Gary Yukl

Gary Yukl
University at Albany, The State University of New York | UAlbany · Department of Management

Doctor of Philosophy, Industrial-Organizational Psychology, UC Berkeley

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102
Publications
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22,662
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Publications

Publications (102)
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine how task-oriented, relations-oriented and change-oriented leader behaviors are related to managerial effectiveness and subordinate job satisfaction, to identify incorrect findings in a recent meta-analysis of these relationships and to verify that leader problem solving is an important task-oriente...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the individual and joint influence of three distinct external leadership behaviors (i.e. networking, representing, and external monitoring) on workgroup performance and managerial effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered by surveying subordinates of 233 managers in various types o...
Article
One of the most important determinants of managerial effectiveness is success in influencing people. Effective managers influence subordinates to perform the work effectively, they influence peers to provide support and assistance, and they influence superiors to provide resources and approval of necessary changes. The concept of “power” has been v...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the potential of one individual to influence the behavior and attitudes of other individuals in the same organization. The manner in which power is enacted usually involves influence behavior by the agent. Specific types of influence behavior are called influence tactics. It also examines several influence tactics commonly u...
Article
We develop a new look on leadership for innovation and propose that effective leaders alternate between a broad range of behaviors and tune their approach to the changing demands of innovation. This is referred to as ambidextrous leadership. As the importance of different leader behaviors varies not only across time but also across contexts, ambide...
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Recent ethical scandals involving managers in government organizations have highlighted the need for more research on ethical leadership in public sector organizations. To assess the consequences of ethical leadership, 161 managers in a large state government agency and 415 of their direct reports were surveyed, and personnel records were obtained...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how ethical leadership and empowering leadership are related to leader‐member exchange relations (LMX), affective commitment, and leader effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using questionnaires filled out by 259 subordinates of public and private sector managers. Relati...
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The appropriate way to define and measure ethical leadership has been a source of conceptual confusion in the leadership literature. Different measures have been developed, but they all have limitations. Some questionnaires are missing key indicators of ethical leadership, or they include behaviors that do not seem directly relevant. In this study,...
Article
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Extensive research on leadership behavior during the past half century has yielded many different behavior taxonomies and a lack of clear results about effective behaviors. One purpose of this article is to describe what has been learned about effective leadership behavior in organizations. A hierarchical taxonomy with four meta-categories and 15 s...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine if the relationships found between a leader's behavior and the quality of the exchange relationship with a subordinate can be replicated using a different measure of leader-member exchange (LMX) and a different sample. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports the result of a survey study wi...
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This study used flexible leadership theory (FLT) as a basis to examine the extent to which a firm’s long-term financial prosperity depends on three performance determinants: human capital, efficiency, and innovative adaptation. Based on FLT predictions, we expected that the effect of human capital on firm performance would be mediated by efficiency...
Article
A field experiment was conducted to assess whether coaching would enhance the effectiveness of a feedback workshop for store managers in a regional supermarket chain. The experimental group of managers received individual coaching several weeks after attending a feedback workshop. The control group of managers also attended a feedback workshop but...
Article
Despite the widespread use of multi-source behavioral feedback as a method of leadership development, little research has been conducted to identify facilitating conditions that can make the feedback more effective. This article reports results from a longitudinal field experiment on the effects of providing feedback about influence behavior to mid...
Article
Purpose – Leader empathy, ethical values, and relations‐oriented behavior all appear to be relevant for effective leadership, but nobody has examined how all three variables are jointly related to leader‐member exchange quality (LMX). The purpose of this study is to examine these relationships and test a proposed model describing them. Design/meth...
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In this article we explain different conceptions of flexible and adaptive leadership and the reasons why such leadership is essential in today's organizations. Then we briefly describe several streams of research that provide useful knowledge about flexible and adaptive leadership. It was not feasible to provide a comprehensive and detailed review...
Article
Purpose – Many studies have examined outcomes and antecedents of leader‐member exchange (LMX), but few studies have explored how LMX is related to specific types of leadership behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examines a more comprehensive set of leader behaviors than any previous study on LMX. Design/methodology/approach – This paper rep...
Article
This essay conveys some of the author's ideas about the influence of leaders on organizational learning. Limitations of some well known leadership theories for explaining this influence are described, and ideas for developing more comprehensive and accurate theories are suggested. Examples of specific ways leaders can influence organizational learn...
Article
To be effective, a leader must influence people to carry out requests, support proposals, and implement decisions. In large organizations, the effectiveness of most managers depends on influence over superiors and peers as well as influence over subordinates (Kotter 1985). Two types of constructs that have dominated theory and research on interpers...
Article
The flexible leadership theory explains how top executives and other leaders can influence the financial performance of a business organization. Three key determinants of financial performance are efficiency, adaptation, and human capital. A wide range of leadership behaviors, management programs, structural forms, and external initiatives can be u...
