Gary L. Canivez

Gary L. Canivez
Eastern Illinois University · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

116
Publications
67,200
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2,929
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
1903 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
20162017201820192020202120220100200300
Additional affiliations
August 1995 - present
Eastern Illinois University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
This article addresses the use of hype in the promotion of clinical assessment practices and instrumentation. Particular focus is given to the role of school psychologists in evaluating the evidence associated with clinical assessment claims, the types of evidence necessary to support such claims, and the need to maintain a degree of “healthy self-...
Article
This study investigated the stability of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (WISC- V) scores for 225 children and adolescents from an outpatient neuropsychological clinic across, on average, a 2.6year test-retest interval. WISC-V mean scores were relatively constant but subtest stability score coefficients were all below 0.80 (M...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire in an independent elementary school sample. The BPBQ is a self-report inventory that purports to measure participation or experiences in five bullying roles: perpetrator, target, assistant, defender, and outsider. The current sa...
Preprint
This article addresses the use of hype in the promotion of clinical assessment practices and instrumentation. Particular focus is given to the role of school psychologists in evaluating the evidence associated with clinical assessment claims, the types of evidence necessary to support such claims, and the need to maintain a degree of “healthy self-...
Article
Full-text available
Although the field of school psychology has made progress toward the use of tests and assessment practices with empirical support over the past 20 years, many school psychology practitioners still engage in what can be described as low-value value assessment practices that lack compelling scientific support potentially taking time and resources awa...
Article
The Behavior Assessment System for Children-Third Edition (BASC-3) is the most recent edition and the Teacher Rating Scales (TRS) was reported to be the most frequently used test in school psychology practice. Despite its popularity, there is a lack of independent empirical research regarding psychometric properties. The BASC-3 Manual, while quite...
Article
It is often assumed that children with learning disabilities (LD) exhibit unique profiles of ability scores that reflect idiosyncratic cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Interpretation of cognitive ability profiles initially focused on visual inspection of subtest scores followed by statistical comparisons to identify significant cognitive strengt...
Article
Full-text available
Surveys reveal that many school psychologists continue to employ cognitive profile analysis despite the long-standing history of negative research results from this class of practice. This begets the question: why do questionable assessment practices persist in school psychology? To provide insight on this dilemma, this article presents the results...
Article
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children’s (WISC) factorial\theoretical structure has undergone numerous substantive changes since it was first developed, and each of these changes has subsequently been questioned by assessment experts. Given remaining questions about the structure of the latest revision, the WISC-V, the present study used thre...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the factor structure of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition with five standardization sample age groups (6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 14-16 years) using hierarchical exploratory factor analysis followed by Schmid–Leiman procedure. The primary research questions included (a) how many French Wechsler I...
Article
In this rejoinder, we address Kettler’s comments regarding our article for this special section regarding the validation practices employed with recently translated and adapted versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), which are used by school and educational psychologists in clinical practice around the world. Whereas we see...
Article
IQ tests provide numerous scores, but valid interpretation of those scores is dependent on how precisely each score reflects its intended construct and whether it provides unique information independent of other constructs. Thus, IQ scores must be evaluated for their reliability and dimensionality to determine their psychometric utility. As a tutor...
Article
Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V) 10 subtest primary battery was evaluated across sex, age (6–8, 9–11, 12–14, and 15–16 year-olds), and three diagnostic (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, and encephalopathy) groups within a large clinical sample (N = 5359) referred to a c...
Article
This article addresses conceptual and methodological shortcomings regarding conducting and interpreting intelligence test factor analytic research that appeared throughout the Decker et al. (2020). Dimensional evaluation of cognitive measures: Methodological confounds and theoretical concerns Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment Advanced online...
Preprint
Surveys reveal that many school psychologists continue to employ cognitive profile analysis despite the long-standing history of negative research results from this class of practice. This begets the question: why do questionable assessment practices persist in school psychology? To provide insight on this dilemma, this article presents the results...
Article
The present study examined the factor structure of the Differential Ability Scales–Second Edition (DAS-II) core subtests from the standardization sample via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using methods (bifactor modeling and variance partitioning) and procedures (robust model estimation due to nonnormal subtest score distributions) recommended...
Article
The latent factor structure of the German Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth edition (German WISC-V) was examined using complementary hierarchical exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) with Schmid and Leiman transformation and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) for all reported models from the German WISC-V Technical Manual and rival bifa...
