Gary Massey

Gary Massey
Zurich University of Applied Sciences | ZHAW · Institute of Translation and Interpreting (IUED)

PhD, Prof. ZFH

About

137
Publications
31,039
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Introduction
Director of the IUED Institute of Translation and Interpreting and Deputy Dean of the School of Applied Linguistics at the ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences. Former director of ZHAW's MA and BA programmes in translation and applied languages. Co-investigator of nationally funded research projects on translation workplace processes and the cognitive and physical ergonomics of translation. Website: https://www.zhaw.ch/en/about-us/person/mssy/
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Managing Director
November 2011 - present
Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Director, MA in Applied Linguistics
November 2011 - September 2015
Zurich University of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Director, Specialisation in Professional Translation
Education
September 1982 - November 1985
University College London
Field of study
  • Germanic Studies
September 1981 - November 1982
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Comparative Literature
September 1977 - June 1981
The University of Manchester
Field of study
  • Modern Languages: German and French

Publications

Publications (137)
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation is divided into two parts. The first part considers current aspects of translator education and teacher development, ending with a scalable model of co-emergent learning that accounts for learning from the individual to the organisational or institutional level. Part two looks at phronesis (“practical wisdom”) as Aristotle describ...
Presentation
Accelerating technological developments, especially artificial intelligence, are reshaping the way professional translators work, changing processes, tasking and demand structures. The recent improvements in the quality of raw machine translation (MT) output in many language versions have created increasing demand for MT post-editing, revision and...
Presentation
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Die rasanten sprachtechnologischen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre haben dazu geführt, dass der Begriff "menschlicher Mehrwert" sowie die Frage nach der Positionierung von Sprachprofis als "humans in the loop" zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt des Diskurses rund um die Produktionsprozesse der heutigen und künftigen Sprachindustrie rückt. Dabei legt sich...
Presentation
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For some years, Translation Studies has been increasingly connecting with the science of ecology, examples ranging from the use of ecological concepts to track the intricacies of disaster communication (Cadwell & O’Brien, 2016) to the eco-systemic underpinnings of “eco-translatology” (Hu, 2020) and Cronin’s (2017) political ecological notion of “ec...
Conference Paper
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The Łódź-ZHAW Duo Colloquium on Translation and Meaning is a successor to the internationally acclaimed event with the same concept, organised in Maastricht and Łódź from 1990 to 2015. The theme of the Duo Colloquium 2020/2021 is Contextuality in Translation and Interpreting. The Łódź session of the Faculty of Philology of the University of Łódź he...
Chapter
Overview of the central role of the human in the loop as a value-adding factor in the many and varied language industry and professions provided for students of applied linguistics.
Article
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Proceeding from accepted shared definitions of applied linguistics that stress its practical, real-world orientation and instrumentality, this article seeks to move the focus from the interdisciplinarity that has been identified as the nexus of translation studies in the past to how its applied branches should systematically engage with an emerging...
Presentation
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Organizations that operate internationally are challenged to manage communication strategically across different cultures and languages. However, it is questionable whether current principles are adequate for organizations looking to convey identities and strengthen reputations internationally. Key competences that help develop and transmit strateg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organizations that operate internationally are challenged to manage communication strategically across different cultures and languages. However, it is questionable whether current principles are adequate for organizations looking to convey identities and strengthen reputations internationally. Key competences that help develop and transmit strateg...
Article
Full-text available
The exploratory study reported in this article is predicated on the notion that human translators’ cognition represents a key added value over disembodied artificial intelligence. It re-frames the methods, data and results of a precursor study, and supplements them with additional data and analyses to develop a new cognitive perspective on re-posit...
Article
Translation pedagogy has evolved into a new sub-discipline of translation studies, but the focus has been almost exclusively on student competences and their development rather than on those actually doing the teaching. The multiple challenges presented by technology, digitalization and socio-ethical concerns have been lending increased impetus to...