Article
We conducted four studies to evaluate the extended version of the Influence Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), which measures proactive tactics used to influence people in organizations. The results provide support for the reliability and validity of the 11 tactic scales in the newest version of the IBQ. The questionnaire has widespread potential applic...
Article
In today's rapidly changing and competitive business environment, organizations and their leaders must pay attention to an asset that is sometimes given short shrift—human capital, the skills and motivation of the organization's employees. Leaders at all levels can have a strong influence on human capital through a combination of relationsoriented...
Chapter
Gary YuklDYADIC INFLUENCE TACTICS1. RATIONAL PERSUASION2. INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS3. CONSULTATION4. EXCHANGE5. COLLABORATION6. APPRISING7. COALITION TACTICS8. PERSONAL APPEALS9. INGRATIATION10. PRESSURERESEARCH ON DYADIC TACTICSTACTICSDIRECTIONINFLUENCEEFFECTIVENESSINDIVIDUAL TACTICSEFFECTIVENESSTACTIC COMBINATIONSRESEARCHDYADIC TACTICS USEDINITIATE C...
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An experiment was conducted to test hypotheses about conflict related to negotiated transfer pricing. A business game with repeated decision periods was used to simulate transfer pricing negotiations between corporate divisions. When the evaluation of division executives emphasized corporate profits rather than divisional profits, there was more sm...
Article
A recent survey indicates that many of today's business leaders believe their organizations are not only inadequate at implementing strategy but also unlikely to get better at this critical challenge. Other research on managers has identified four leadership behaviors that are useful in enhancing the execution of business strategy.
Article
A field study was conducted in a chain of beauty salons to determine how the leadership behavior of salon managers is related to managerial effectiveness. Leadership behavior was measured with a new questionnaire that was filled out anonymously by subordinates. Strong correlations were found between some of the leadership scales and salon profits,...
Article
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Psychological empowerment is the perception that workers can help determine their own work roles, accomplish meaningful work, and influence important decisions. Empowerment has been studied from different perspectives, including employee perceptions, leadership behaviors, and management programs. Despite positive rhetoric, programs designed to incr...
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In today's turbulent business environment, being able to respond in a timely way to emerging threats and opportunities is crucial to an organization's survival and prosperity. An organization's effectiveness can be improved by leader decisions that facilitate innovation and adaptation.
Article
The controversy about differences between leading and managing and their relative importance has continued over the years without any resolution. A new perspective on the controversy is provided by the flexible leadership model, which incorporates ideas from different literatures and findings from a half-century of research on effective leadership...
Article
Progress in developing theories of interpersonal influence depends on the identification of meaningful and measurable constructs for classifying influence behavior. We assessed the construct validity and relative effectiveness of two new influence tactics with a field survey study, an incident study, and a laboratory experiment. The confirmatory fa...
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For over a half century, leadership researchers have attempted to identify the aspects of leadership that improve organizational performance, yet the answer is still elusive. In this commentary, we discuss several reasons for the slow progress. There is a lack of collaborative effort between academics and practitioners, and the leadership theory an...
Article
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This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy (persuasive, assertive, and relationship based) and four...
Article
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The authors compared a feedback workshop with both a no-feedback control group and a comparison group of managers who received a feedback report but no feedback workshop. The multisource feedback was based on ratings of a manager's influence behavior by subordinates, peers, and bosses. Managers in the feedback workshop increased their use of some c...
Article
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This chapter summarizes our current knowledge regarding use of managerial influence tactics in international settings, and reports the findings of a twelve-nation study on the relative effectiveness of different influence tactics in business organizations. Rational persuasion, consultation, collaboration and apprising were identified as effective t...
Article
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Deux recherches exploratoires ont été initiées pour étudier les différences interculturelles dans l’efficacité perçue de diverses stratégies destinées à obtenir de la part d’un supérieur l’approbation d’un changement qui lui est soumis, ou à résister à un changement envisagé par un patron. La première étude a comparé des managers des Etats-Unis, de...
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A major problem in leadership research and theory has been lack of agreement about which behavior categories are relevant and meaningful. It is difficult to integrate findings from five decades of research unless the many diverse leadership behaviors can be integrated in a parsimonious and meaningful conceptual framework. An emerging solution is a...
Article
This paper reports the preliminary findings of a study on perceived effectiveness of different influence tactics across six cultures. Rational persuasion, collaboration and consultation were identified as universally effective tactics, and gifts, preliminary socializing, and pressure were rated as least effective in all cultures. The effectiveness...
Article
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A cross-cultural study was conducted with managers from the United States and China to investigate differences in influence behavior. Managers rated the effectiveness of different influence tactics for several representative situations. Significant differences were found between American and Chinese managers in a large, multinational company with f...
