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Gary Chinga Carrasco

Gary Chinga Carrasco
RISE PFI

Dr. ing./PhD
Biocomposites and 3D printing

About

150
Publications
51,021
Reads
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4,826
Citations
Introduction
Lead scientist in the Biocomposites area at RISE PFI, with extensive project manager experience including major multidisciplinary projects; i) the international NanoHeal project, working with production of ultrapure nanocellulose, characterization and application as a biomaterial for wound healing applications and ii) responsible for 3D (bio)printing in the ValBio-3D project and iii) coordinating the European MedIn project (2018-2019) about biocomposites for biomedical devices.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - December 2018
Universidad de La Frontera
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Co-supervision of PhD in the Doctorate Program in Science of Natural Resources from Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile
October 2013 - April 2020
RISE PFI
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • I have established various project initiatives and has established the RISE PFI 3D printing lab, counting with various equipment for extrusion of filaments and 3D printing units using FDM, photopolymerisation and hydrogel extrusion technology.
October 2008 - April 2020
Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI)
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • I have the responsibility and coordination of the Biocomposite area. This includes the initiation of new projects, customer relationship management, follow up of ongoing projects, scientific coordination and networking.
Education
March 2017 - June 2017
NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Field of study
  • Innovation management and commercialization of R&D
August 1998 - April 2002
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Field of study
  • Chemical engineering
August 1995 - June 1997

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a useful technique that allows the creation of objects with complex structures by deposition of successive layers of material. These materials are often from fossil origin. However, efforts are being made to produce environmentally friendly materials for 3D printing. The addition of lignocellulosic fibres to a pol...
Article
Development of materials that are biobased and environmental sound is one of the goals within the current bioeconomy. This goal comes from an increasing conscientious society that pushes manufacturers and regulators toward a sustainable development. However, to be a feasible alternative, biobased materials should also match or outperform the mechan...
Chapter
Nanocelluloses have good rheological properties that facilitate the extrusion of nanocellulose gels in micro-extrusion systems. It is considered a highly relevant characteristic that makes it possible to use nanocellulose as an ink component for 3D bioprinting purposes. The nanocelluloses assessed in this book chapter include wood nanocellulose (WN...
Article
Side streams were collected from three locations in a flooring factory and their suitability in biocomposite formulations was assessed. The side stream (S3) that contained mainly residues from high-density fibreboards (HDF) was selected for further material testing. The effect of different fractions of S3, thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibres and pol...
Article
Full-text available
Both carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and dissolved oxygen (DO) have been reported to possess antibacterial properties. However, the combination for use as wound dressings against biofilm infections in chronic wounds is less known. The present study reports the development of oxygenated CNF dispersions that exhibit strong antibacterial effe...
Article
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing has evolved massively during the last years and is demonstrating its potential in tissue engineering, wound dressings, cell culture models for drug testing, and prosthesis, to name a few [...]
Article
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Current conventional cancer drug screening models based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture have several flaws and there is a large need of more in vivo mimicking preclinical drug screening platforms. The microenvironment is crucial for the cells to adapt relevant in vivo characteristics and here we introduce a new cell culture system based on thr...
Article
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The cancer microenvironment influences tumor progression and metastasis and is pivotal to consider when designing in vivo-like cancer models. Current preclinical testing platforms for cancer drug development are mainly limited to 2D cell culture systems that poorly mimic physiological environments and traditional, low throughput animal models. The...
Article
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Biocomposites based on lignocellulosic components (e.g. pulp fibers, nanocellulose and lignin) are of interest as sustainable replacements for thermoplastic fossil-based materials, which find their application in household items, construction, automotive, 3D-printing, etc. Nanocellulose, a nano-structural component of pulp fibers, is considered hav...
Chapter
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are defined as natural and biodegradable biopolymers obtained by microbial synthesis. PHAs are classified as short chain length (3–5 carbon monomers), medium chain length (6–14 carbon monomers), and long chain length (15–18 carbon monomers), depending on the number of carbons in the monomeric constituents. Little is kno...
Article
Photopolymerization is an effective method to covalently cross-link polymer chains that can be shaped into several biomedical products and devices. Additionally, polymerization reaction may induce a fluid-solid phase transformation under physiological conditions and is ideal for in vivo cross-linking of injectable polymers. The photoinitiator is a...