Chapter
As an independent academic field, translation studies is still quite young, having essentially been born with the translator training institutions established in the aftermath of WWII. Initially, the educational process was largely limited to teacher-centered instruction in which students were taught rules and principles of what was essentially see...
Presentation
Translation Studies has long been considered an interdiscipline (Chesterman 2002). This paper argues that the next logical stage in the development of its applied branches is transdisciplinarity, which refers to research that bridges the gap between scientific knowledge production and societal knowledge demand as “an integral component of innovatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Translation Studies has long been considered an interdiscipline (Chesterman 2002). This paper argues that the next logical stage in the development of its applied branches is transdisciplinarity, which refers to research that bridges the gap between scientific knowledge production and societal knowledge demand as “an integral component of innovatio...
Presentation
Within the emergentist theoretical framework of the Communicative Constituency of Organizations (CCO; Schoeneborn et al., 2019), Organization Studies has shown a growing interest in exploring the agency of translators as they shape organizational and corporate identities and develop their own roles (Koskinen, Forthcoming/2020; Piekkari et al., 2019...
Presentation
Global health and environmental crises have thrown into sharp relief the interrelatedness of human agency with the ecological systems in which it is embedded. Translation Studies has seen a recent interest in connections between ecology and T&I, including how eco-systemic and eco-holistic concepts inform the emerging paradigm of “eco-translatology”...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organizations that operate internationally are challenged to manage communication strategically across different cultures and languages. However, it is questionable whether current principles are adequate for organizations looking to convey identities and strengthen reputations internationally. Key competences that help develop and transmit strateg...
Presentation
While increasing digitization is attractive in many domains, it is also a source of concern and scepticism in others. In education, especially in the areas of language learning and teaching, the introduction of digital tools can unnecessarily widen the gap between students and teachers if not done properly. Learners might value the accessibility an...
Presentation
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This guest lecture considers how an approach to translation and translator education that combines actual process observations with reverse-engineered product analyses can enrich the research and teaching being done by filling some of the gaps about translators’ decision-making left by reverse engineering. The speaker does not advocate an exclusive...
Chapter
The last thirty years have witnessed a steady increase in the pursuit and status of translation process research (TPR) and of audiovisual translation (AVT) research in translation studies. This chapter explores past, present and potential future intersections between the two fields. Distinguishing between TPR in AVT reception studies and research f...
Chapter
This chapter traces principal directions taken in the theory, research and practice of translation teacher training. It examines the scattered published information on translation teacher training, which obviously takes place at the institutional level, though inter-institutional initiatives are relatively rare and the extent to which translation t...
Book
The second edition of this volume is an updated and expanded compendium of reports and reflections on the development of principles and practices for fomenting authentic experiential learning in professional T&I educational programs. It brings together the voices of 14 translation and interpreting scholars and educators reprsenting several differen...
Book
This is the second edition of a volume that brought together the voices of a number of translation and interpreting scholars and educators representing several different cultures and language combinations, in order to present their views on, and experience with, authentic experiential learning in professional translation and interpreting programs....
Book
From the publisher's website: This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the key issues shaping the language industry, including translation, interpreting, machine translation, editing, terminology management, technology and accessibility. By exploring current and future research topics and methods, the Companion addresses language industry s...
Presentation
As cognitive translation studies gains increasing momentum within the overarching purview of translation studies, there has been – quite rationally – a growing interest in actual and potential interfaces with the broader field of cognitive linguistics. Puzzingly, however, it is only to a relatively limited extent that cognitive or conceptual metaph...
Chapter
Case studies of experiential learning scenarios inside (and outside) the translator education classroom investigate the learning effects on students involved and/or present models of the way that students learn. However, the effects on other actors, like the educators and the organizations they work for, are only rarely addressed in translation ped...
