Gavin Killip

Gavin Killip
University of Oxford | OX · Environmental Change Institute

PhD

About

57
Publications
12,024
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504
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in finding solutions for a more sustainable built environment. I take a broad ‘socio-technical systems’ approach to investigating how technology and behaviour evolve and affect each other. This involves decision-making at many different levels by different actors, and presents challenges for many existing institutions. I aim to make my research relevant to policy.

Publications

Publications (57)
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tackling climate change has become an urgent priority for governments, businesses and citizens around the world. In 2019, the UK Parliament passed legislation committing to a target of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. In response, local authorities around the country have been scaling up their ambitions to tackle climate change. In Oxfordshire, a...
Article
Full-text available
A systematic review of international evidence on housing retrofit supply chains was undertaken for the UK government: a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA) summarised the most relevant research from outside the UK; key emerging themes were examined via analysis of 10 expert interviews with European and UK stakeholders, selected for the depth and breadt...
Conference Paper
To achieve carbon reduction targets the emissions from buildings need to be near zero. Thermal defects in buildings pose a significant risk to this goal and contribute to energy performance gaps for space heating. A high-performance building envelope is a fundamental requirement towards meeting emissions targets and providing comfort and affordable...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aims of this research on domestic energy efficiency retrofit supply chain practices in different countries were to: • identify any factors leading to a successful retrofit supply chain • examine whether they are replicable in the UK market The project was structured in 2 phases: • a rapid evidence assessment • a deep dive into a small number of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aims of this research on domestic energy efficiency retrofit supply chain practices in different countries were to: • identify any factors leading to a successful retrofit supply chain • examine whether they are replicable in the UK market The project was structured in 2 phases: • a rapid evidence assessment • a deep dive into a small number of...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving zero carbon requires major changes in buildings and construction practices, but both remain very hard to achieve. The UK construction sector operates in a low-skills equilibrium, whereby poor quality assurance and significant design–performance gaps accompany low educational attainment and low wages. Skills debates often focus too narrowl...
Article
Full-text available
Buildings contribute significantly to CO2 emissions but also have large technical potential for improvement, making them a key sector for climate and energy policy. The UK’s energy efficiency policy for existing housing has focused historically on relatively cheap and minimally disruptive individual measures, whereas climate targets indicate the ne...
Book
Full-text available
Energy systems around the world are changing fast due to rapid technical change, the need to tackle climate change and growth in demand in the developing world. The Paris Agreement and the IPCC’s 1.5 degree report have strengthened the case for rapid emissions reduction – including plans to transition to net zero energy systems and economies. A key...
Conference Paper
Energy use in buildings remains a significant part of overall energy demand. Deep renovation projects, delivered at scale, remain a challenging task to achieve a lower carbon building stock. The complexity of building renovation is related to inherent characteristics of buildings which require distinct project management techniques. While there are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Keywords multiple benefits, organisation behaviour, business strategy, non-energy benefits (NEBs), energy efficiency investments Abstract The multiple benefits of energy efficiency for individual businesses have not received sufficient research attention. For firms, these non-energy benefits may be critically important to their investment decisions...
Article
There is increasing interest in the idea that energy efficiency has economic, environmental and social impacts beyond energy and cost saving - a ‘multiple benefits’ perspective. However, present EU-decision making on energy efficiency is based on assessment of a very narrow range of costs and benefits. This paper investigates whether and how advoca...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this literature review is to bring together the best available evidence to support the contention that a multiple benefits approach can help increase the uptake of energy efficiency investment projects using evidence from a variety of academic disciplines.
Article
Full-text available
Improving energy efficiency can deliver range of benefits to economy and society. Energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of their energy savings without considering many other socio-economic and environmental intangible benefits. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global ec...
Article
Full-text available
Energy consumption in buildings is a large contributor to global CO2 emissions. Renovations of existing buildings can reduce their impact by integrating technologies which increase efficiency or generate renewable energy on-site. Doing this well and at scale is a collective action problem, which transcends the agency of individual entrepreneurs. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: This paper examines emerging models that are being adopted by organisations engaged in the low carbon transition, with a particular focus on the role played by social enterprises. It presents a case-based comparison of recent efforts by industry actors in the housing retrofit supply chain to deliver low-energy retrofits (or refurbishmen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper identifies seven widely-respected myths in the retrofit debate, which need to be debunked if retrofit is to have a chance of achieving its potential.. Myth 1: Retrofit is a ‘fit and forget’, once-only intervention. Buildings need upkeep and they change over time in response to user needs. Energy retrofits need to be similarly maintainabl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pioneering case studies of housing renovation show that 80-90% emissions reductions are achievable using existing technology, but the task requires very high standards of design, installation and integration of energy system components. The often-observed design-performance gap is related to how the industry is structured and construction projects...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past 20 years efforts have been made to bridge the performance gap by developing design guidance and reports to raise awareness and increase construction quality of the delivery and handover stages; as well as improving tools and prediction methods by validating them with real data comparing anticipated performance with achieved energy use...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ‘performance gap’ between design and actual energy use is well recognised. Much of the debate on the performance gap focuses on the use and accuracy of building energy models or on the ‘misbehaviour’ of users and maloperation of measures. This paper focuses instead on the design and construction phases of retrofit projects. Pioneering case stud...