Article
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A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-021-01887-0
Article
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Bleached and unbleached pulp fibers were treated with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediated oxidation to obtain cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). The resulting bleached and unbleached CNFs were mixed with salicylic acid (0, 5, 10, 20 wt%) before casting and freeze-drying or 3D-printing. A series of methods were tested and implemented to...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The aim of this review is to evaluate previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of first- and second-generation bioplastics, to understand the state of the art and the main problems addressed during the development of new bioplastics. Furthermore, it provides an overview on land use change (LUC) impacts accounted for, methodologies chose...
Article
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In this study, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) of high charge (H-P-CNF) and screened size (H-P-CNF-S) were fabricated by increasing the charge of phosphorylated cellulose nanofibrils (P-CNFs) during the pre-treatment step of CNF production. Results show that the H-P-CNF have a significantly higher charge (3.41 mmol g⁻¹) compared with P-CNF (1.86 mmol g...
Article
Full-text available
Bio-polyethylene (BioPE, derived from sugarcane), sugarcane bagasse pulp, and two compatibilizers (fossil and bio-based), were used to manufacture biocomposite filaments for 3D printing. Biocomposite filaments were manufactured and characterized in detail, including measurement of water absorption, mechanical properties, thermal stability and decom...
Article
This study aims to evaluate the life cycle environmental implications of producing fiber-reinforced biocomposite pellets, compared with sugarcane- and petroleum-based polyethylene (PE) pellets. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to evaluate the production of four types of pellets. LCA allows the evaluation of the benefits of improving...
Article
Full-text available
There is a global trend of substitution of fossil fuels for renewable energy sources, which are preferred by reasons including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, regional and social systems advancement, among others. This review is part of the studies carried out on the integral use of wood industrial w...
Article
The morphology of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), the rheological characteristics of their dispersions, and the corresponding relationships, are fundamental for understanding the properties of the material. This work aims at understanding how the morphological characteristics of the CNFs affect the rheology of the dispersions in the dilute region and...
Article
Full-text available
This work aimed to study the influence of the initial chemical composition (glucans, lignin, xylan, and mannans), intrinsic viscosity, and carboxylate groups of pulps on the production process and final properties of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF). Pulps of pine sawdust, eucalyptus sawdust, and sugarcane bagasse subjected to conventional pulping...
Article
Full-text available
Biopolymers from forestry biomass are promising for the sustainable development of new biobased materials. As such, lignin and fiber-based biocomposites are plausible renewable alternatives to petrochemical-based products. In this study, we have obtained lignin from Spruce biomass through a soda pulping process. The lignin was used for manufacturin...
Article
Full-text available
Food packaging is tailored to keep food fresh by increasing shelf life and preventing microbial deterioration. However, traditional food packaging is commonly made from non-degradable polymers without antimicrobial properties and that pose an environmental threat if not disposed properly. To address this issue, here we describe the preparation of c...
Article
In this study a commercially liquid silicone rubber was filled with fumed silica particles in different concentrations and evaluated for medical applications. The thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of silicone/silica composite samples were studied before and after aging, flexural tests and immersion in saline environment. Understandin...
Article
Nanocelluloses with and without residual lignin were isolated from wheat straw. In addition, the effect of TEMPO-mediated oxidation on the production of lignin-containing nanocellulose was studied. The different nanocelluloses were used as reinforcing agent in Poly(vinyl alcohol) films. The morphology, crystallinity, surface microstructure, barrier...
Article
Full-text available
2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as ink for three-dimensional (3D) printing of porous structures with potential as wound dressings. Alginate (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) was incorporated into the formulation to facilitate the ionic cross-linking with calcium chloride (CaCl2). The effect of two d...
Article
Full-text available
Soda-ethanol pulps, prepared from a forestry residue pine sawdust, were treated according to high-consistency enzymatic fibrillation technology to manufacture nanocellulose. The obtained nanocellulose was characterized and used as ink for three-dimensional (3D) printing of various structures. It was also tested for its moisture sorption capacity an...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of cellulose crystallinity on mechanical properties of cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF) was investigated. Degree of crystallinity (DoC) was modified using liquid anhydrous ammonia. Such treatment changes crystal allomorph from cellulose I to cellulose III, a change which was reversed by subsequent boiling in water. DoC was measured using...