Presentation
Since the beginnings of translation studies and their first systematic mapping by Holmes (1972/2004; Toury 1995), the diverse activities and definitions of the applied branches of translation research share the condition of relevant practical applicability – to the practices, processes and products of translation per se, but also to the contexts an...
Presentation
This talk addresses the effects that digitalisation is having on the translation profession and on the education that prepares students for it, focussing in particular on the (likely) impact of advances in (neural) machine translation and other tools on employment and demand in the translation industry. It looks at how the profession and its educat...
Article
This special issue is devoted to training translator trainers, a remarkably neglected field of inquiry given the strong interest shown in translation pedagogy since translation studies first emerged as a discipline. The very term ‘trainer’ belies the complexity of roles and demands that these educators have to fulfil, some of which is captured in t...
Presentation
Full-text available
Part 2 of a keynote presentation prepared with Don Kiraly. Following some fifty years of 'conduit-style' translator training (largely teacher-centered, transmissionist and often focused on largely decontextualized contrastive linguistic transcoding, the 21st century finally heralded in a new educational (as opposed to merely training) perspective:...
Presentation
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This talk focuses on legal (and other) translation as both a cognitive act and a situated event of interactions with a sociotechnical environment; diversifying translator tasks and roles due to evolving technologization, organizational and work contexts; market and productivity demands; socioethical requirements. It considers their effects on compe...
Chapter
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While the nature and status of translators' work are changing due to technologisation and other factors, translation is acquiring a strategic function in organisations. The intercultural component of translation competence makes translators well positioned to play a key role in assuring quality in international corporate communications. But quality...
Article
L’utilisation des technologies a conduit à s’intéresser à leur impact sur les processus cognitifs et les traductions. En se fondant sur des données émanant de traducteurs professionnels et d’étudiants, les auteurs s’interrogent sur la traduction outillée en tant qu’activité cognitive et organisationnelle. Ils recommandent que les traducteurs s’appr...
Article
Full-text available
Keywords English: Authentic experiential learning has enjoyed widespread and growing advocacy in translator and language-mediator education. It is epistemologically rooted in experiential learning theory (Kolb 1984) and predicated on the assumption that only through deliberate and reflective practice can the adaptive expertise necessary to professi...
Article
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Peer-reviewed dialogue on the future of translator and language mediator education in the face of the current challenges and opportunities to the language professions presented by technological advances in artificial intelligence and the sociio-ethical demands related to inclusiveness and accessibility.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Behind the diverse activities and definitions of applied linguistics lies the shared condition of relevant practical applicability to loci of linguistic interaction and transfer, including education and work. In order to be properly described and understood, the situated activity of a prototypical language-mediation profession like translation sugg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The mixed methods employed in Translation Process Research (TPR) are now well-established means of investigating cognitive and socio-technical issues in professional translation and translator competence development. As such, they are also potentially transferable to other types of professional language work, especially those characterized by stron...
Presentation
Full-text available
This paper explores the effects of technologies on the profession of translation and on translator education. It considers the predicted impact of artificial intelligence on employment and demand in the translation industry, and looks at how the translation profession will need to re-position itself in order to exploit the full potential of value-a...
Presentation
Over a number of decades, translation pedagogy has been almost exclusively focussed on student competences and their development rather than on those actually doing the teaching. This talk attempts to redress the balance. After considering current and future challenges in translation practice and teaching, the present paper focuses on a use case fr...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is the product of parallel as well as joint efforts by the three authors (Don Kiraly and Sascha Hofmann, faculty members of the School of Translation, Linguistics and Cultural Studies [FTSK] of the University of Mainz, Germany, and Gary Massey, Director of the Institute for Translation and Interpretation [IUED] at the Zurich University...
Article
Once largely focussed on problem-solving and translation products, translation research is transitioning to a broader interest in the organizational and societal conditions in which translators work. For a number of years, research techniques have been tested and used in the laboratory to measure, quantify, and objectively describe language process...
