Gary A Toranzos

Gary A Toranzos
University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras | UPR-RP · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

149
Publications
32,845
Reads
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2,822
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1988 - present
University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras
Position
  • Professor of Microbiology
August 1985 - September 1986
University of Florida
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (149)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A water recycling system with improved efficiencies to satisfy the water demand in a closed-loop environment is required in the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The wastewater recycling system in the ECLSS has a water reclamation efficiency limitation of 90%. Theref...
Article
The development of nuclear science and technology has led to increasing nuclear waste containing uranium. The contamination associated with nuclear activity, especially uranium, is a significant concern for human and environmental health. Due to the high toxicity, radioactivity, and extensive half-life of uranium, it is necessary to find a way to r...
Article
Full-text available
Few data exist on the human gut mycobiome in relation to lifestyle, ethnicity, and dietary habits. To understand the effect of these factors on the structure of the human gut mycobiome, we analyzed sequences belonging to two extinct pre-Columbian cultures inhabiting Puerto Rico (the Huecoid and Saladoid) and compared them to coprolite samples found...
Article
Full-text available
The present Special Issue focuses on the latest approaches to health and public health microbiology using multiomics [...]
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A wastewater recycling system with enhanced efficiencies is needed to satisfy the water need in a closed-loop environment required by NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Wastewater treatment and water-recovery system within the ECLSS has an efficiency limitation of approximately 90% of water reclamation. To provide self-s...
Article
Full-text available
It has been called ‘the next plague’ and has raised many eyebrows from both sides of the topic; namely, those who stand on the ‘we are all going to die’ side and those who simply state: ‘What is the problem?’ The facts are actually somewhere in the middle of these extreme statements. On the one hand, we cannot simply overlook the fact that some pat...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities provoke drastic changes in aquatic ecosystems that result in events such as eutrophication, algal blooms, massive fauna mortality, and, in extreme cases, the complete loss of the aquatic resources. Some of these events were registered at Laguna Alalay Lake in Cochabamba, Bolivia in 2016. We present a case study with the aim of dete...
Article
Full-text available
The pre-Columbian Huecoid and Saladoid cultures were agricultural ethnic groups that supplemented their diets by fishing, hunting and scavenging. Archaeological deposits associated to these cultures contained a variety of faunal osseous remains that hinted at the cultures’ diets. The present study identified zoonotic parasites that may have infecte...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria is one of the most important human diseases throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Global distribution and ample host range have contributed to the genetic diversity of the etiological agent, Plasmodium. Phylogeographical analyses demonstrated that Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax follow an Out of Africa (OOA)...
Article
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Soil microbial communities are an important component of biological diversity and terrestrial ecosystems which is responsible for processes such as decomposition, mineralization of nutrients, and accumulation of organic matter. One of the factors that provide information on the mechanisms regulating biodiversity is spatial scaling. We characterized...
Article
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The concept of the human oral microbiome was applied to understand health and disease, lifestyles, and dietary habits throughout part of human history. In the present study, we augment the understanding of ancient oral microbiomes by characterizing human dental calculus samples recovered from the ancient Abbey of Badia Pozzeveri (central Italy), wi...
Article
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In the following comment, we reply to Eisenhofer and Weyrich’s letter “Proper authentication of ancient DNA is still essential” responding to the article “Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies” by Santiago-Rodriguez et al. One of the concerns raised was the possibility that the patterns noted in the gut microbio...
Article
Full-text available
Tetracyclines were discovered over 70 years ago and their use resulted in the emergence of tetracycline-resistance microorganisms; however, it has been hypothesized that tetracycline-resistance may have originated in the environment, and that determinants were transferred to the human gut microbiota. Ancient microbiomes represent an opportunity to...
Article
One of the most challenging problems when trying to recycle urine for different purposes is the removal of urea. In this project we studied an ureolysis system using the bacterium Proteus vulgaris for the transformation of urea to ammonia and its subsequent oxidation to nitrogen at a Pt working electrode. Our system was tested under different pH, m...
Chapter
In a world dominated by microbes, our ancestors evolved alongside an outstandingly diverse ancient microbiota (see Fig. 1 , Table 1 ). Symbiotic relationships between animals, microbes, and viruses have been observed as far back in animal evolutionary history as when hydras made their appearance, and these interactions currently span across all typ...
