## About

68

Publications

19,658

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943

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Citations since 2017

Introduction

Gary Choi is an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow and Instructor in Applied Mathematics in the Department of Mathematics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include applied and computational geometry, interdisciplinary mathematical modeling, metamaterial design, quantitative biology, medical imaging, geometry processing, and scientific computing.

Education

August 2016 - May 2020

August 2016 - May 2019

August 2014 - July 2016

## Publications

Publications (68)

In this paper, we are concerned with the problem of creating flattening maps of simply-connected open surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Using a natural principle of density diffusion in physics, we propose an effective algorithm for computing density-equalizing flattening maps with any prescribed density distribution. By varying the initial density distr...

Kirigami tessellations, regular planar patterns formed by partially cutting flat, thin sheets, allow compact shapes to morph into open structures with rich geometries and unusual material properties. However, geometric and topological constraints make the design of such structures challenging. Here we pose and solve the inverse problem of determini...

Kirigami, the creative art of paper cutting, is a promising paradigm for mechanical metamaterials. However, to make kirigami-inspired structures a reality requires controlling the topology of kirigami to achieve connectivity and rigidity. We address this question by deriving the maximum number of cuts (minimum number of links) that still allow us t...

Significance
Origami, the art of paper folding, is an emerging platform for mechanical metamaterials. Prior work on the design of origami-based structures has focused on simple geometric constructions for limited spaces of origami typologies or global constrained optimization problems that are difficult to solve. Here, we reverse the mathematical,...

Significance
Understanding how development and evolution shape functional morphology is a basic question in biology. A paradigm of this is the finch’s beak that has adapted to different diets and behaviors over millions of years. We take a mathematical and physical perspective to quantify the nature of beak shape variations, how they emerge from ch...

Surface parameterization is of fundamental importance for many tasks in computer vision and imaging. In recent years, computational quasi-conformal geometry has become an emerging tool for the design of efficient and accurate parameterization methods for both surface meshes and point clouds. More specifically, using quasi-conformal (QC) theory, it...

Adaptive avian radiations associated with the diversification of bird beaks into a multitude of forms enabling different functions are exemplified by Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers. To elucidate the nature of these radiations, we quantified beak shape and skull shape using a variety of geometric measures that allowed us to collapse the...

The persistence of imperfect mimicry in nature presents a challenge to mimicry theory. Some hypotheses for the existence of imperfect mimicry make differing predictions depending on how mimetic fidelity is measured. Here, we measure mimetic fidelity in a brood parasite-host system using both trait-based and response-based measures of mimetic fideli...

Recent advances in high-resolution imaging techniques and particle-based simulation methods have enabled the precise microscopic characterization of collective dynamics in various biological and engineered active matter systems. In parallel, data-driven algorithms for learning interpretable continuum models have shown promising potential for the re...

Controlling the connectivity and rigidity of kirigami, i.e. the process of cutting paper to deploy it into an articulated system, is critical in the manifestations of kirigami in art, science and technology, as it provides the resulting metamaterial with a range of mechanical and geometric properties. Here we combine deterministic and stochastic ap...

In medical imaging, surface registration is extensively used for performing systematic comparisons between anatomical structures, with a prime example being the highly convoluted brain cortical surfaces. To obtain a meaningful registration, a common approach is to identify prominent features on the surfaces and establish a low-distortion mapping be...

Kirigami, the art of introducing cuts in thin sheets to enable articulation and deployment, has become an inspiration for a novel class of mechanical metamaterials with unusual properties. Here we complement the use of periodic tiling patterns for kirigami designs by showing that quasicrystals can also serve as the basis for designing deployable ki...

Geometric graph models of systems as diverse as proteins, DNA assemblies, architected materials and robot swarms are useful abstract representations of these objects that also unify ways to study their properties and control them in space and time. While much work has been done in the context of characterizing the behaviour of these networks close...

We present an additive approach for the inverse design of kirigami-based mechanical metamaterials by focusing on the design of the negative spaces instead of the kirigami tiles. By considering each negative space as a four-bar linkage, we discover a simple recursive relationship between adjacent linkages, yielding an efficient method for creating k...