Presentation
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This lecture and workshop are divided into three parts. In the first part, the historical development of models of translation competence and translation competence development will be critical reviewed and gaps explored. The growing awareness of the situatedness of translation work and the key influence and constraints of sociotechnical systems on...
Presentation
Full-text available
This keynote talk presents key aspects of the challenges and opportunities facing the futures of T&I professions in the face of artificial intelligence, job convergence and other sociocultural developments, focusing on the prime example of the interprofessional potential of translation and translators at the interface with organisational communicat...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores some of the actual and potential effects that the digital present is having, and the digital future is likely to have, both on the highly technologized profession of translation and on the education aimed at preparing students for it. It begins by considering the predicted impact of artificial intelligence on employment and de...
Chapter
Full-text available
The 1st Swiss Conference on Barrier-free Communication was held on 15th – 16th September 2017 at the Department of Applied Linguistics of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Winterthur, Switzerland. It was addressed at researchers, academics, practitioners and members of the target groups, and aimed to provide an international forum...
Presentation
As international communication management gains momentum and translation acquires an increasingly strategic function in organisations (Huck-Sandhu, 2015, 2016; Massardo et al. 2016), the intercultural mediation inherent in translators’ work (Liddicoat, 2016) makes them well-positioned to play an integral part in assessing and assuring output qualit...
Presentation
Full-text available
The major challenges facing translator education today are closely tied to changes confronting the translation profession itself. Socio-ethical, regulatory and economic requirements to provide universal, comprehensible access to information and services are extending the roles and responsibilities expected of translators, with user-centred text des...
Presentation
Full-text available
For T&I education to remain relevant and necessary to its stakeholders (students, employers, society at large), it must produce graduates who fulfil real societal and economic needs and who receive appropriate rewards for doing so. Underlying trends in an increasingly volatile work market seem to indicate a growing demand for adaptive expertise as...
Presentation
Overview of MT content in the MA currlculum for Professional Translation in the IUED Institute of Translation and Interpreting at the ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences. Emphasis is placed on knowledge of pre-editing. post-editing and MT systems not only from a user perspective, but also from an evaluative, consultative and advisory one.
Presentation
Many of the major concerns and challenges facing today’s translator and interpreter education, and the future of the language-mediation professions themselves, are linked to the concerns and challenges confronting society at large. Pivotal to these developments is communication within and across languages, societies, cultures and their various stak...
Presentation
This paper explores some of the actual and potential effects that the digital present is having, and the digital future is likely to have, both on the highly technologized profession of translation and on the education aimed at preparing students for it. The paper begins by considering the predicted impact of artificial intelligence on employment a...
Article
According to the International Ergonomics Association, a focus on organizational ergonomics recognizes that people work within socio-technical systems that encompass tools, equipment, and computer interfaces as well as other actors in their professional environment and networks. In recent research, we have started investigating such socio-technical...
Conference Paper
Keywords: Co-emergence, competence development, translator education, action research, organizational learning 0. Abstract Whether as mentorships, work placements or intra-curricular learning scenarios like translation projects, student translation companies and agency simulators, authentic experiential learning has enjoyed widespread and growing a...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the movement from translation process models to the modeling and investigation of translation competence and its development. A developmental or acquisitional teleology is implicitly present in the many more studies that set out to investigate the differences between nonexpert translation competence and professional translator...
Article
Full-text available
Encountered at all levels of language, conceptual asymmetries between source and target languages present translators with fundamental challenges that require problem awareness, problem identification and problem solving. A case in point is conceptual metaphor in translation. Versions of conceptual metaphor theory have been applied in various produ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Machines are learning fast, and human translators must keep pace by learning about, with and from them. Deep learning (DL) and neural machine translation (NMT) are set to change the face of translation and the distributions of primary tasks, with TAUS predicting Fully Automatic Useful Translation (FAUT) by 2030. Although theoretical and practical c...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter considers a transversal approach to research-driven teaching, exploring how research at the IUED Institute of Translation and Interpreting at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences has fed into didactic and actionresearch initiatives in an attempt to narrow the theory-practice divide in translator and language-mediator education. Af...