Chapter
Environmental forensics has been previously described as the use of chemical, physical, and statistical techniques to investigate the sources and behavior of contaminants in the environment as a means to determine attribution for legal purposes. Although this definition still holds true, in environmental microbiology, metagenomics is increasingly b...
Chapter
Microbiome analysis of environmental samples may represent the next frontier in environmental microbial forensics. The microbiome, defined as the sum total of all the genetic material present in a sample, contains evidence of the microbial communities in the sample at the time of collection. As such, it contains clues to past environmental events u...
Chapter
Nucleic acids and modern sequencing analyses are the pivot for research in microbiology, as they provide insights into microbial gene pools and essential cellular processes. Particularly, the ability to isolate and sequence ancient DNA (aDNA) is of increasing importance, as it demonstrates gene evolution and also allows us to peek into the possible...
Chapter
Bioterrorism is currently defined as the use of biological agents or pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and toxins) for the purpose of attacking and creating havoc in a population considered an enemy. Many of these agents can be isolated naturally from the environment or have been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic. Addi...
Article
Definitions and Historical Perspectives in Environmental Forensics, Page 1 of 2 Abstract Environmental forensics is a tool that uses chemical, physical, and statistical techniques to investigate contaminants in the environment as a means to determine attribution for legal purposes. Environmental microbiology is a branch of science that has benefi...
Article
Future Technologies, Page 1 of 2 Abstract Microbiome analysis of environmental samples may represent the next frontier in environmental microbial forensics. Next-generation sequencing technologies significantly increased the available genetic data that could be used as evidentiary material. It is not clear, however, whether the microbiome can sca...
Article
Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacte...
Article
Full-text available
Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacte...
Article
Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we invest...
Article
Full-text available
Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we invest...
Data
SourceTracker Filtered Unfiltered SourceTracker analyses of the dental calculi samples including D21 (A), E19 (B), E26 (C), F20 (D), G18 (E), G21 (F), G22 (G), I19 (H), I23A (I), I23B (J), I24A (K), I24B (L), F24 (M), H6 (N) and M8 (O). Dental calculi microbiomes were compared to stool, coprolite, saliva, soil from the archaeological site of Sorcé,...
Data
Alphararefaction curves Filtered Unfiltered Alphararefaction curves of chao1 (A), and observed OTUs values (B) after filtering soil and blank control OTUs from the dental calculi, and chao1 (C), and observed OTUs (D) values prior filtering soil and blank control OTUs. Samples included dental calculi from loose teeth samples (yellow), dental calculi...
Data
Taxa Plots Unfiltered Barplots representing the bacterial taxonomy based on 16S rRNA gene. Data are shown at the phylum level for dental calculi, supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, coprolites, stool, soil from the archeological site of Sorcé, and a blank control. Soil and blank control OTUs were not filtered from the dental calculi p...
Data
Data Set S4 Dental Calculi Genus Level Filtered
Data
PCoA Unfiltered Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) 2D plots of ancient and modern oral and gut microbiomes, as well as that of soil from the archaeological site of Sorcé. Dental calculi (yellow), dental calculi of teeth attached to bones that enabled the identification of gender or age (Dental calculi (Bone)) (red), coprolites (light blue), stoo...
Data
PICRUSt Unfiltered Heatmap of the relative abundances of the predicted functional categories (level 2) of microbiomes of dental calculi, coprolites, supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, stool and soil from the archeological site of Sorcé. Functional categories were predicted using PICRUSt. Soil and blank control OTUs were not filtered from...
Data
Data Set S7 Group Significance Dental Calculi Unfiltered
Data
Data Set S9 Core OTUs 25% Modern Oral Microbiome
Data
Alpha Diversity Unfiltered Bar plots of alpha diversity indices. Bar plots representing the chao 1 (A) and observed OTUs (B) indices for the bacterial taxonomy based on 16S rRNA gene of the dental calculi, modern supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, coprolites, stool and soil from the archaeological site of Sorcé microbiomes. Alpha diversi...
Data
LefSe Unfiltered Linear discriminatory analyses. Effect size (LEfSe) plots of predicted functional categories (level 2). Functional categories of dental calculi (ancient oral microbiomes, green), supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque and saliva (modern oral microbiomes, purple), coprolites (ancient gut microbiomes, red), stool (modern gut microb...
