Gary Kreps

Gary Kreps
George Mason University | GMU · Department of Communication

Ph.D.

About

223
Publications
50,084
Reads
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7,721
Citations
Introduction
I am a University Distinguished Professor of Communication at George Mason University where I Direct the Center for Health and Risk Communication. I study communication in health care/promotion to prevent health risks, reduce health disparities, & enhance quality of care. I am currently exporting the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to China and developing the Global Advocacy Leadership Academy (GALA) to provide training and support to health advocates.
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - present
George Mason University
Position
  • George Mason University, Professor of Communication, Director of the Center for Health and Risk Communication
July 1999 - August 2004
National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
Position
  • founding Chief
June 1999 - July 2004
National Cancer Institute (USA), Chief of the Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch
Position
  • National Cancer Institute (USA)
Education
August 1976 - May 1979
University of Southern California
Field of study
  • Communication
August 1975 - June 1976
University of Colorado Boulder
Field of study
  • Communication
August 1973 - June 1975
University of Colorado Boulder
Field of study
  • Communication

Publications

Publications (223)
Article
This paper describes the developmentand introduction of an important new international health survey research program, HINTS‐China, which builds upon HINTS, the established national repeated‐measure US‐based survey that has been used over the past decade to inform national public health policies. The major goal of the first two administrations of t...
Article
Providing access to relevant, accurate, and timely health information is critically important for promoting public health in local, national, and global contexts, especially when confronting challenging health issues, such as a global pandemic.
Chapter
Full-text available
Health communication challenges facing Chinese-American immigrants
Article
In Japan, risk behaviors for cancer remain inadequately controlled, often due to a lack of necessary information and support to guide consumers in cancer control decisions. The use of strategic health communication efforts based on social marketing has substantial potential to provide groups of consumers who are underinformed or misinformed with re...
Article
This study was conducted from a behaviour change perspective to assess the association between the constructs of Health Belief Model and enrolment in health insurance (HI). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 810 households in Kailali and Baglung districts. The study used personal interviews to collect data. Perceived susceptibility, severi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective People with lower levels of health literacy are likely to report engaging in information avoidance. However, health information avoidance has been overlooked in previous research on responses to viral outbreaks. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey study was to assess the relationship between health literacy and COVID-19 information...
Article
Missed clinical opportunities and the lack of strong and consistent vaccine recommendations are key reasons for low HPV vaccination rates. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot evaluation of a web-based training’s impact on knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy related to providing evidence-based HPV vaccine recommendations. Participan...
Chapter
Human development is divided by a number of different developmental psychology theories into “stages,” which are non-repeatable phases in human mental development, each of which involves new behavioral and cognitive features in the child becoming apparent. While the speed with which an individual child passes from stage to stage differs according t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV)is a public health problem globally and is most common in developing countries. IPV affects more than one-fourth of all women of reproductive age [WRA]. It is most critical during pregnancy. IPV not only affects physical and mental well-being but also leads to negative consequences with birth outcomes. The...
Article
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The world is getting into a new phase in history. For the first time, humans are verbally communicating and developing meaningful relationships with non-living objects. AI is a wormhole to open a gateway to the new world, and the COVID-19 pandemic prepared the world to transform its system to be an open system that responds to, communicates with, a...
Article
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As humanoid robot technology, anthropomorphized by artificial intelligence (AI), has rapidly advanced to introduce more human-resembling automated robots that can communicate , interact, and work like humans, we have begun to expect active interactions with Humanoid AI Robots (HAIRs) in the near future. Coupled with the HAIR technology development,...
Article
The study analysed antenatal care (ANC) services usage trends related to exposure to mass media based upon data from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys [NDHS] conducted in 2006, 2011, and 2016. Total 12,212 women aged 15-49 having live births within five years preceding each survey included in the study. Most independent variables were foun...
Article
Exposure to mass media plays a crucial role in behavior change or decision-making. The study used a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 810 households were randomly selected for data collection by using a validated interview schedule. The study examined exposure to radio, television (TV), hoarding boards (billboards), newspapers, and brochure...
Article
Health communication is a crucial social process for responding to devastating pandemics, which demand timely, accurate, and culturally sensitive communication that meaningfully informs coordinated and effective responses. The current coronavirus pandemic has not been responded to well in many parts of the world due, in large part, to ineffective c...