The parameterization of open and closed anatomical surfaces is of fundamental importance in many biomedical applications. Spherical harmonics, a set of basis functions defined on the unit sphere, are widely used for anatomical shape description. However, establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the object surface and the entire unit sphere...

Geometric graph models of systems as diverse as proteins, robots, and mechanical structures from DNA assemblies to architected materials point towards a unified way to represent and control them in space and time. While much work has been done in the context of characterizing the behavior of these networks close to critical points associated with b...

Image registration has been widely studied over the past several decades, with numerous applications in science, engineering and medicine. Most of the conventional mathematical models for large deformation image registration rely on prescribed landmarks, which usually require tedious manual labeling. In recent years, there has been a surge of inter...

Conformal and quasi-conformal mappings have widespread applications in imaging science, computer vision and computer graphics, such as surface registration, segmentation, remeshing, and texture map compression. While various conformal and quasi-conformal parameterization methods for simply connected surfaces have been proposed, efficient parameteri...

With the advancement in 3D scanning technology, there has been a surge of interest in the use of point clouds in science and engineering. To facilitate the computations and analyses of point clouds, prior works have considered parameterizing them onto some simple planar domains with a fixed boundary shape such as a unit circle or a rectangle. Howev...

The parameterization of open and closed anatomical surfaces is of fundamental importance in many biomedical applications. Spherical harmonics, a set of basis functions defined on the unit sphere, are widely used for anatomical shape description. However, establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the object surface and the entire unit sphere...

With the advancement of computer technology, there is a surge of interest in effective mapping methods for objects in higher-dimensional spaces. To establish a one-to-one correspondence between objects, higher-dimensional quasi-conformal theory can be utilized for ensuring the bijectivity of the mappings. In addition, it is often desirable for the...

Kirigami involves cutting a flat, thin sheet that allows it to morph from a closed, compact configuration into an open deployed structure via coordinated rotations of the internal tiles. By recognizing and generalizing the geometric constraints that enable this art form, we propose a design framework for compact reconfigurable kirigami patterns, wh...

The autonomous approach of spacecraft to a small body (comet or asteroid) relies on using all available information at each phase of the approach. This letter presents new algorithms for global shape reconstructions from sparse tracked surface points. These methods leverage estimates from earlier phases, such as rotation pole, as well as
a priori...

We use spherical cap harmonic (SCH) basis functions to analyse and reconstruct the morphology of scanned genus-0 rough surface patches with open edges. We first develop a novel one-to-one conformal mapping algorithm with minimal area distortion for parameterising a surface onto a polar spherical cap with a prescribed half angle. We then show that a...

Kirigami, the art of paper cutting, has become a paradigm for mechanical metamaterials in recent years. The basic building blocks of any kirigami structures are repetitive deployable patterns that derive inspiration from geometric art forms and simple planar tilings. Here, we complement these approaches by directly linking kirigami patterns to the...

We use spherical cap harmonic (SCH) basis functions to analyse and reconstruct the morphology of scanned genus-0 rough surface patches with open edges. We first develop a novel one-to-one conformal mapping algorithm with minimal area distortion for parameterising a surface onto a polar spherical cap with a prescribed half angle. We then show that a...

Interactions with animal pollinators have helped shape the stunning diversity of flower morphologies across the angiosperms. A common evolutionary consequence of these interactions is that some flowers have converged on suites of traits, or pollination syndromes, that attract and reward specific pollinator groups. Determining the genetic basis of t...

Kirigami, the art of introducing cuts in thin sheets to enable articulation and deployment, has till recently been the domain of artists. With the realization that these structures form a novel class of mechanical metamaterials, there is increasing interest in using periodic tiling patterns as the basis for the space of designs. Here, we show that...

Conformal mapping, a classical topic in complex analysis and differential geometry, has become a subject of great interest in the area of surface parameterization in recent decades with various applications in science and engineering. However, most of the existing conformal parameterization algorithms only focus on simply-connected surfaces and can...

Interactions with animal pollinators have helped shape the stunning diversity of flower morphologies across the angiosperms. A common evolutionary consequence of these interactions is that some flowers have converged on suites of traits, or pollination syndromes, that attract and reward specific pollinator groups. Determining the genetic basis of t...

