Gary Jones

Gary Jones
Nottingham Trent University | NTU · Division of Psychology

BSc, PhD

About

55
Publications
54,057
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2,130
Citations

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
Full-text available
Traditional accounts of verbal short-term memory explain differences in performance for different types of verbal material by reference to inherent characteristics of the verbal items making up memory sequences. The role of previous experience with sequences of different types is ostensibly controlled for either by deliberate exclusion or by presen...
Article
Full-text available
Nonword repetition (NWR) is highly predictive of vocabulary size, has strong links to language and reading ability, and is a clinical marker of language impairment. However, it is unclear what processes provide major contributions to NWR performance. This paper presents a computational model of NWR based on Chunking Lexical and Sub-lexical Sequence...
Article
This study examines the production of consonant clusters in simultaneous Polish–English bilingual children and in language-matched English monolinguals (aged 7;01–8;11). Selection of the language pair was based on the fact that Polish allows a greater range of consonant clusters than English. A nonword repetition task was devised in order to examin...
Article
Introduction: Depression and anxiety symptoms are highly prevalent in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and are commonly associated with schizotypy in non-clinical samples. However, it remains unclear what factors could be contributing to the relationships between schizotypy and anxiety and depression symptoms. Using path analysis, we explored the c...
Article
Systematic Review protocol registered on Prospero (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022298939) to answer the review question "What are the psychological and socio-cultural factors that contribute to disengagement from youth gangs?"
Preprint
Word segmentation is a crucial step in children’s vocabulary learning. Evaluation of computational models has focused on capturing infants’ segmentation performance in small-scale, artificial tasks, with less attention given to models’ performance on large-scale corpora of child-directed speech. Here, we extended CLASSIC (Jones et al., 2021) - a co...
Article
Full-text available
A key omission from many accounts of children’s early word learning is the linguistic knowledge that the child has acquired up to the point when learning occurs. We simulate this knowledge using a computational model that learns phoneme and word sequence knowledge from naturalistic language corpora. We show how this simple model is able to account...
Article
Full-text available
Concurrent learning of adjacent and nonadjacent dependencies has been shown in adults only. This study extended this line of research by examining dependency-specific learning for both adjacent and nonadjacent dependencies concurrently in both adults and children. Seventy adults aged 18 to 64 (40 women, 30 men; Experiment 1) and 64 children aged 10...
Article
We know that 8-month-old infants track the statistical properties of a series of syllables and that 2- and 3-year-old children process familiar phrases more efficiently than unfamiliar phrases, but less is known about the intermediary level of two-word sequences. In Study 1, 2-year-olds (N = 45, mean age = 651 days) heard two-word sequences consist...
Article
Full-text available
Such is the consistency by which performance on measures of short-term memory (STM) increase with age that developmental increases in STM capacity are largely accepted as fact. However, our analysis of a robust but almost ignored finding - that span for digit sequences (the traditional measure of STM) increases at a far greater rate than span for o...
Article
Full-text available
Perceiving speech in background noise presents a significant challenge to listeners. Intelligibility can be improved by seeing the face of a talker. This is of particular value to hearing impaired people and users of cochlear implants. It is well known that auditory-only speech understanding depends on factors beyond audibility. How these factors i...
Data
Supplemental material for Visual Speech Benefit in Clear and Degraded Speech Depends on the Auditory Intelligibility of the Talker and the Number of Background Talkers
Article
Full-text available
Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an...
Poster
Full-text available
Perceiving speech in background noise presents a significant challenge to listeners, particularly to individuals fitted with cochlear implants. However, seeing the face of a talker (visual speech) is known to improve speech perception. It is possible however, that benefits from visual speech information might vary according to the audio intelligibi...
Poster
Full-text available
Being able to see a talker’s face while they are speaking is of great benefit in challenging listening situations. However, people vary greatly in the extent to which they are able to use this ‘visual speech’ information when listening in background noise (Stacey et al, 2016). Twenty-five participants completed a battery of tests to examine what fa...
Article
Full-text available
Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of expos...
Conference Paper
Our environment is permeated with statistical regularities, occurring among adjacent elements (e.g., the syllable /pre/ is more likely to be followed by /ty/ than /on/) and nonadjacent elements (e.g., the morphosyntactic rule "is X-ing" where the intervened X is a verb). Previous research has been devoted to the investigation of how humans acquire...
Poster
Full-text available
Perceiving speech in background noise presents a significant challenge to listeners, particularly to individuals fitted with cochlear implants. However, seeing the face of a talker is known to improve speech perception. A recent study by Stacey, Kitterick, Morris & Sumner (2016) found that when listening to speech in multi-talker babble, participan...
Poster
Full-text available
