Gareth Jones

Gareth Jones
University of Bristol | UB · School of Biological Sciences

About

486
Publications
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Publications

Publications (486)
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of seed dispersal by frugivorous primates may vary between seasons and plant species, depending on foraging strategies. We investigated how foraging strategies of an invasive frugivorous primate (the long-tailed macaque, Macaca fascicularis) affect seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) between native and invasive plants in Mauritius’...
Article
The conservation of threatened species often requires an examination of home range, foraging preferences, and diet. We used radio tracking, global positioning system data loggers, and fecal pellet analyses to study the nocturnal ecology of an endangered desert mammal, the sandhill dunnart, Sminthopsis psammophila. Twenty-four individuals were track...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding behaviour of the sanguivorous common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) facilitates the transmission of pathogens that can impact both human and animal health. To formulate effective strategies in controlling the spread of diseases, there is a need to obtain information on which animals they feed on. One DNA-based approach, shotgun sequenc...
Article
Isolated trees are increasingly recognised as playing a vital role in supporting biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, yet their occurrence has declined substantially in recent decades. Most bats in Europe are tree-dependent species that rely on woody elements in order to persist in farmlands. However, isolated trees are rarely considered in con...
Article
Simultaneous GPS tracking of mother bats and their young has revealed that mothers 'park' infants in trees close to their colony. As pups become more independent they return to the trees by themselves, suggesting that mothers help their offspring learn how to navigate.
Article
Full-text available
Aquatic invasive species, such as the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), present a major threat to freshwater ecosystems. However, these species can be challenging to detect in recently invaded habitats. Environmental DNA (eDNA)–based methods are highly sensitive and capable of detecting just a few copies of target DNA from non-invasively...
Preprint
Full-text available
The feeding behaviour of the sanguivorous common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) facilitates the transmission of pathogens that can impact both human and animal health. To formulate effective strategies in controlling the spread of diseases, there is a need to obtain information on which animals they feed on. One DNA-based approach, shotgun sequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Communication between group members is mediated by a diverse range of signals. Contact calls are produced by many species of birds and mammals to maintain group cohesion and associations among individuals. Contact calls in bats are typically relatively low-frequency social calls, produced only for communication. However, echolocation calls (higher...
Article
The Seychelles Magpie-Robin Copsychus sechellarum is an IUCN Red-List Endangered species endemic to the Seychelles, whose population was reduced to eight individuals on a single island in the 1960s. Translocations from the remaining population to four additional islands have been an integral factor in their recovery, but the potential genetic conse...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic deterrents have shown potential as a viable mitigation measure to reduce human impacts on bats, however, the mechanisms underpinning acoustic deterrence of bats have yet to be explored. Bats avoid ambient ultrasound in their environment and alter their echolocation calls in response to masking noise. Using stereo thermal videogrammetry and...
Article
Full-text available
We review how different bat guilds respond to artificial light at night (ALAN) and assess how the impacts can vary according to ecological context. All studied European species respond negatively to ALAN close to roosts and drinking sites, and impacts occur across a wide range of light colours and intensities. Most bat species are sensitive to ALAN...
Article
A new study demonstrates that soft-furred tree mice orientate by using echolocation, emitting ultrasonic broadband chirps. Remarkable convergent evolution with distantly related bats and dolphins in ear bone morphology and sensory genes is evident.
Article
Full-text available
Over 20% of all living mammals are bats (order Chiroptera). Bats possess extraordinary adaptations including powered flight, laryngeal echolocation and a unique immune system that enables them to tolerate a diversity of viral infections without presenting clinical disease symptoms. They occupy multiple trophic niches and environments globally. Sign...
Article
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Globally, the impacts of anthropogenic climate change can displace species into more favourable climates. Semi‐arid desert specialists, such as the sandhill dunnart, Sminthopsis psammophila, are typically susceptible to rainfall deficits, wildfires and extreme temperatures caused by anthropogenic climate change. We first used maximum entropy (MaxEn...
Article
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Dasyurids are small mammals that can conserve energy and water by using shelters that insulate against extreme conditions, prevent predation, and facilitate torpor. To quantify the diurnal sheltering requirements of a poorly known, endangered dasyurid, the sandhill dunnart, Sminthopsis psammophila, we radiotracked 40 individuals in the Western Aust...
Article
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Exceptionally long-lived species, including many bats, rarely show overt signs of aging, making it difficult to determine why species differ in lifespan. Here, we use DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles from 712 known-age bats, representing 26 species, to identify epigenetic changes associated with age and longevity. We demonstrate that DNAm accurately...
Article
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Loss of foraging habitat and reductions in insect prey are key factors responsible for declines in bat populations. Identifying important bat foraging habitats and the ecological requirements and conservation status of prey provides evidence for appropriately targeted conservation management strategies. We examined the foraging habits of the barba...