Article
Theories of transformational and charismatic leadership provide important insights about the nature of effective leadership. However, most of the theories have conceptual weaknesses that reduce their capacity to explain effective leadership. The conceptual weaknesses are identified here and refinements are suggested. The issue of compatibility betw...
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Theories of transformational and charismatic leadership provide important insights about the nature of effective leadership, but most of the theories have weaknesses in the conceptualization and measurement of leadership processes. The limitations include use of simplistic two-factor models, omission of relevant behaviours, focus on dyadic processe...
Article
Few studies have identified determinants of delegation and consultation. To investigate this question further, we surveyed managers and subordinates in two samples and interviewed managers individually or in focus groups. The use of delegation and consultation with individual subordinates was determined in part by characteristics of the subordinate...
Article
Two content factors (issue importance and feasibility) were manipulated for agents in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment using a role-play exercise with 364 students in management courses. A path analysis provided support for the causal model, which specifies that agent perception of importance and feasibility affect the agent's influence behavior, which...
Article
Influence incidents described either by agents or targets were coded for the presence of 9 influence tactics, and the outcome was coded in terms of commitment, compliance, or resistance. Agent power and content factors for an incident were measured with a short questionnaire. This study is the first to show that influence tactics, agent power, and...
Article
A field study was conducted to determine whether the behaviors in the multiple-linkage model are related to leadership effectiveness and advancement, whether these criteria are predicted better by leader behavior descriptions from subordinates than by leader self-reports, and whether the results are influenced by the level of analysis. Leader behav...
Article
Only a few studies have examined the relationship between influence tactics and objectives, and the results were inconsistent. The present study employed two different research methods to determine how often people use nine influence tactics to attain five influence objectives with subordinates, peers, and superiors. One method was a survey on whic...
Article
Modern organizations are confronted with an increasingly complex world, and many of the challenges involve social change and environmental issues. Effective leadership is essential for coping with these social and environmental problems. In this article, we briefly describe a conceptual framework of leadership processes and some specific leadership...
Article
Charisma is a Greek word that means “divinely inspired gift,” such as the ability to perform miracles or predict future events. The sociologist Max Weber (1947) used the term to describe a form of influence based not on tradition or formal authority but rather on follower perceptions that a leader is endowed with exceptional qualities. For many yea...
Article
This article describes a field study conducted to test a conceptual model on situational determinants of networking behavior. The findings indicated support for a new measure of internal and external networking behavior. Consistent with our model, external networking was affected by managerial function and level, but internal networking was affecte...
Article
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This study involved analysis of incidents describing influence attempts from the perspective of an agent or a target. Influence behavior in the incidents was coded into nine influence tactics. A conceptual framework was presented to explain the selection and sequencing of tactics, and the model was used to derive specific hypotheses for individual...
Article
A field study was conducted to discover how a manager's use of 9 different influence tactics is related to target task commitment and the manager's effectiveness. The variables were measured with a questionnaire filled out by subordinates, peers, and the boss of each manager. The most effective tactics were rational persuasion, inspirational appeal...
Article
The study involved analyses of incidents described from the perspective of the targets of influence attempts. We coded influence behavior in the incidents into nine tactics and classified outcomes as commitment, compliance, or resistance. Hypotheses were developed to explain the outcome of each tactic used alone and in combination. The findings sup...
Article
Presents a descriptive review regarding current training theory and research. Prescriptions regarding future research; Ways to identify research gaps; Highlighted issues which require a different research orientation; Organizational analysis; Discussion.
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An exploratory study was conducted to increase knowledge of the types of power used to influence subordinates and peers. The study involved 2 taxonomies for conceptualizing power, 2 questionnaires for measuring power, 2 outcome criteria, 2 levels of management, and 2 respondent samples. Innovative features include new power scales, a larger variety...
Article
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Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous exploratory research by D. Kipnis et al (see record 1980-33577-001) on influence tactics and objectives in organizations. A new questionnaire was developed that included measures of important influence tactics and objectives omitted in the earlier research. Whereas the earlier research us...
Article
Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous exploratory research by Kipnis, Schmidt, and Wilkinson (1980) on influence tactics and objectives in organizations. A new questionnaire was developed that included measures of important influence tactics and objectives omitted in the earlier research. Whereas the earlier research used only...
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This article reviews and evaluates major theories of leadership and summarizes findings from empirical research on leadership. Major topics and controversies include leadership versus management, leader traits and skills, leader behavior and activities, leader power and influence, situational determinants of leader behavior, situational moderator v...
Article
Data from four studies are analyzed to identify effective patterns of leadership behavior for military cadets and Air Force officers. Two studies employ a questionnaire—correlational methodology, and two use content analysis of critical incidents. Combat, simulated combat, and two noncombat situations are compared to examine situational differences...
