated the contribution of the neighborhood built environment to fi...
Data
This is the Video Slide of the paper "Walking-friendly built environments and objectively measured physical function in older adults".