Article
Background: Acculturation is an important factor that is uniquely associated with health literacy among racial/ethnic minorities. We examined the relationship between acculturation and health literacy among Chinese speakers in the USA who have limited English proficiency. Since language proficiency is an important subcomponent of acculturation, we...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a facilitated interactive role-playing activity on increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine recommendation skills for school nurses and school-based health center staff. A 1-day workshop was implemented for school-based clinicians focused on improving HPV vaccination rates in schools. The workshop incl...
Article
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Objective Scalable, deliberate practice training strategies to administer evidence-based recommendations are necessary to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates. We sought to characterize resident clinicians’ perceptions regarding the usability of the HPV Vaccine: Same Way, Same Day™ smartphone application (app). Usability, a critical...
Chapter
Allergic rhinitis (AR) for the most part initially occurs in early childhood and is the result of hypersensitivity to specific allergens, which trigger an IgE-linked inflammatory reaction in the lining of the nose. Although any patient above the age of 2 years may become sensitized to allergens in the outdoor environment, the highest incidence is i...
Article
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Governments throughout the world can learn many critical lessons from examining instances of ineffective communication with the public during the global coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) pandemic. Ineffective government communication has resulted in a great deal of public confusion and misunderstanding, as well as serious errors in responding to this...
Article
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Health communication and health literacy are complementary areas of study and application. However, the important connections between the work conducted in these two related areas of inquiry do not appear to have always been well understood, nor appreciated, leading to limited integration and coordination between health communication and health lit...
Article
E‐health is a relatively young but rapidly growing area of health communication inquiry that examines the development, implementation, and application of a broad range of evolving health information technologies (HITs) in modern society. HITs have been designed to track, analyze,and disseminate relevant health information, deliver healthcare servic...
Article
Communication inquiry has developed as an exciting and rapidly growing area of social scientific, critical, and humanistic research examining the powerful influences of human and mediated communication in society. The complexity of achieving desired communication goals, such as influencing entrenched problematic behaviors (e.g., challenges influenc...
Article
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This article provides an overview of the development and growth of the exciting and relevant academic field of health communication scholarship. The key areas of health communication study are described, as are the important applications of this work for promoting health. Key areas for health communication scholarship are examined, such as the prom...
Article
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Diagnoses of Alzheimer’s, dementia and other mental health conditions using the “family history method” can often be inaccurate, biased and possibly ill-motivated. Definitive clinical testing and/or biological tests rarely exist for most mental illnesses. Even when tests (such as PET scans or excess Abeta42 in cerebral spinal fluid indicating prese...
Article
Youth are important change agents for social, political and economic issues. However, research evidence suggests that many youth, especially females, face many challenges in Nepal in reaching their social potential due to serious problems with educational access and attainment. This study examines the influence of educational attainment on achievin...
Chapter
The quality of life can be impacted by the smell as well as taste syndromes. As far as the smell and taste senses are concerned, they have dispensed three major roles—cautioning of imminent risk, communication with different people, and significance during eating as well as drinking. These responsibilities show the issues of individuals who are exp...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to develop and assess an instrument evaluating the quality of online continuing medical education interventions for clinicians. A review of seminal literature for evaluating health-related websites was conducted to incorporate best practices from health education, health communication, and web-based design principles....
Preprint
Background: Intimate partner violence [IPV] is a public health problem globally and is most common in developing countries. IPV affects more than one fourth of all women of reproductive age [WRA]. It is most critical during pregnancy. IPV not only affects physical and mental well-being but also leads to negative consequences with birth outcomes. Th...
Preprint
Background: Intimate partner violence [IPV] is a public health problem globally and most common in developing countries that affects more than one fourth of women of reproductive age [WRA]. It is more critical during pregnancy. IPV not only affects physical and mental well-being but also leads to negative consequences in with birth outcomes. Method...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an innovative conceptual framework for designing a Comprehensive Digital Self-care Support System (CDSSS) to meet the health needs -physical, mental and social health needs of older adults and their caregivers. Older adults deal with multiple co-morbidities, medications and their side effects, fragmented care and often have poor...
Article
Full-text available
This essay used a content analysis method, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention research tool, the Clear Communication Index, to evaluate the understandability levels of 10 office and six agency's health websites, under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, which are designed for p...
Article
Full-text available
Military deployments can place stress on family members that can affect their physiological and psychological health. Although there has been much research on online social support in health-related groups, there is limited research on online social support in a deployment context. The researchers of this study conducted a content analysis of 151 d...
Article
Numerous online HPV vaccine education interventions for clinicians have been created to improve HPV vaccinations rates. The aims for this study were to (1) assess the content of the purpose statements and learning objectives of online HPV vaccine continuing medical education (CME) activities developed for clinicians and (2) identify themes and gaps...