Perceiving speech in background noise presents a significant challenge to listeners, and particularly to individuals fitted with cochlear implants. However, seeing the face of a talker is known to improve speech perception. A recent study by Stacey, Kitterick, Morris & Sumner (2016) found that when listening to speech in multi-talker babble, partic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we examine how a mechanism that learns word classes from distributional information can contribute to the simulation of child language. Using a novel measure of noun richness, it is shown that the ratio of nouns to verbs in young children's speech is considerably higher than in adult speech. Simulations with MOSAIC show that this effe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we evaluate a mechanism for the learning of word categories from distributional information against criteria of psychological plausibility. We elaborate on the ideas developed by Redington et al. (1998) by embedding the mechanism in an existing model of language acquisition (MOSAIC) and gradually expanding the contexts it has access t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we evaluate a mechanism for the learning of word categories from distributional information against criteria of psychological plausibility. We elaborate on the ideas developed by Redington et al. (1998) by embedding the mechanism in an existing model of language acquisition (MOSAIC) and gradually expanding the contexts it has access t...
Research
Full-text available
The effects of nutrition knowledge and interest when judging foodstuff healthiness were investigated while manipulating label format. In a computer based study 92 participants completed a pre-study questionnaire assessing nutrition knowledge and interest before making healthiness ratings for two types of nutrition label: standard and standard plus...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes an extension to the MOSAIC model which aims to increase MOSAIC's fit to the cross-linguistic occurrence of Optional Infinitive (OI) errors. While previous versions of MOSAIC have successfully simulated these errors as truncated compound finites with missing modals or auxiliaries, they have tended to underestimate the rate of OI...
Article
Insights are often productive outcomes of human thinking. We provide a cognitive model that explains insight problem solving by the interplay of problem space search and representational change, whereby the problem space is constrained or relaxed based on the problem representation. By introducing different experimental conditions that either const...
Article
Full-text available
Tests of nonword repetition (NWR) have often been used to examine children’s phonological knowledge and word learning abilities. However, theories of NWR primarily explain performance either in terms of phonological working memory or long term knowledge, with little consideration of how these processes interact. One theoretical account that focuses...
Article
Despite several recent important developments in understanding numerical processing of both isolated numbers and numbers in the context of arithmetic equations, the relative impact of congruency on high-level compared to low-level processing remains unclear. The current study investigated hemispheric differences in the processing of arithmetic mate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we compare several mechanisms for using distributional statistics to derive word class information. We contrast three different ways of computing statistics for independent left and right neighbours with the notion of a frequent frame. We also investigate the role of utterance boundaries as context items and weighting of frequency inf...
Article
Full-text available
The nine-dot problem is often used to demonstrate and explain mental impasse, creativity, and out of the box thinking. The present study investigated the interplay of a restricted initial search space, the likelihood of invoking a representational change, and the subsequent constraining of an unrestricted search space. In three experimental conditi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the role of syllabic structure in nonword repetition performance in typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (5;7-6;7 [years;months]) and 18 TD children matched for chronological age were tested on their ability to repe...
Article
Full-text available
The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further explan...
Article
Full-text available
Nonword repetition tasks (NWRTs) are employed widely in various studies on language development and are often relied upon as diagnostic tools. However, the mechanisms that underlie children’s performance in NWRTs are very little understood. In this paper we present NWRT data from typically-developing five to six year olds (5;4 – 6;8) and examine th...
Article
Full-text available
The chunking hypothesis suggests that during the repeated exposure of stimulus material, information is organized into increasingly larger chunks. Many researchers have not considered the full power of the chunking hypothesis as both a learning mechanism and as an explanation of human behavior. Indeed, in developmental psychology there is relativel...
Article
Full-text available
The nonword repetition test has been regularly used to examine children’s vocabulary acquisition, and yet there is no clear explanation of all of the effects seen in nonword repetition. This paper presents a study of 5–6year-old children’s repetition performance on three nonword repetition tests that vary in the degree of their lexicality. A model...
Article
Construction tasks form a major part of children's play and can be linked to achievement in maths and science. However there is a lack of understanding of construction task ability and development. Therefore, there is little foundation for the applied use of construction tasks, such as in teaching or research, as there are no apparent methods for a...
Article
Full-text available
Deficits in phonological working memory and deficits in phonological processing have both been considered potential explanatory factors in specific language impairment (SLI). Manipulations of the lexicality and phonotactic frequency of nonwords enable contrasting predictions to be derived from these hypotheses. Eighteen typically developing (TD) ch...
Article
Full-text available