Article
To help relate management ideas and knowledge to educational administration, the author reviews the major theories and findings from the last 20 years on managerial leadership and discusses their relevance for school principals. He first summarizes findings from three approaches: the traits approach, emphasizing managerial motivation and skills; th...
Article
A field study was conducted with 41 female typists in a large corporation to test an explanatory model of goal setting. Weekly productivity goals were either assigned by the supervisors or were set jointly with a typist. Goals were set for ten consecutive weeks. A correlational analysis of the data indicated that difficult goals led to higher perfo...
Article
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Although incremental algorithms are widely used in a variety of decision contexts, they have rarely been extended to models of human work behavior. In an experiment, predictions of intended effort and performance were compared using an incremental (return on effort) version of expectancy theory and the conventional model. Incremental predictions we...
Article
A laboratory bargaining experiment was conducted with 120 undergraduates to determine how conflict resolution and integrative bargaining are affected by time pressure and issue settlement order. Settlements were reached faster but joint payoff was lower under high time pressure than under low time pressure. Joint payoff was less when the issues wer...
Article
• Reports an error in the the article "Effects of Assigned and Participative Goal Setting on Performance and Job Satisfaction" by Gary P. Latham and Gary A. Yukl (Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 61(2) Apr 1976, 166-171). The last paragraph in the Results section subtitled "Manipulation Check and Reliability of Measures" on page 168 was a repetit...
Article
Evaluated the job performance of 41 female typists under participative or assigned goal setting conditions over a 10-wk period. Significant productivity improvement occurred in both conditions during the 2nd 5 wks. There was no significant difference between conditions with respect to goal difficulty or frequency of goal attainment. Job satisfactio...
Article
Three experiments were conducted to determine if payoff magnitude and favorability of alternative settlements moderate the effect of information on bargaining outcomes or have a direct effect on these outcomes. The first experiment evaluated the hypothesis that unilateral information will be either an advantage or a disadvantage, compared to no-inf...
Article
Conducted a field experiment of (a) 24 educationally disadvantaged woods worker crews and (b) 24 educated logging crews to compare assigned goal setting, participative goal setting, and a "do your best" condition. The experiment was conducted separately for each sample. Results show that for the uneducated Ss, the participative condition had higher...
Article
Pay incentives reflecting 3 schedules of reinforcement were compared in terms of their effects on the productivity of 38 marginal workers. In a quasi-experimental design, the following treatments were randomly assigned to work crews: (a) continuous reinforcement-individuals received a $2 bonus for each bag of trees they planted, (b) variable ratio-...
Article
2 laboratory experiments examined how a bargainer's aspiration level, offers, and perception of the opponent are affected by a programed opponent's initial offer, concession magnitude, and concession frequency. Some discrepancies in the research literature on aspiration level hypothesis of bargaining were also investigated. Ss were 60 male undergra...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 100 male undergraduates in a laboratory bargaining simulation to investigate 3 hypotheses about the effect of 1 bargainer's concessions on the concessions of the opposing bargainer. Results indicate that Ss conceded more when the programed opponent made small concessions than when the opponent made large conc...
Article
Investigated whether authoritarianism and need for independence affect the relationship between the amount of participation a subordinate is permitted during the appraisal interview and his satisfaction with the interview and motivation to improve subsequent job performance. 27 undergraduates were assigned to 4 groups (high and low independence and...
Article
Examined contrast effects by having 80 students watch 3 videotaped interviews of job applicants and rate them in terms of their job qualifications. 2 videotapes were used to establish a frame of reference; ratings of the 3rd were evaluated for contrast effects. It was found that contrast effects were statistically significant, but they accounted fo...
Article
Investigated the effectiveness of 2 variable ratio and 1 crf payment schedule(s) on the performance of 15 female undergraduates in a simulated job situation. Production for the 3 groups was compared to test hypotheses derived from instrumentality theory and the operant conditioning literature. Results fail to support instrumentality theory. Pay inc...
Article
Previous bargaining studies provide support for each of 3 alternative hypotheses about the effect of bargainer's concessions on his opponent. A laboratory bargaining simulation, using 60 male undergraduates as Ss, was used to test these hypotheses. Results show that Ss conceded more and perceived the programmed opponent to be stronger when he made...
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A great deal of the apparent inconsistency in the leadership literature may be due to semantic confusion about leader behavior and to the absence of a conceptual framework which includes intermediate and situational variables. A system of three distinct leader behavior dimensions is proposed to reduce this confusion. Two of the dimensions are simil...
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describe how the behavior categories were formulated and . . . present results of research conducted to validate the questionnaire (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traducción de: Organizational behavior and personnel psychology El propósito de este libreo es revisar las teorías e investigaciones disponibles en relación con la conducta en el trabajo de las organizaciones. Desarrolla los siguientes temas: Conducta organizacional: Motivación, Actitudes del Procesos de la comunicación, Toma de decisiones, Proceso...

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