Article
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Developing an optimal diet for rearing endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes is important for captive breeding success prior to wild release. Four ex situ, 40-day experiments assessed survival and growth of crayfish fed different treatment diets. Two experiments (A and B) were undertaken with hatchlings, to determine if live fo...
Article
Bats provide important pollination and seed-dispersal services to native angiosperms. However, many bat species are increasingly threatened by human disturbance, including the Mauritian flying fox (Pteropus niger), an endemic, keystone seed disperser. Native forests are scarce and P. niger frequently feeds in commercial plantations, where it now is...
Preprint
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Aging is often perceived as a degenerative process caused by random accrual of cellular damage over time. In spite of this, age can be accurately estimated by epigenetic clocks based on DNA methylation profiles from almost any tissue of the body. Since such pan-tissue epigenetic clocks have been successfully developed for several different...
Article
Full-text available
Light trapping is an important tool for monitoring insect populations. This is especially true for biting Diptera, where light traps play a crucial role in disease surveillance by tracking the presence and abundance of vector species. Physiological and behavioural data have been instrumental in identifying factors that influence dipteran phototaxis...
Article
Telomeres are used increasingly in ecology and evolution as biomarkers for ageing and environmental stress, and are typically measured from DNA extracted from nonlethally sampled blood. However, obtaining blood is not always possible in field conditions and only limited amounts can be taken from small mammals, such as bats, which moreover lack nucl...
Article
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Defensive secretions of millipedes are remarkable for containing toxic quinones known to efficiently repell hematophagous arthropods. Here we show that Endangered blonde capuchin monkeys make use of such secretions. We (i) describe the anointing behavior performed by the monkeys (ii) identify the millipede species used in the process (iii) describe...
Preprint
Bats hold considerable potential for understanding exceptional longevity because some species can live eight times longer than other mammals of similar size [1]. Estimating their age or longevity is difficult because they show few signs of aging. DNA methylation (DNAm) provides a potential solution given its utility for estimating age [2-4] and lif...
Article
Full-text available
Bats possess extraordinary adaptations, including flight, echolocation, extreme longevity and unique immunity. High-quality genomes are crucial for understanding the molecular basis and evolution of these traits. Here we incorporated long-read sequencing and state-of-the-art scaffolding protocols¹ to generate, to our knowledge, the first reference-...
Article
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The tequila bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) has been the focus of intense research over the last 20 years. Its close relationship to economically important plants used in the production of tequila and mezcal has raised awareness of its importance as both a keystone mutualist and a mobile link between habitats. The study of its migratory habits has...
Article
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The disturbance, damage and destruction of roosts are key drivers of bat population declines worldwide. In countries where bats are protected by law, bat roost surveys are often required to inform ecological impact assessments. Yet, evidence-based information on survey methodology to detect bat roosts is crucially lacking, and failing to detect a r...
Article
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Where humans and wildlife co-exist, mitigation is often needed to alleviate potential conflicts and impacts. Deterrence methods can be used to reduce impacts of human structures or activities on wildlife, or to resolve conservation conflicts in areas where animals may be regarded as a nuisance or pose a health hazard. Here we test two methods (acou...
Article
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Conventional methodologies used to estimate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems can be nonselective and invasive, sometimes leading to capture and potential injury of vulnerable species. Therefore, interest in noninvasive surveying techniques is growing among freshwater ecologists. Passive acoustic monitoring, the noninvasive recording of environ...
Article
Trees, woods, forests and associated biodiversity are being affected by anthropogenic climate breakdown, and need management to maintain delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services. Wood harvested from sustainably managed woodlands can be used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through carbon substitution, directly using biomass for bioenergy...
Article
1. Semi-arid and arid landscapes (dry-lands) cover 41% of the Earth’s land surface over five continents. These areas are home to 55% of mammal species. Bats have the second highest species richness among mammals, and, although many species are adapted to arid conditions, they are particularly sensitive in these habitats and require conservation pri...
Book
Full-text available
Achtzig Prozent der Weltbevölkerung leben derzeit unter einem lichtverschmutzten Himmel, und die Milchstraße ist für mehr als ein Drittel der Menschheit nicht mehr sichtbar. Das Tempo, in dem die Lichtverschmutzung zunimmt, ist schneller als das globale Bevölkerungswachstum und die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Während sich die Umweltbedingungen in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bats account for ~20% of all extant mammal species and are considered exceptional given their extraordinary adaptations, including biosonar, true flight, extreme longevity, and unparalleled immune systems. To understand these adaptations, we generated reference-quality genomes of six species representing the key divergent lineages. We assembled the...
Article
Full-text available
The diversity of bats worldwide includes large numbers of cryptic species, partly because divergence in acoustic traits such as echolocation calls are under stronger selection than differences in visual appearance in these nocturnal mammals. Island faunas often contain disproportionate numbers of endemic species, and hence we might expect cryptic,...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal areas prone to flooding are relatively neglected in primate studies. Eight out of 29 known populations of Critically Endangered Sapajus flavius occur in areas very close to, or containing, mangrove and várzea (i.e., tidal forests) forests, suggesting that these habitats are important for the species. We monitored Sapajus flavius in a mosaic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bats are promising candidates for studying morphometric and acoustic responses to geographical isolation. The present study tried to understand the cranial variation and acoustic differences in Hipposideros lankadiva, an endemic species to the Indian subcontinent. The specimens from India are referable to H. l. indus and are relatively small in siz...