Article
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is the most widely used intelligence test in the world. Now in its fifth edition, the WISC-V has been translated and adapted for use in nearly a dozen countries. Despite its popularity, numerous concerns have been raised about some of the procedures used to develop and validate translated and adap...
Article
Independent exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analytic research with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC–V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample has failed to provide support for the five group factors proposed by the publisher (Canivez, Watkins, & Dombrowski, 2016; Canivez, Dombrowski, & Watkins, 2017;...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilized confirmatory factor analyses to examine the latent factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition, Italian adaptation (WISC–IV Italian) standardization sample. One through five, oblique first-order factor models and higher-order as well as bifactor models were examined and compared using CFA. The...
Article
The Bullying Participant Behavior Questionnaire is a 50 item self-report survey designed to measure engagement in five bullying roles: bully, victim, assistant to the bully, defender of the victim, and outsider. The goal of the current study was to examine the higher-order factor structure of the BPBQ in a large middle school sample of 784 primaril...
Article
The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) taxonomy of cognitive abilities married John Horn and Raymond Cattell’s Extended Gf-Gc theory with John Carroll’s Three-Stratum Theory. While there are some similarities in arrangements or classifications of tasks (observed variables) within similar broad or narrow dimensions, other salient theoretical features and st...
Article
Background There is inadequate information regarding the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fifth UK Edition (WISC‐VUK; Wechsler, 2016a, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children‐Fifth UK Edition, Harcourt Assessment, London, UK) to guide interpretation. Aims and methods The WISC‐VUK was examined using complementary...
Article
Evidence-based assessment (EBA) and evidence-based practice are gaining attention and application in clinical psychology (Hunsley and Mash, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 3:29–51, 2007; Youngstrom and VanMeter, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 23:327–347, 2016) and recently in school psychology. This commentary explores EBA in school...
Article
When the Differential Ability Scales–Second Edition (DAS-II) was developed, the instrument’s content, structure, and theoretical orientation were amended. Despite these changes, the Technical Handbook did not report results from exploratory factor analytic investigations, and confirmatory factor analyses were implemented using selected subtests acr...
Article
The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition, Spanish (WISC–IV Spanish, Wechsler, 2005a) with normative sample participants aged 6–16 years (N = 500) using confirmatory factor analytic techniques not reported in the WISC–IV Spanish Manual (Wechsler, 2005b). For the 10 core subtest co...
Article
Intelligence testing remains a fixture in school psychology training and practice. Despite their popularity, the use of IQ tests is not without controversy and researchers have long debated how these measures should be interpreted with children and adolescents. A controversial aspect of this debate relates to the utility of cognitive profile analys...
Article
The present investigation examined the evidential value of intervention research published in school psychology journals from 2016-2017. Although the nine journals that were reviewed favored studies that have a low probability of wrongly rejecting the so-called null hypothesis (H0), p-curve analyses did not yield evidence of selective reporting in...
Article
The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition, Italian adaptation (WISC-IV Itaian; Orsini, Pezzuti, & Picone, 2012; Wechsler, 2012) standardization sample was examined with exploratory factor analytic methods (EFA) not included in the Technical Manual. Principal-axis extraction followed by oblique rotation usin...
Article
Full-text available
Reports an error in "Complementary exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the French WISC–V: Analyses based on the standardization sample" by Thierry Lecerf and Gary L. Canivez ( Psychological Assessment , 2018[Jun], Vol 30[6], 793-808). In the original article a production error resulted in the deletion of subtests in the “French WISC–V s...
Article
The Woodcock-Johnson (fourth edition; WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) was recently redeveloped and retains its linkage to Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory (CHC). Independent reviews (e.g., Canivez, 2017) and investigations (Dombrowski, McGill, & Canivez, 2017) of the structure of the WJ IV full test battery and WJ IV Cognitive have suggested th...
Article
Full-text available
SCIENTIFIC The actual 7-factor theoretical structure of the Woodcock-Johnson Fourth Edition (WJ IV) Cognitive was not investigated by the test publisher. Instead, the structure for the WJ IV Cognitive battery was extrapolated from analyses of the full WJ IV test battery. The present study investigated the theoretical structure of the WJ IV Cognitiv...
Article
Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was used to investigate the latent structure of the Differential Ability Scales—Second Edition core battery using the standardization sample normative data for ages 7–17. Results revealed plausibility of a three-factor model, consistent with publisher theory, expressed as either a higher-order (HO) or a...
Article
Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (French WISC–V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC–V factorial structure was established exclusive...