Article
Machines are learning fast, and human translators must keep pace by learning with, from and about them. Deep learning (DL) and neural machine translation (NMT) are set to change the reality of translation and the distributions of tasks. Although theoretical and practical courses on computer-aided and/or machine translation abound, less attention ha...
Chapter
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Der hier beschriebene "optimale" Arbeitsplatz enthält die Quintessenz aus Beiträgen aus dem Blickwinkel der persönlichen Selbstorganisation der Kapitelverantwortlichen, der Ergonomie, untermauert durch Erkenntnisse aus einem kürzlich abgeschlossenen Foschungsprojekt der ZHAW Zürcher Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften zur Ergonomie am Übersetz...
Article
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Despite the fact that professional translation is characterized by human-machine interaction, the ergonomics of the professional translation workplace is relatively under-researched. In order to gain further insights into how translators worldwide have set up and organized their workplaces, an anonymous online survey was developed by a team of rese...
Presentation
Full-text available
Abstract For some time, attempts to bridge the “academy-industry divide” (Drugan, 2013) by professionalising learners have been a major concern of translator education, most clearly reflected in the widespread uptake of “authentic experiential learning” (Kiraly et al., 2016a) in the form of mentorships, work placements and intra-curricular learning...
Presentation
Full-text available
The recognition of translation as a situated event, as opposed to a purely internal cognitive act, has seen translation research and pedagogy reaching beyond the narrow confines of the translator’s mind to focus more broadly on the way translators interact with the physical, social, technological and organisational environments in which they work....
Presentation
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Forums designed to forge closer links between translator education institutions and the language industry (e.g. LIND-Web Forum 2013; Translating Europe Forum 2014) repeatedly call for increased action to narrow the employability and skills gap between graduates and the needs of the work market, while the “academy-industry divide” has been an abidin...
Presentation
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In a recently published chapter, Kiraly and Hofmann (2015: 70-72) criticise the compartmentalised “patchwork quilt” of courses in the linear, subcompetence-oriented curricular design resulting from the Bologna Process. Instead, they propose an emergentist multi-vortex model of competence development (Kiraly 2015: 81-85; see also Kiraly 2013: 209-21...
Presentation
Full-text available
The constraints faced by many translator training programmes place severe limitations on implementing extra-curricular solutions to professionalise students, necessitating alternative measures to enhance student employability, professionalism and ultimately translator competence. We report briefly on ways in which curricula can be designed to provi...
Chapter
Translation Studies has devoted considerable attention to the translation of metaphor. While many earlier contributions addressed the translatability of lexical metaphors and heuristically classified procedures for transferring them, later studies use empirical data from bilingual corpora of texts to explore the procedures and parameters of lexical...
Chapter
Translation expertise appears to be achieved largely through a combination of proceduralisation and metacognitive self-regulation, emerging over time under conditions of deliberate practice involving well-defined tasks of appropriate difficulty and the decisive impact of informative feedback. The deliberate and now widespread practice of authentic,...
Chapter
For more than a decade, action research has been explicitly advocated as a practical and practicable tool in translation studies. Over the same period, it has been used to research translator education, with qualitative case studies regarded as a viable means to help teachers and institutions better understand what translation competence is and how...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since Krings’s ground-breaking work on exploring translators’ cognitive processes, translation research has been developing and implementing tools and techniques to investigate the processes behind translation products, and the effects of those processes on the quality of target texts. These have been used to build and test models of translation co...
Conference Paper
For more than a decade, action research has been explicitly advocated as a practical and practicable tool in translation studies in general (e.g. Hatim 2001; Cravo and Neves 2007) as well as in specialised subdomains such as audiovisual translation (e.g. Neves 2005, Bogucki 2013). Over the same period, it has been used to research translator educat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing use of language technology tools, such as translation memory, termbanks, and online dictionaries, has prompted an interest in their impact on cognitive processes, creativity, and the quality of translation products. Originally designed to improve consistency and increase speed, tools also facilitate searches for information and the r...