Nonword repetition (NWR) has been used extensively in the study of child language. Although lexical and sublexical knowledge is known to influence NWR performance, there has been little examination of the NWR processes (e.g., encoding, storage, and articulation) that may be affected by lexical and sublexical knowledge. We administered two- and thre...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Inorder,to ground ,our ,understanding ,of cognitive development,we have ,started to create ,a model ,of how children,and ,adults ,solve ,a well-studied ,threedimensional,puzzle. We started,with a model,that fits the adult behaviour ,on the ,puzzle. We then ,modified ,the model's,cognitive ,architecture ,(ACT-R) and ,its perceptual/motor, a...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing working memory (WM) capacity is often cited as a major influence on children's development and yet WM capacity is difficult to examine independently of long-term knowledge. A computational model of children's nonword repetition (NWR) performance is presented that independently manipulates long-term knowledge and WM capacity to determine...
Article
Full-text available
Mental set is the tendency to solve certain problems in a fixed way based on previous solutions to similar problems. The moment of insight occurs when a problem cannot be solved using solution methods suggested by prior experience and the problem solver suddenly realizes that the solution requires different solution methods. Mental set and insight...
Article
Full-text available
The nonword repetition (NWR) test has been shown to be a good predictor of children's vocabulary size. NWR performance has been explained using phonological working memory, which is seen as a critical component in the learning of new words. However, no detailed specification of the link between phonological working memory and long-term memory (LTM)...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on nutrition labelling has mainly used subjective measures. This study examines the effectiveness of two types of nutrition label using two objective measures: eye movements and healthiness ratings. Eye movements were recorded while participants made healthiness ratings for two types of nutrition label: standard and standard plus...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the physical attributes of an object that influence the difficulty of its assembly. Identifying attributes that contribute to assembly difficulty will provide a method for predicting assembly complexity. Despite object assembly being a widespread task, there has been insufficient research into information processing and cognition du...
Chapter
Production systems are computer programs that reason using production rules. They have been used to create expert systems and models of human behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Insight problems are problems where the problem solver struggles to find a solution until * aha! * the solution suddenly appears. Two contemporary theories suggest that insight problems are difficult either because problem solvers begin with an incorrect representation of the problem, or that problem solvers apply inappropriate heuristics to the pr...
Article
Full-text available
There is a general lack of understanding as to what issues affect assembly task performance when using diagrammatic instructions because few of the task variables contributing to assembly complexity have been identified. Using a task analysis of a range of self-assembly products, seven task variables hypothesized to predict assembly complexity were...
Article
Full-text available
Insight in problem solving occurs when the problem solver fails to see how to solve a problem and then--"aha!"--there is a sudden realization how to solve it. Two contemporary theories have been proposed to explain insight. The representational change theory (e.g., G. Knoblich, S. Ohlsson, & G. E. Rainey, 2001) proposes that insight occurs through...
Article
Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate human performance. They have been useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive models could interact with the same interfaces that users do, the models would be easier to develop and would be easier to apply. This approach can be encap...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate human performance of cognitive skills. They have been useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive models could interact with the same interfaces that users do, the models would be easier to develop and would be easier to apply as inte...
Article
Full-text available
Pioneering work in the 1940s and 1950s suggested that the concept of 'chunking' might be important in many processes of perception, learning and cognition in humans and animals. We summarize here the major sources of evidence for chunking mechanisms, and consider how such mechanisms have been implemented in computational models of the learning proc...
Article
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Different theories of development propose alternative mechanisms by which development occurs. Cognitive architectures can be used to examine the influence of each proposed mechanism of development whilst keeping all other mechanisms constant. An ACT-R computational model was created which matched adult behavior in solving a 21 block pyramid puzzle....
Article
Full-text available
Tying a cognitive model to a task simulation and having it interact using a model eye and hand provides many benefits, such as accounting for both the physical constraints of the task and the time spent interacting with the task. A cognitive model and task simulation of a physical problem solving task are presented. The model is shown to match adul...
Article
Theories of development have proposed several mechanisms by which development occurs in children. The majority of the proposed mechanisms lack precise definitions, and are difficult to test individually whilst holding the effects of all other mechanisms constant. Implementing the mechanisms within a computational framework forces precision and enab...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
To use computational modelling techniques to understand the relation between cross-linguistic variation in early grammatical development and the distributional properties of the input language
Project
To use computational modelling techniques to understand the determinants of non word repetition performance