Conference Paper
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are particularly important in the delivery of repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) activity, especially in privately owned housing. The RMI market provides multiple opportunities for integration of energy efficiency improvements, and SMEs could have the scale and reach to influence energy demand at sca...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Understanding how and why multiple impacts arguments are used, by whom, and to what effect is an important research topic, and complementary to ongoing quantitative research into impacts. In order to explore this issue, interviews were carried out with nine experts in a range of international, EU and UK trade associations, energy and environmental...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document provides an integrating overview of INBEE research work which is about, or linked to, frameworks for assessment of multiple benefits. It summarises the key pieces of WP2 research work, which are presented in full in the appendices. Further, it brings together themes and ideas which have emerged across the whole project, related to fra...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document provides an integrating overview of INBEE research work which is about, or linked to, the general literature on intangible or multiple benefits. It summaries key pieces of WP2 research work, which are presented in full in the appendices. Further, it brings together themes and ideas which have emerged across the whole project. The aim...
Article
Full-text available
A three-year research project explored the evolving level of “building expertise” for low-carbon housing refurbishment in the UK and France. With a focus on “middle actors” and the evolution of professional practice, this paper reports on “middle-out” responses from the housing retrofit supply chain to top-down policies promoting low-energy retrofi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Low carbon retrofitting of the existing housing stock is increasingly being recognised as a vital part of national efforts to substantially reduce carbon emissions from all sectors of the economy. However, at present very little low carbon retrofit is undertaken, in either the social or private housing markets, in the UK and France. This paper expl...
Article
Full-text available
In both France and the UK, low-energy renovation of housing is an important part of wider climate change mitigation strategy. Policy directed at householders and building professionals aims to increase the number and ambition of low-energy renovations. However, persistent problems exist for delivering genuine energy reductions at scale, including t...
Article
‘Eco open home’ events showcase environmentally sustainable home renovations and retrofits. The role of these events is explored for imparting motivation and accelerating behavioural change to the event visitors for undertaking their own low-energy retrofits. Drawing on a wide range of visitor survey datasets, these community-led and locally situat...
Article
Full-text available
A small number of ‘Superhome’ owners in the UK have renovated their homes to reduce CO2 emissions by 60% or more. Superhome owner-occupiers, their homes and various aspects of their retrofit are characterized including the timing, planning, motivation, costs and interactions with professionals, and lessons drawn from this specialized group for the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: This paper examines emerging models that are being adopted by organisations engaged in the low carbon transition, with a particular focus on the role played by social enterprises. It presents a case-based comparison of recent efforts by industry actors in the housing retrofit supply chain to deliver low-energy retrofits (or refurbishmen...
Article
Full-text available
Scenario-based studies agree that the technical potential for CO2 emissions reduction from the housing stock is large. This paper explores how a market might be developed for the refurbishment activities assumed in these scenarios, taking the existing market for repair, maintenance and improvement (RMI) as its starting point. Interviews with 16 sma...
Article
Full-text available
Work on target-led transitions has highlighted the interdependence between 'niche' and 'regime' actors in steering change towards strategic goals. Similarly, market transformation (MT) has a long history in product markets, improving the energy efficiency of stocks of energy-using appliances through research, minimum standards, energy labels, incen...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter begins with a review of some recent literature on innovation in the residential sector. The chapter takes up the challenge of discerning which institutions can successfully intervene in the total sociotechnical system of the built environment to steer it toward sustainable performance. In doing so, it moves from discussions of what nee...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is huge potential to reduce environmental impacts from housing using a combination of existing technology and behaviour change. Eco-renovation is important for mitigation and adaptation strategies on climate change. Programmes to install individual measures miss the full potential of an integrated ‘whole home’ approach. Cost is a significant...
Article
In the 40% House project, researchers at Oxford University's Environmental Change Institute developed a computer model to simulate energy use in the UK residential sector. The model calculated energy use from a baseline in 1996 through to 2050, taking account of demographic trends and rising temperatures, as well as options for reducing energy dema...
Article
Full-text available
Executive Summary (first section) The UK residential sector can deliver a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, in line with the targets outlined in UK Government’s 2003 Energy White Paper. Such a reduction is essential in light of the growing impact of climate change. This represents a significant challenge that requires some hard, bu...
Article
Full-text available
A brief critique is presented of the proposed Green Deal to improve energy efficiency in housing, arguing that it is too narrowly focused on cost-effectiveness as the only (or principal) barrier to overcome. A different policy template is offered by Market Transformation (MT), which has a long history in product markets, improving the energy effici...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Archived project
1. Set out the new context for Oxfordshire’s climate goals 2. Report on recent progress on emissions reduction 3. Spotlight the low carbon innovation ecosystem, which will be key for enabling the transition of all economic activity to zero emissions 4. Review progress made and further changes needed in transport, building energy efficiency and heating, energy supply, and land use 5. Outline different potential pathways to achieving a zero carbon economy in Oxfordshire by 2050, with milestones for 2030