Conference Paper
he increasing use of language technology tools, such as translation memory systems, termbanks, and online dictionaries, has prompted an interest in their impact on cognitive processes, creativity, and the quality of translation products. Ideally, CAT tools relieve translators of the tedium involved with text production and help them to find creativ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reports from the last two LIND-Web (2012, 2013) language industry forums call for the closer integration of universities, industry and associations in order to increase student contact with professional practice, heighten awareness of productivity requirements and broaden exposure to fast-moving technological developments. The perceived gap between...
Chapter
Full-text available
The increasing use of language technologies has prompted an interest in their impact on cognitive processes and translation products. Potential issues related to human-machine interactions include working conditions, time and resource management, and emotional factors. Drawing on a large corpus of translation processes collected from professionals...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the 1980s, translation research has been developing and implementing tools and techniques to investigate the processes behind translation products, and the effects of those processes on the quality of target texts. Models of translation competence have been built and tested, key aspects of which have found their way into translator training p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Translation expertise appears to be achieved largely through a combination of proceduralisation and metacognition, emerging over time under conditions of deliberate practice involving well-defined tasks of appropriate difficulty and the impact of informative feedback (Shreve 2006). Alongside the deployment of process-oriented techniques to heighten...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the interface between translation studies and ergonomics, especially those factors that can affect cognitive processing. Professional translators perform a challenging multi-activity task involving receptive and productive language proficiency, advanced information literacy skills, and a high degree of instrumental competence....
Chapter
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One of the major challenges in translation process research has been establishing its rele-vance to the quality of products. Comparisons of individuals with different levels of experi-ence can and have been used in attempts to identify the parameters associated with transla-tion competence. The present article explores how various quantitative meas...
Article
Full-text available
Die rasante Entwicklung digitaler Medien führt zu tiefgreifenden Veränderungen im menschlichen Kommunikationsverhalten. Als Rezipienten und Produzenten digital vermittelter Kommunikationshandlungen sehen sich ÜbersetzerInnen vor besondere Anforderungen gestellt. Wie aktuelle kognitive Modelle der Übersetzungskompetenz postulieren, müssen sie einers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Krings’ (1986) description of translation in terms of three phases (Vorlauf, Hauptlauf, Nachlauf) has provided a framework for considering the process both from an external perspective, as part of a system (e.g. Schubert 2009), and internally, as a cognitive activity (e.g. Englund Dimitrova 2005; Göpferich 2008). In the latter case, comparisons hav...
Article
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In many experimental studies on assessing post-editing efficiency, idiosyncratic user interfaces isolate translators from transla-tion aids that are available to them in their daily work. In contrast, our experimen-tal design allows translators to use a well-known translator workbench for both con-ventional translation and post-editing. We find tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Translation is an event involving a variety of agents and at the same time a cognitive act forming part of the event (Chesterman 2011, Toury 2012). Professional translators live “in a crowd”, interfacing and interacting with all kinds of partners involved both in the event and the act of translation, and team translation is rapidly becoming the nor...
Article
Full-text available
The parallels between writing research and translation process research range from the objects of study (text producers and texts) to the methods employed in investigating them. Similar to writing research, translation studies has recently moved from an almost exclusive focus on products towards considering workplace and cognitive processes and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Indicators of cognitive ergonomic issues have been identified in a large corpus of data collected in a recently completed longitudinal study of translation competence. Models of situated cognition, translation competence, and organizational constraints provide the framework to assess and describe their potential impact on the situated activity of p...

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Projects (7)
Project
Combining process and product-oriented approaches to data gathering and analysis to better access, describe and explain the way conceptual metaphor in translation is mapped and re-mapped between source and target texts.