Data
Data Set S6 Group Significance Dental Calculi Filtered
Article
Forensic Approaches to Detect Possible Agents of Bioterror, Page 1 of 2 Abstract Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have re...
Article
Full-text available
From Evolutionary Advantage to Disease Agents: Forensic Reevaluation of Host-Microbe Interactions and Pathogenicity, Page 1 of 2 Abstract As the “human microbiome era” continues, there is an increasing awareness of our resident microbiota and its indispensable role in our fitness as holobionts. However, the host-microbe relationship is not so cle...
Article
We previously isolated and characterized an Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 siphovirus 15 from raw domestic sewage as a viral indicator of human fecal pollution. Here, we report 16 the draft genome sequence of this bacteriophage.
Article
Characterization of naturally-mummified human gut remains could potentially provide insights into the preservation and evolution of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, and metabolic profiles. We characterized the gut microbiome of two pre-Columbian Andean mummies dating to the 10–15th centuries using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing an...
Article
Full-text available
Paleomicrobiology: a Snapshot of Ancient Microbes and Approaches to Forensic Microbiology, Page 1 of 2 Abstract Paleomicrobiology, or the study of ancient microorganisms, has raised both fascination and skepticism for many years. While paleomicrobiology is not a recent field, the application of emerging techniques, such as DNA sequencing, is prov...
Article
Full-text available
. The most important hypersaline environment in Bolivia is the Uyuni salt flat. It is the largest salt flat in the world and, it presents certain unique chemical characteristics and composition on its surface such as a gradient of ion concentrations from south to north. The autochthonous microbial communities in these salt flats have yet to be stud...
Article
Urbanization affects the microbial loading into tropical streams, but its impact on water quality varies across watersheds. Rainfall in tropical environments also complicates microbial dynamics due to high seasonal and annual variations. Understanding the dynamics of fecal contamination in tropical surface waters may be further hindered by limitati...
Data
Full-text available
The natural mummification process of the human gut represents a unique opportunity to study the resulting microbial community structure and composition. While results are providing insights into the preservation of bacteria, fungi, pathogenic eukaryotes and eukaryotic viruses, no studies have demonstrated that the process of natural mummification a...
Article
Characterization of naturally mummified human gut remains could potentially provide insights into the preservation and evolution of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, and metabolic profiles. We characterized the gut microbiome of two pre-Columbian Andean mummies dating to the 10-15th centuries using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing an...
Article
Full-text available
For ages, specialists from varying fields have studied the diets of the primeval inhabitants of our planet, detecting diet remains in archaeological specimens using a range of morphological and biochemical methods. As of recent, metagenomic ancient DNA studies have allowed for the comparison of the fecal and gut microbiomes associated to archaeolog...
Data
Description of eukaryote diet-associated genes detected after conducting a translated-nucleotide query of coprolite DNA from both cultures. 1gi| NCBI gene identification number. 2Identification code of the corresponding DNA sequence detected in Huecoid (H-A4LNU…) and Saladoid (S-A4LNU…) coprolite samples. (See S1 Dataset for complete DNA sequences)...
Data
DNA and library concentrations. 1Indicates whole genome amplified and purified DNA. Reported size includes sequencing adaptors, measuring approximately 120bp each. (DOCX)
Data
Fasta format file containing the trimmed, post-QC ancient DNA sequences described in this study. These sequences correspond to the genes identified through blast query search. (DOCX)
Data
Virus genes detected by translated-nucleotide query of coprolite DNA from both cultures. 1gi| NCBI gene identification number. 2Identification code of the corresponding DNA sequence detected in Huecoid (H-A4LNU…) and Saladoid (S-A4LNU…) coprolite samples. (See S1 Dataset for complete DNA sequences). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The natural mummification process of the human gut represents a unique opportunity to study the resulting microbial community structure and composition. While results are providing insights into the preservation of bacteria, fungi, pathogenic eukaryotes and eukaryotic viruses, no studies have demonstrated that the process of natural mummification a...
Article
Full-text available
The natural mummification process of the human gut represents a unique opportunity to study the resulting microbial community structure and composition. While results are providing insights into the preservation of bacteria, fungi, pathogenic eukaryotes and eukaryotic viruses, no studies have demonstrated that the process of natural mummification a...
Article
Full-text available
The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11 th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput seque...