Article
The reliability and factorial validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-VCDN) was investigated. The higher-order model preferred by Wechsler (2014b) contained five group factors but lacked discriminant validity. An alternative bifactor model with four group factors and one general factor, akin to the tra...
Article
Although most students regularly complete homework, the extent to which race and gender influence teacher perceptions of homework performance has been largely unstudied. However, individual characteristics, such as race and gender, have been shown to meaningfully influence many aspects of students’ educational experiences and outcomes, and it is pl...
Article
Objective: This research developed and examined the psychometric properties of the 15-item Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale-Perpetration Version (ISOS-P). Method: Specifically, the ISOS-P was developed by modifying the original Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (Kozee, Tylka, Augustus-Horvath, & Denchik, 2007) to assess sexual ob...
Article
This study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children‐Fifth Edition (WISC‐V) with four standardization sample age groups (6–8, 9–11, 12–14, 15–16 years) using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), multiple factor extraction criteria, and hierarchical EFA not included in the WISC‐V Technical and Interpretation Manual....
Article
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler 2014a) Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler 2014b) dedicated only a single page to discussing the 10-subtest WISC-V primary battery across the entire 6 to 16 age range. Users are left to extrapolate the structure of the 10-subtest battery from the 16-subtest struc...
Article
Background Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth UK Edition (WISC–IVUK; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children‐Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity st...
Article
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic studies were not reported in the Technical Manual for the Woodcock-Johnson, 4th ed. Cognitive (WJ IV Cognitive; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014b) Instead, the internal structure of the WJ IV Cognitive was extrapolated from analyses based on the full WJ IV test battery (Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014b)....
Article
The present study examined the factor structure of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analyses, multiple factor extraction criteria, and hierarchical exploratory factor analyses (Schmid & Leiman, 1957) not included in the DAS-II Introductory and Technical Handbook...
Article
As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were...
Article
The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample (N = 2,200) was examined using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with maximum likelihood estimation for all reported models from the WISC-V Technical and Interpretation Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Additionally, alternat...
Article
Full-text available
The factor structure of the 16 Primary and Secondary subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (WISC–V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample was examined with exploratory factor analytic methods (EFA) not included in the WISC–V Technical and Interpretive Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Factor extraction criteria suggested...
Article
Background Subtest and factor scores have typically provided little incremental predictive validity beyond the omnibus IQ score.AimsThis study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth UK Edition (WISC–IVUK; Wechsler, 2004a, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Fourth UK Edition, Harcourt Assessmen...
Poster
Full-text available
When investigating the structure of cognitive ability measures like the WISC-IV, subtest scores theoretically associated with one latent variable could also be related to other factors. The objective of this study was to determine whether secondary interpretation of the 10 WISC-IV core subtests in a large referred US sample could be justified or wh...
Article
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order genera...
Article
Objective: The Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) is a test of cognitive abilities based on the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Theory (PASS). Studies of CAS performance by children with ADHD typically show lowest performance on Planning and deficits on Attention, but normal Simultaneous and Successive processing. Suc...
Article
Full-text available
Homework is a requirement for most school-age children, but research on the benefits and drawbacks of homework is limited by lack of psychometrically sound measurement of homework performance. This study examined the structural and convergent validity of scores from the newly developed Homework Performance Questionnaire – Teacher Scale (HPQ-T). Par...
Article
The present study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) factor index scores in predicting academic achievement on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-2nd Edition (WIAT-II; Psychological Corporation, 2002a) and on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-3rd Edition (WIAT-I...
Article
Full-text available
Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013a) and Weiss, Keith, Zhu, and Chen (2013b), this issue, report examinations of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), respectively; comparing Wechsler Hierarchical Model (W-HM) and Cattell-Horn-Carr...
Article
Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children– Fourth U.K. Edition (WISC–IVUK) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC–IVUK have not yet been reported. This study examined the construct validity of WISC–IVUK core subtest...
Article
Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) was examined with a sample of 300 individuals referred for evaluation at a university-based clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WAIS-IV structure was best represented by 4 first-order factors as well as a genera...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas sexual objectification has most commonly been studied among women, recent calls by counseling psychologists have urged for an extension of objectification research to more fully include men (e.g., Heimerdinger-Edwards, Vogel, & Hammer, 2011). The present study examined the factor structure of the Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (...
Article
Youth violence represents a serious problem affecting individuals, communities, and the larger society. Greater efforts aimed at the eradication of youth violence are necessary, and work in this field could be enhanced by psychometrically strong measures. The present study examined the factor structure of the Attitudes Toward Violence Scale (ATV) u...