Article
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from wood pulp are a renewable material possessing advantages for biomedical applications, due to their customizable porosity, mechanical strength, translucency and environmental biodegradability. Here we investigated the growth of multi-species wound biofilms on CNF formulated as aerogels and films incorporating the lo...
Article
Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films were prepared from side streams generated by the sugarcane industry, that is, bagasse. Two fractionation processes were utilized for comparison purposes: (1) soda and (2) hot water and soda pretreatments. 2,2,6,6‐Tetramethylpiperidinyl‐1‐oxyl‐mediated oxidation was applied to facilitate the nanofibrillation of the b...
Article
Sugarcane bagasse, an abundant residue, is usually burned as an energy source. However, provided that appropriate and sustainable pulping and fractionation processes are applied, bagasse can be utilized as a main source of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). We explored in this study the production of CNF inks for 3D printing by direct-ink-writing technol...
Article
Using a lepirudin-based human whole blood model we evaluated the initial inflammatory and coagulation responses of dense and porous ultrapure (<50 endotoxin units/grams) cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), of carboxylated grade. The CNF was compared to the wound dressing AquaCel®, since it is a potential wound healing material. The porous CNF aerogels ind...
Article
Full-text available
Inks for 3D printing based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or mixtures of CNFs and either cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or alginate were assessed by determining their viscoelastic properties i.e. complex viscosity and storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″). Two types of alginates were used, i.e. from Laminaria hyperborea stipe and Macrocystis pyrifera...
Book
Full-text available
The engineering and utilization of biocomposites is a research field of major scientific and industrial interest worldwide. Biocomposites include materials that contain at least one biocomponent. The biocomposite area is extensive and spans from structured and solid biocomposites (e.g., reinforced bioabsorbable polymers), films (e.g., antimicrobial...
Article
Two biobased polyethylenes (BioPE) and thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers were used to produce biocomposites. The impact of TMP fibers on the mechanical properties was assessed in detail. An increase on the viscosity of the melted biocomposites was quantified and was related to the incorporation of the TMP fibers (0–30% w/w). The impact of polyethy...
Article
The present work demonstrates a simple and straightforward chemical modification of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films in order to produce CO2 adsorbent materials. The CNF films were obtained from two agricultural residues, i.e. corn husks and oat hulls. CNF from kraft pulp was used for comparison purposes. Controlled surface silylation was conducted...
Article
Full-text available
The top layer of a typical high pressure floor laminate (HPL) consists of a melamine formaldehyde (MF) impregnated special wear layer (overlay) with alumina particles. This top layer plays a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties of the laminate. For HPLs, scratch resistance and scratch visibility are particularly important propertie...
Article
Full-text available
Two different series of biobased polyethylene (BioPE) were used for the manufacturing of biocomposites, complemented with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of the TMP fibers was previously modified by grafting hydrophobic compounds (octyl gallate and lauryl gallate) by means of an enzymatic-assisted treatment....
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has rapidly emerged as a new technology with a wide range of applications that includes biomedicine. Some common 3D printing methods are based on the suitability of biopolymers to be extruded through a nozzle to construct a 3D structure layer by layer. Nanocelluloses with specific rheological characteristics are suit...
Article
Bagasse is an underutilized agro-industrial residue with great potential as raw material for the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for a range of applications. In this study, we have assessed the suitability of bagasse for production of CNF for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Firstly, pulp fibers were obtained from the bagasse raw material...
Method
Full-text available
RISE PFI has during the years developed a series of methods for characterisation of fibrillated materials, from micrometer-sized to nanometer-sized structures, and focusing on an objective and multiscale quantification. Our characterization methods are part of a benchmarking setup that we provide to our customers. The RISE PFI benchmarking has prov...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is about the enzymatic modification of Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP) fibres for reduction of water uptake and their use in bio-based filaments for 3D printing. Additionally, TMP was used as fibre reinforcing material and polylactic acid (PLA) as polymer matrix. The hydrophilic TMP fibres were treated via laccase-assisted grafting of...
Article
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are, due in large part to excellent gas barrier properties, a potential environmentally friendly alternative to inorganic and petrochemical coatings of e.g. paperboard in packaging applications. In the current paper successful roll-to-roll coating of three qualities of CNF is demonstrated on a recycled quality, porous pa...