The density-equalizing map, a technique developed for cartogram creation, has been widely applied to data visualization but only for 2D applications. In this work, we propose a novel method called the volumetric density-equalizing reference map for computing density-equalizing map for volumetric domains. Given a prescribed density distribution in a...

Kirigami, the art of paper cutting, has become the subject of study in mechanical metamaterials in recent years. The basic building blocks of any kirigami structures are repetitive deployable patterns, the design of which has to date largely relied on inspirations from art, nature, and intuition, embedded in a choice of the underlying pattern symme...

Kirigami involves cutting a flat, thin sheet that allows it to morph from a closed, compact configuration into an open deployed structure via coordinated rotations of the internal tiles. By recognizing and generalizing the geometric constraints that enable this art form, we propose a design framework for compact reconfigurable kirigami patterns, wh...

How can we manipulate the topological connectivity of a three-dimensional prismatic assembly to control the number of internal degrees of freedom and the number of connected components in it? To answer this question in a deterministic setting, we use ideas from elementary number theory to provide a hierarchical deterministic protocol for the contro...

Spherical harmonics, one of the most widely used basis functions for shape description, rely heavily on a spherical parameterization of the given surface. Additionally, spherical harmonics based 3D modeling works well only for closed surfaces, while many anatomical structures are hemisphere-like open objects. Therefore, it is more natural to have a...

With the advancement in 3D scanning technology, there has been a surge of interest in the use of point clouds in science and engineering. To facilitate the computations and analyses of point clouds, prior works have considered parameterizing them onto some simple planar domains with a fixed boundary shape such as a unit circle or a rectangle. Howev...

In this work, we develop a framework for shape analysis using inconsistent surface mapping. Traditional landmark-based geometric morphometr- ics methods suffer from the limited degrees of freedom, while most of the more advanced non-rigid surface mapping methods rely on a strong assumption of the global consistency of two surfaces. From a practical...

Conformal mapping, a classical topic in complex analysis and differential geometry, has become a subject of great interest in the area of surface parameterization in recent decades with various applications in science and engineering. However, most of the existing conformal parameterization algorithms only focus on simply-connected surfaces and can...

When a volatile droplet is deposited on a floating swellable sheet, it becomes asymmetric, lobed and mobile. We describe and quantify this phenomena that involves nonequilibrium swelling, evaporation and motion, working together to realize a self-excitable spatially extended oscillator. Solvent penetration causes the film to swell locally and event...

Inspired by the allure of additive fabrication, we pose the problem of origami design from a new perspective: how can we grow a folded surface in three dimensions from a seed so that it is guaranteed to be isometric to the plane? We solve this problem in two steps: by first identifying the geometric conditions for the compatible completion of two s...

How can we manipulate the topological connectivity of a three-dimensional prismatic assembly to control the number of internal degrees of freedom and the number of connected components in it? To answer this question in a deterministic setting, we use ideas from elementary number theory to provide a hierarchical deterministic protocol for the contro...

The density-equalizing map, a technique developed for cartogram creation, has been widely applied to data visualization but only for 2D applications. In this work, we propose a novel method called the volumetric density-equalizing reference map (VDERM) for computing density-equalizing map for volumetric domains. Given a prescribed density distribut...

In this work, we develop a framework for shape analysis using inconsistent surface mapping. Traditional landmark-based geometric morphometrics methods suffer from the limited degrees of freedom, while most of the more advanced non-rigid surface mapping methods rely on a strong assumption of the global consistency of two surfaces. From a practical p...

Atherosclerotic plaques are focal and tend to occur at arterial bends and bifurcations. To quantitatively monitor the local changes in the carotid vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) and compare the VWT distributions for different patients or for the same patients at different ultrasound scanning sessions, a mapping technique is required to adj...

Kirigami, the creative art of paper cutting, is a promising paradigm for mechanical meta-materials. However, to make this a reality requires controlling the topology of kirigami to achieve connectivity and rigidity. We address this question by deriving the maximum number of cuts (minimum number of links) that still allow us to preserve global rigid...

When a volatile solvent droplet is deposited on a freely floating swellable sheet, it can spontaneously become lobed, asymmetric, and either spin, slide or move via a combination of the two. This process of symmetry-breaking is a consequence of the solvent droplet swelling the membrane and its inhomogeneous evaporation from the membrane, coupled wi...