Chapter
There is tremendous potential to utilize new and emerging digital channels of communication to help raise public environmental health literacy. Modern society is in the midst of a communication revolution that is rapidly expanding public use of digital communication systems and tools for many goals and purposes. Yet, there is a plethora of complex,...
Article
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Patient understanding of health care recommendations provided by health care professionals is essential to enabling active and informed patient participation in care. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that patients often seriously misunderstand relevant health information provided to them, leading to errant patient decisions about their care. This c...
Article
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Background: Depression is a mood disorder that may lead to severe outcomes including mental breakdown, self-injury, and suicide. Potential causes of depression include genetic, sociocultural, and individual-level factors. However, public understandings of depression guided by a complex interplay of media and other societal discourses might not be...
Article
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Background: Social media are potentially powerful channels for communicating relevant health information in culturally sensitive and influential ways to key audiences. Moreover, these channels hold promise for promoting awareness and knowledge of health risks, prevention, and treatment by utilizing opinion leaders for message dissemination. Despit...
Article
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Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates fall far short of Healthy People 2020 objectives. A leading reason is that clinicians do not recommend the vaccine consistently and strongly to girls and boys in the age group recommended for vaccination. Although Web-based HPV vaccine educational interventions for clinicians have been creat...
Chapter
Full-text available
This entry describes the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), which is a powerful qualitative research method that generates insightful narrative data about user experiences with specific programs and services. The key steps in conducting and reporting CIT are described, as are the uses and applications of CIT data. The data gathered with CIT provide...
Article
The growing use of digital health communication channels has produced dramatic changes, providing broad access to information for making health decisions and addressing users' emotional needs. Digital health communication channels combine mass and interpersonal communication in different ways. Type 1 convergence occurs sequentially: Individuals obt...
Article
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This paper examines the importance of health literacy to the design and use of mobile digital health information technology (mHealth) applications. Over the past two decades mHealth has evolved to become a major health communication channel for delivering health care, promoting health, and tracking health behaviors. Yet, there are serious communica...
Article
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Health disparities are a serious problem for members of minority communities in the United States. Disparities do not only lead to negative influences and inequities in the outcomes from serious physical health problems (such as cancer, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) for members of minority communities, but also lead to significant problems...
Article
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The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of emotional anti-smoking advertisements can help discourage smoking over logical anti-smoking advertisements. Although research has proven that logical advertisements can be useful, the authors predict that emotional advertisements will be more effective because people are highly driven by...
Article
The Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) is a major source for data about the U.S. public’s access to and use of health information. A collaboration has been established between the United States and China to conduct the HINTS survey in China, under the auspices of the Chinese Ministry of Health. Pilot data have been collected in two m...
Article
Full-text available
Since the development of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006, significant promotion efforts have targeted adolescent females and their parents in order to reduce the incidence of HPV and related cancers. Yet vaccination rates for pre-adolescents (the recommended age of administration) still lag behind. Social media and social network cam...
Chapter
Engaging patients as partners in their care is essential for improving health, enhancing the delivery of care, and reducing costs. The need for patient engagement applies across the cancer control continuum, across clinician type (primary and specialty care), and across delivery settings (hospital, ambulatory practices, and the community). Patient...
Article
Background: Legislation mandates that clinicians make patients' medical information available digitally. This has resulted in hurriedly installing patient portals that do not fully meet the needs of patients or clinicians. This study examined a specific portal, MyPreventiveCare (MPC), a patient-centered portal designed to promote preventive care t...
Article
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Background Patient portals have yet to achieve their full potential for enhancing health communication and improving health outcomes. Although the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in the United States mandates the utilization of patient portals, and usage continues to rise, their impact has not been as profound as anticipated. Objective...
Article
Once promised to revolutionize health care, patient portals have yet to fully achieve their potential of improving communication between patients and clinicians. In fact, their use can be detrimental to many consumers due to their limited literacy and numeracy skills. This study demonstrates how applying the Centers for Disease Control and Preventi...
Article
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Background: Early detection is a critical part of reducing the burden of breast cancer and breast selfexamination (BSE) has been found to be an especially important early detection strategy in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Although reports indicate that Malaysian women report an increase in BSE activity in recent years, additio...
Chapter
Although oral health has been declared a human right by WHO, it is a relatively neglected public health issue. Promoting proper daily oral hygiene to the public at large is essential, and the public should also be warned about behavioral risk factors that threaten oral health. Additional action is needed at the levels of scientific consensus, disea...