Article
Full-text available
1. Mitigating the detrimental impacts of intensive farming on biodiversity requires the implementation of cost‐effective conservation actions. Targeted agri‐environment‐schemes (AESs) to enhance populations of threatened species inhabiting farmland have been proposed for this purpose, yet their effectiveness for nocturnal wildlife remains unknown....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are large bats that often roost in the sun, hence solar-powered GPS/GSM devices can track their movements over extended periods. The endemic Mauritian flying fox (Pteropus niger) has recently been subjected to large-scale culling because of perceived damage to commercial fruit, and a consequent re...
Article
Full-text available
Background Flying foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are large bats that often roost in the sun, hence solar-powered GPS/GSM devices can track their movements over extended periods. The endemic Mauritian flying fox (Pteropus niger) has recently been subjected to large-scale culling because of perceived damage to commercial fruit, and a consequent red...
Preprint
Full-text available
The diversity of bats worldwide includes large numbers of cryptic species, partly because divergence in acoustic traits such as echolocation calls are under stronger selection than differences in visual appearance in these nocturnal mammals. Island faunas often contain disproportionate numbers of endemic species, and hence we might expect cryptic,...
Article
Full-text available
Hedgerows provide valuable habitats and corridors for many species in farmland, yet a lack of appropriate management may threaten their benefits to biodiversity. Although agri-environment scheme (AES) prescriptions on hedgerow management have the potential to reverse the detrimental effect of over-trimming on wildlife, their effectiveness has rarel...
Article
Full-text available
The endemic Mauritian flying fox Pteropus niger is perceived to be a major fruit pest. Lobbying of the Government of Mauritius by fruit growers to control the flying fox population resulted in national culls in 2015 and 2016, with a further cull scheduled for 2018. A loss of c. 38,318 individuals has been reported and the species is now categorized...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid global spread of artificial light at night is causing unprecedented disruption to ecosystems. In otherwise dark environments, street lights restrict the use of major flight routes by some bats, including the threatened lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros, and may disrupt foraging. Using radio tracking, we examined the response o...
Article
Full-text available
Collecting information on bat prey availability usually involves the use of light traps to capture moths and flies that constitute the main prey items of most insectivorous bats. However, despite the recent awareness on the adverse effects of light on bats, little is known regarding the potential impacts of light trapping on the bat sampling outcom...
Book
Full-text available
These guidelines explain how European bats respond to artifiical light at night and how the negative effects of artificial light at night can be mitigated when new street lamps are installed or when the type of lighting is changed, e.g. from conventional to energy efficient lighting schemes.
Article
Full-text available
Crocodilians are apex predators and sympatric species are likely to have different ecologies or morphologies in order to minimise competition between species, i.e., niche partitioning. Here, we examined the ecological niche factors that may affect competition between juvenile Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) and Tomistoma (Tomistoma schleg...
Article
Full-text available
With recent advances in aquaculture techniques, captive‐breeding of the endangered white‐clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes for restocking is becoming a widespread conservation method. Establishing optimal stocking densities for aquaculture is essential in maximizing productivity, and increases the likelihood of crayfish survival when releas...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster summarises sandhill dunnart MaxEnt species distribution modelling, motion camera ground validation and the discovery of a population 70 km northeast of Laverton, W.A. This part of the project was funded by the Goldfields Environmental Management Group (GEMG). I intend to present this work and other chapters of my conservation biology P...
Article
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Crayfish growth rates can vary considerably among individuals from the same brood, and social dominance hierarchies in crustacean species occur frequently. These hierarchies can reduce growth and survival when rearing communal groups. Size‐grading and single‐sex culturing are the methods used to combat this. A 160‐day experiment took place on 288 y...
Article
Physiological color change in animals is a rapid process involving the redistribution of pigments within chromatophores, and may have roles in camouflage, communication, or thermoregulation. Although observed in other ectotherms, it has not previously been documented in crocodilians. Using wild and captive Sunda gharials (Tomistoma schlegelii), we...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging lighting technologies provide opportunities for reducing carbon footprints, and for biodiversity conservation. In addition to installing light-emitting diode street lights, many local authorities are also dimming street lights. This might benefit light-averse bat species by creating dark refuges for these bats to forage and commute in huma...
Article
Full-text available
We monitored a barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellus) maternity roost for four months using a portable CCTV system, time synchronised with ultrasound recorders. We discovered three patterns of vocal activity not previously described. When barbastelles investigated the roost entrance, calls resembling the approach phase of echolocation were produced...