Article
The bio-based economy requires a sustainable utilization of bioresources for production of a range of products, including pulp, paper, chemicals, biofuel and bioplastics. Currently, various types of bioplastics are produced industrially, competing in performance and price with the conventional fossil-oil based plastics. However, there is also a maj...
Article
Full-text available
100% biobased materials from agro-industrial residues, addressing the bioeconomy of the future.
Article
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have potential as rheology modifiers of water based fluids, e.g. drilling fluids for use in oil wells or as additives in injection water for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The temperature in oil wells can be high (>100 ◦C), and the retention time long; days for drilling fluids and months for EOR fluids. Hence, it is import...
Article
Wood nanocellulose has been proposed for wound dressing applications partly based on its capability to form translucent films with good liquid absorption capabilities. Such properties are adequate for non-healing and chronic wounds where adequate management of exudates is a requirement. In addition, the translucency will allow to follow the wound d...
Method
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing is a promising area where biobased materials can play a significant role, both in the form of bioplastics and nanofibers from biomass resources.
Article
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were isolated from agro-industrial waste (corn husks and oat hulls) and market kraft pulp fibres, and a detailed comparative study was performed. Initially, the raw materials were subjected to a conventional pulping process to remove lignin and hemicelluloses. The chemical pre-treatment was based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpi...
Article
Chronic wounds pose an increasingly significant worldwide economic burden (over £1 billion per annum in the UK alone). With the escalation in global obesity and diabetes, chronic wounds will increasingly be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are highly versatile and can be tailored with specific physical pro...
Article
Full-text available
Polysaccharides are finding an increasing number of applications in medical and pharmaceutical fields thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and in some cases bioactivity. Two approaches were applied to use hemicelluloses as crosslinkers to tune the structural and mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogel scaffo...
Article
Wood cellulose nanofibrils have been suggested as a potential wound healing material, but its utilization is limited by FDA requirements regarding endotoxin levels. In this study a method using sodium hydroxide followed by TEMPO mediated oxidation was developed to produce ultrapure cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), with an endotoxin level of 45 endotoxi...
Article
There is potential that nanocellulose structures can act as a substrate for biomedical applications in which printing can expand its use as a functionalized biomaterial. Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material suitable for use in biomedical devices that include wound dressings. The material does not promote bacterial grow...
Article
Full-text available
Preservation of documentary heritage is one of the biggest challenges facing paper conservators today. The singular properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) lead us to propose to reinforce paper with BC sheets. In the first part of this study, the reinforcing capability of BC was tested on model papers of well-known fiber composition. The aim of the...
Article
Full-text available
The disappearance of bibliographic heritage is one of the biggest problems facing libraries. One of the most common methods used to restore paper, lining, is to apply a reinforcing layer to the document. This study focuses on lining papers with bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets from Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans. For this purpose, several model p...
Article
Full-text available
The disappearance of bibliographic heritage is one of the biggest problems facing libraries. One of the most common methods used to restore paper, lining, is to apply a reinforcing layer to the document. This study focuses on lining papers with bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets from Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans. For this purpose, several model p...
Article
Nanocellulose from wood is a novel biomaterial, which is highly fibrillated at the nanoscale. This affords the material a number of advantages, including self-assembly, biodegradability and the ability to absorb and retain moisture, which highlights its potential usefulness in clinical wound-dressing applications. In these in vitro studies, the wou...
Article
Adequate measurement of thickness of sheet-like materials or membranes is most important for quantifying their properties such as density, barrier properties and mechanical strength. Depending on the surface roughness of the membrane, the thickness measured by standard micrometre devices (apparent thickness) may considerably overestimate the actual...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical behaviour of cellulose nanofibrils is typically characterized by casting thin films and performing tensile tests on strips cut from these films. When comparing the stiffness of different films, the stiffness of the nanofibrils is only qualitatively and indirectly compared. This study provides some schemes based on various models of f...
Article
Full-text available
Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the applicatio...
Article
The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils produ...
Article
Full-text available
Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide and the most abundant hemicellulose component of soda bagasse pulp. In this study, bleached soda bagasse pulp (SB) and bleached bagasse dissolving pulp (DB) with varying amounts of xylan were fibrillated with a homogenization process. The produced fibrillated materials were used for making nanopaper...