Article
Members of vulnerable populations-including people who are poor, elderly, immigrants, members of minority groups, have disabilities, and/or those with low levels of education-are at great risk for negative health outcomes. They need relevant, accurate, timely, up-to-date, understandable, culturally sensitive, and easy-to-use health information to m...
Article
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Background: Men with prostate cancer require ample information and support along the continuum of care, and eHealth is one way to meet such critical information and support needs. Currently, evidence about how age influences use and perceptions about prostate cancer eHealth information and support is lacking. Objective: The aim of this paper is...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Risk communication is an important component of improving the health and safety of Canadians. For numerous departments and agencies at all levels of government, as well as public and private organizations, effective risk communication can protect Canadians from preventable hazards. The Minister of Health, on behalf of Health Canada (the Sponsor), a...
Article
Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative t...
Article
Full-text available
This study used social network theory to explore the role of social support and social networks in health information-seeking behavior among Korean American (KA) adults. A descriptive qualitative study using a web-based online survey was conducted from January 2013 to April 2013 in the U.S. The survey included open-ended questions about health info...
Article
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Cancer is now the leading cause of death in China. Effective communication about cancer risk and prevention is an important component of cancer control. Yet, research in this area is very limited in China. This study used probability sample survey data from 2 Chinese cities (Beijing and Hefei, Anhui Province) to investigate potential predictors of...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of increasing user-generated online health information, the changing role of the patient, and the shift toward patient-driven care, it is timely to revisit the concept of health literacy by considering the twofold role of the patient as information seeker and provider. We claim that rather than limiting the patient’s role to that of a...
Article
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Traditional communication theory and research methods provide valuable guidance about designing and evaluating health communication programs. However, efforts to use health communication programs to educate, motivate, and support people to adopt healthy behaviors often fail to meet the desired goals. One reason for this failure is that health promo...
Article
Systematic evaluation research is needed to develop, implement, refine, and sustain effective health communication programs. Yet, evaluation research is not always well integrated into health communication intervention activities or even budgeted as part of health promotion efforts. If included in health promotion programs, evaluation research is o...
Article
This article introduces the Journal of Health Communication's special section, Evaluating Health Communication Programs. This special section is based on a public lecture series supported by the National Library of Medicine titled "Better Health: Evaluating Health Communication Programs" designed to share best practices for using evaluation researc...
Article
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Health communication programs are essential and ubiquitous tools in the delivery of care and promotion of health. Yet, health promotion experts are not always well informed about the influences communication programs have on the audiences they are designed to help. Too often health communication programs evoke unintended, and even negative, respons...
Article
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Korean Americans' (KAs) access to online health information and social support from personal social networks. Method: A cross-sectional online survey of KAs (N = 202) aged 18-49 was conducted. Results: KAs in large social networks had high access to social support from personal social networks. K...
Article
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Knowledge of health effects of smoking motivates quit attempts and sustained abstinence among smokers and also predicts greater acceptance of tobacco control efforts such as cigarette taxes and public smoking bans. We examined whether smokers in China, the world's largest consumer of cigarettes, recognized their heightened personal risk of cancer r...
Article
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The interdisciplinary intersections between communication science and health-related fields are pervasive, with numerous differences in regard to epistemology, career planning, funding perspectives, educational goals, and cultural orientations. This article identifies and elaborates on these challenges with illustrative examples. Furthermore, concr...
Article
Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cance...
Article
Full-text available
Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Gui...
Article
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Health advocacy can make significant contributions to promoting global health by shaping health promotion programs that are responsive to the needs of consumers. Health care consumers have a major stake in the health care system, yet have had difficulty influencing health policies and practices due to the limited power typically afforded them withi...
Article
Objective: This paper describes how design science theory and methods and use of artificial intelligence (AI) components can improve the effectiveness of health communication. Methods: We identified key weaknesses of traditional health communication and features of more successful eHealth/AI communication. We examined characteristics of the desi...
Article
Objective: We describe how ehealth communication programs can be improved by using artificial intelligence (AI) to increase immediacy. Methods: We analyzed major deficiencies in ehealth communication programs, illustrating how programs often fail to fully engage audiences and can even have negative consequences by undermining the effective deliv...
Article
To examine (1) Korean Americans' colorectal cancer (CRC) screening practices and (2) significant factors that affect the population's CRC screening. A cross-sectional survey of Korean Americans (N = 167) aged 50+ was conducted. Covariates included sociodemographics, acculturation, health status, health care access, CRC-related beliefs, and knowledg...