Article
Full-text available
Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a) for the 5–7 and 8–17 age groups in the CAS standardization sample is reported. Following the same procedure as recent studies of other prominent intelligence tests (Dombrowski, Watkins, & Brogan, 2009; Canivez, 2008; Canivez & Watkins, 2010a, 20...
Article
The factor structure of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) was examined with a sample of 393 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. An identical four-factor structure was observed for the Canadian sample as was obtained in the standardization sample of U.S. youths and with another American sample. Principal axis exploratory fact...
Article
Empirical examination of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 2003a) has produced mixed results regarding its internal structure and convergent validity. Various aspects of validity of RIAS scores with a sample (N = 521) of adolescents and adults seeking psychological evaluations at a university-based...
Article
The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16–19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from exploratory...
Article
The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable debate exists regarding the accuracy of intelligence tests with members of different groups. This study investigated differential predictive validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition. Participants from the WISC-IV—WIAT-II standardization linking sample (N = 550) ranged in age from 6 through 16 years (M = 1...
Article
Replication of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) core syndrome factor structure with a sample of 124 randomly selected Hispanic/Latino youths is reported. The six ASCA core syndromes produced the identical two-factor solution observed in other samples. Principal-axis exploratory factor analysis using multiple factor extracti...
Article
Full-text available
The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Psychological Corporation, 1999) and the Wide Range Intelligence Test (WRIT; Glutting, Adams, & Sheslow, 2000) are two well-normed brief measures of general intelligence with subtests purportedly assessing verbal–crystallized abilities and nonverbal–fluid–visual abilities. With a sample of 152 c...
Article
The core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) was examined with a sample of 375 randomly selected Canadian youths in a large western city. The 6 ASCA core syndrome raw scores produced an identical two-factor solution as observed in samples of American youths. Principal axis exploratory factor analys...
Article
Full-text available
Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB-5; Roid, 2003a) for child and adolescent samples is reported. Multiple criteria for factor extraction unanimously supported extraction of only one dimension and a unidimensional model. However, following results from DiStefano and Dombrowski (2006)...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the WISC-III (Wechsler, 199131. Wechsler , D. ( 1991 ). Wechsler intelligence scale for children–third edition . San Antonio TX Psychological Corporation . View all references) Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores in predicting later academic achievement given significant variability among any of...
Article
The factor structure of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; [Reynolds, C.R., & Kamphaus, R.W. (2003). Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.]) was investigated with a large (N = 1163) independent sample of referred students (ages 6–18). More rigorous factor extraction criteria (viz...
Article
There has been considerable debate regarding the causal precedence of intelligence and academic achievement. Some researchers view intelligence and achievement as identical constructs. Others believe that the relationship between intelligence and achievement is reciprocal. Still others assert that intelligence is causally related to achievement. Th...
Article
The present study reports on the replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) for a sample of 229 Native American Indian (Yavapai Apache) children and adolescents from rural north-central Arizona. The six ASCA core syndromes produced the identical two-factor solution as the standardi...
Article
Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical two-factor solution...
Article
This study reports on the replication of the four-factor structure and the internal consistency of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) with an independent sample of 241 students in Grades 1 through 7. Internal consistency estimates were as high or higher than those obtained with the standardization sample. Substantial replication of the four LBS fac...
Article
Although often applied in practice, clinically based cognitive subtest profile analysis has failed to achieve empirical support. Nonlinear multivariate subtest profile analysis may have benefits over clinically based techniques, but the psychometric properties of these methods must be studied prior to their implementation and interpretation. The cu...
Article
This study examined the construct validity of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993). Distinct group differences and discriminative validity (Youngstrom, Findling, Danielson, & Calabrese, 2001) were examined with a sample of 106 students ranging from grade 1 through 6 (53 met the DSM-IV/DISC-IV...
Article
The present study reports data supporting the construct validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT; Kaufman & Kaufman, 1990), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; Wechsler, 1991), and the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) through convergent and discr...
Article
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Third Edition (D. Wechsler, 1991; WISC-III) is often used to identify subtest-based cognitive strengths and weaknesses that are subsequently used to generate interventions. Given that intelligence is presumed to be an enduring trait, cognitive strengths and weaknesses identified via subtest analysis sho...
Article
Independent examination and replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Marston, & Stott, 1993) is reported. A sample of 1,020 children were randomly selected from their classroom and rated on the ASCA by their teacher. The six ASCA core syndromes produced a two-factor so...