Gaute Grønstøl

Gaute Grønstøl
University of Oslo · Natural History Museum

Dr.scient

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26
Publications
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267
Citations

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Full-text available
The rationale behind the polygyny threshold model is that the breeding situation quality (BSQ) males have to offer females varies, and that differences in BSQ offset females' costs of sharing with other females, thus favoring polygynous settling. It predicts that the first chosen territories become polygynous first, and that breeding success of sec...
Article
Full-text available
Resource polygyny incurs costs of having to share breeding resources for female breeders. When breeding with a relative, however, such costs may be lessened by indirect fitness benefits through kin selection, while benefits from mutualistic behaviour, such as communal defence, may increase. If so, females should be less resistant to sharing a terri...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the polygyny threshold model and how it has been modified since its inception more than five decades ago.
Article
Full-text available
In this study bigamous female Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus received significantly less incubation relief from their males than monogamous females. On average, monogamous males spent 34.3% of their time incubating and bigamous males 29.9%. Bigamous males divided their effort between their nests, incubating on average 9.4% on primary nests and...
Article
Full-text available
The polygyny threshold model predicts that monogamous and secondary females on average settle at the same time and have similar reproductive success. This is not generally found. Incorporating varying female competitive strength into the model, changes the predictions to state that secondary females should breed later and show a reduced success com...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm cells are variable both within and among species. To be able to accurately measure sperm cells and understand their function, it is important that sperm cells are preserved in a manner that maintains their structural integrity. Formalin is a widely used fixative and storage medium for sperm cells, but few studies have examined the effect of f...
Article
Full-text available
The saltmarsh sparrow Ammospiza caudacuta and Nelson's sparrow A. nelsoni differ in ecological niche, mating behavior, and plumage, but they hybridize where their breeding distributions overlap. In this advanced hybrid zone, past interbreeding and current backcrossing result in substantial genomic introgression in both directions, although few hybr...
Chapter
The world is facing large environmental threats such as climate changes and spread of contaminants. Environmental awareness has become a part of our daily lives. In order to engage youth in environmental issues and ignite their interest for natural sciences, a scientifically based project was run where pupils participated in environmental research...
Article
Full-text available
The dioxin and dioxin-like compounds are regarded as one of the most toxic group of environmental contaminants. Food for the commercial market is regularly monitored for their dioxin levels and the concentration allowed in food is strictly regulated. Less is known about locally caught fish from recreational fishing, which is often brought home for...
Article
In systems with bi-parental care, sexual conflict theory states that a transition from monogamy to polygyny should increase fitness prospects for males and reduce fitness prospects of resident females. Behavioural observations of Northern Lapwings Vanellus vanellus suggested that resident females try to monopolize their breeding resources by attack...
Article
Full-text available
In many birds, females prospecting for high quality breeding resources have to inspect a number of males and their territories to make a good mating choice, yet in the face of competition with other females, the search time should be minimized. The sequential sampling of potential mates and territories by females is seldom witnessed. In a study of...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal and age at first breeding were studied in Northern Lapwings from south Norway. In total, 40 adult birds (twomales) and 114 chicks were colour-ringed. Therewere no sex differences in returning rates of birds ringed as chicks (n = 10males and 14 females). Norwere there sex differences in natal and breeding dispersal distances.When sexes wer...
Article
Full-text available
Intra-specific brood parasitism is widespread among birds. When genetic evidence is not available, criteria like super-normal clutch size, high within-clutch variance in egg morphology, and shorter than normal laying intervals have been used to identify parasitized broods. Here we report genetically determined parentage of a clutch of super-normal...
Article
Previous studies of sex roles in the polygynous Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus have shown that males incubate less than females, perhaps suggesting that sexual selection is important in shaping the parental behaviour of this species. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine for the first time the possibility that males compensate for low di...
Article
Full-text available
The efficiencies of three vermifuges (household detergent, mustard and formalin) in extracting earthworms were compared in a pasture in western Norway. Relative efficiency of detergent and mustard compared to formalin with respect to number of earthworms extracted, was 79% and 66%, respectively. No significant differences were found among the three...
Article
Full-text available
On two occasions a male Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus was seen copulating with a grass turf. In both cases visits of mate prospecting females instigated a couple of hours of vigorous male display. When the male finally approached the females in a copulation stance, the females refused to copulate. The male then focused his attention on a nearb...
Article
Full-text available
Most Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) nests have four eggs (Glutz von Blotzheim et al. 1975, Cramp and Simmons 1983), as is typical of most shorebirds. Consequently, variation in clutch invest-ment should be reflected in egg volume, with a fit-ness premium on laying large eggs (Redmond 1986; Galbraith 1988a, c; Grant 1991). Large eggs yield lar...
Article
In a population of Lapwings Vanellus vanellus studied for 5 years near Bergen, southwester Norway, 23–41% of the males were polygynous, having two and sometimes three mates, whereas 50–77% were monogamous and 0–21% remained unmated. Bachelors held territories in or immediately adjacent to the study area each of the years. As predicted from the Poly...
Article
Full-text available
G.B. 1996. Aerobatic components in the song-flight display of male Lapwings Vanellus vanellus as cues in female choice. Ardea 84: 45-55. The song-flight of male Lapwings was studied on a farmland area in western Norway in a population with a high incidence of polygyny. On the basis of video recordings individual performance of song-flight display w...
Article
Full-text available
The concentration of aldrin epoxidase was significantly greater in the livers of Norwegian Pelt lambs than in those of Rygja lambs but did not differ significantly between either of these two breeds and Spael lambs. Conversely, although there was no detectable EROD activity in the livers of many of the lambs in all three breeds, the median activity...

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