Shape analysis is important in anthropology, bioarchaeology and forensic science for interpreting useful information from human remains. In particular, teeth are morphologically stable and hence well-suited for shape analysis. In this work, we propose a framework for tooth morphometry using quasi-conformal theory. Landmark-matching Teichmüller maps...

Recent advances in 3D human shape estimation build upon parametric representations that model very well the shape of the naked body, but are not appropriate to represent the clothing geometry. In this paper, we present an approach to model dressed humans and predict their geometry from single images. We contribute in three fundamental aspects of th...

Conformal surface parameterization is useful in graphics, imaging and visualization, with applications to texture mapping, atlas construction, registration, remeshing and so on. With the increasing capability in scanning and storing data, dense 3D surface meshes are common nowadays. While meshes with higher resolution better resemble smooth surface...

Shape analysis is important in anthropology, bioarchaeology and forensic science for interpreting useful information from human remains. In particular, teeth are morphologically stable and hence well-suited for shape analysis. In this work, we propose a framework for tooth morphometry using quasi-conformal theory. Landmark-matching Teichm\"uller ma...

Kirigami tessellations, regular planar patterns formed by cutting flat, thin sheets, have attracted recent scientific interest for their rich geometries, surprising material properties and promise for technologies. Here we pose and solve the inverse problem of designing the number, size, and orientation of cuts that allows us to convert a closed, c...

Carotid atherosclerosis is a focal disease at the bifurcations of the carotid artery. To quantitatively monitor the local changes in the vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) and compare the VWT distributions for different patients or for the same patients at different ultrasound scanning sessions, a mapping technique is required to adjust for th...

Inspired by the question of quantifying wing shape, we propose a computational approach for analysing planar shapes. We first establish a correspondence between the boundaries of two planar shapes with boundary landmarks using geometric functional data analysis and then compute a landmark-matching curvature-guided Teichmüller mapping with uniform q...

With the advancement in the digital camera technology, the use of high resolution images and videos has been widespread in the modern society. In particular, image and video frame registration is frequently applied in computer graphics and film production. However, conventional registration approaches usually require long computational time for hig...

Surface parameterization is widely used in computer graphics and geometry processing. It simplifies challenging tasks such as surface registrations, morphing, remeshing and texture mapping. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing the disk conformal parameterization of simply-connected open surfaces. A double covering techniqu...

Measurements of vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) from 3D carotid ultrasound have been shown to be sensitive to the effect of pharmaceutical interventions. Since the geometry of carotid arteries is highly subject-specific, quantitative comparison of the distributions of point-wise VWT measured for different patients or for the same patients a...

In recent decades, the use of 3D point clouds has been widespread in computer
industry. The development of techniques in analyzing point clouds is
increasingly important. In particular, mapping of point clouds has been a
challenging problem. In this paper, we develop a discrete analogue of the
Teichm\"{u}ller extremal mappings, which guarantee unif...

Point cloud is the most fundamental representation of 3D geometric objects. Analyzing and processing point cloud surfaces is important in computer graphics and computer vision. However,
most of the existing algorithms for surface analysis require connectivity information. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a mesh structure on point clouds. This...

In this work, we are concerned with the spherical quasiconformal parameterization of genus-0 closed surfaces. Given a genus-0 closed triangulated surface and an arbitrary user-defined quasiconformal distortion, we propose a fast algorithm for computing a spherical parameterization of the surface that satisfies the prescribed distortion. The propose...

With the advancement in the digital camera technology, the use of high resolution images and videos has been widespread in the modern society. In particular, image and video frame registration is frequently applied in computer graphics and film production. However, the conventional registration approaches usually require long computational time for...

A linear algorithm for disk conformal parameterization

Surface parameterizations have been widely used in computer graphics and geometry processing. In particular, as simply-connected open surfaces are conformally equivalent to the unit disk, it is desirable to compute the disk conformal parameterizations of the surfaces. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for the conformal parameterization of...

Surface registration between cortical surfaces is crucial in medical imaging for performing systematic comparisons between brains. Landmark-matching registration that matches anatomical features, called the sulcal landmarks, is often required to obtain a meaningful 1-1 correspondence between brain surfaces. This is commonly done by parameterizing t...