Gareth E Davies

Gareth E Davies
Avera Institute for Human Genetics

PhD

About

162
Publications
36,181
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5,587
Citations
Citations since 2016
85 Research Items
4844 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the timing, use, and clinical outcomes of the GeneFolio® Pharmacogenomic Panel in a healthcare setting with patients managed by primary care providers or by psychiatrists. Participants were randomized to receive a pharmacogenetics report at four weeks or 12 weeks. After DNA collection and genetic analysis, pharmacists produced...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial genetic correlations have been reported across psychiatric disorders and numerous cross-disorder genetic variants have been detected. To identify the genetic variants underlying general psychopathology in childhood, we performed a genome-wide association study using a total psychiatric problem score. We analyzed 6,844,199 common SNPs in...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes what is known and what remains unknown about the human twinning process. The interest of this chapter is a description of the processes underlying twinning, with a specific focus on the biological and genetic aspects. While the mechanisms and contributory factors to dizygotic twinning are becoming well established, much rema...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children ag...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior ( N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 p...
Article
Full-text available
To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide associa...
Article
Full-text available
Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women. Limited studies have been done on the genomic evolution between primary and metastatic breast cancer. We reconstructed the genomic evolution through the sixteen year history of an ER+ HER2- breast cancer patient to investigate molecular mechanisms of disease rel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Internalising symptoms in childhood and adolescence are as heritable as adult depression and anxiety, yet little is known of their molecular basis. This genome-wide association meta-analysis of internalising symptoms included repeated observations from 64,641 individuals, aged between 3 and 18. The N-weighted meta-analysis of overall internalising...
Conference Paper
Relative to other tumors in smokers, KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) display dismal prognosis warranting the need for early management of this disease. Limiting these advances is our gap in knowledge of events that drive KRAS-mutant LUAD oncogenesis. Host defense systems, such as those elicited by the gut microbiome, were recently shown to...
Article
Full-text available
Hypospadias is a common birth defect where the urethral opening forms on the ventral side of the penis. We performed integrative methylomic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses to characterize sites of DNA methylation that influence genital development. In case–control and case-only epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of preputial tissue we...
Preprint
DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N=15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 part...
Article
Full-text available
It remains a challenge to determine whether children resemble their parents due to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. Here we used a design that exploits the distinction between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in genetic transmission from parent to offspring. Two separate polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated on the basis of the transm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Substantial genetic correlations have been reported across psychiatric disorders and numerous cross-disorder genetic variants have been detected. To identify the genetic variants underlying general psychopathology in childhood, we performed a genome-wide association study using a total psychiatric problem score. We analyzed 6,844,199 common SNPs in...
Article
Full-text available
Biomarkers are of interest as potential diagnostic and predictive instruments in personalized medicine. We present the first urinary metabolomics biomarker study of childhood aggression. We aim to examine the association of urinary metabolites and neurotransmitter ratios involved in key metabolic and neurotransmitter pathways in a large cohort of t...
Article
Full-text available
In this review, we focus on the phenomenon of chimerism and especially microchimerism as one of the currently underexplored explanations for differences in health and behavior. Chimerism is an amalgamation of cells from two or more unique zygotes within a single organism, with microchimerism defined by a minor cell population of <1%. This article f...
Article
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Introduction Heel pricks are performed on newborns for diagnostic screenings of various pre-symptomatic metabolic and genetic diseases. Excess blood is spotted on Guthrie cards and archived by many states in biobanks for follow-up diagnoses and public health research. However, storage environment may vary across biobanks and across time within biob...
Conference Paper
Introduction Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer-related death, with genomic evolution between primary and metastatic breast cancer only recently being studied in smaller numbers. We reconstructed the tumor evolution of a female patient originally diagnosed with localized ER+ HER2- disease to investigate the molecular changes that triggered r...
Article
Full-text available
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Human aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial genetic component. Here we present a large genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG. Methods We analyzed assessments of AGG for a total of 328,935 observations from 87,485 children (aged 1.5 – 18 years), from multiple assessors, instruments, and ages, while accounti...
Article
Full-text available
Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibiliti...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The gut microbiota composition is known to be influenced by a myriad of factors including the host genetic profile and a number of environmental influences. Here, we focus on the environmental influence of cohabitation on the gut microbiota as well as whether these environmentally influenced microorganisms are associated with cardiomet...
Article
The aim of the Avera Twin Register (ATR) is to establish a prospective longitudinal repository of twins, multiples, siblings and family members’ biological samples to study environmental and genetic influences on health and disease. Also, it is our intention to contribute to international genome-wide association study (GWAS) twin consortia when app...
Article
Full-text available
Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of children’s educational achievement (EA), with an increasing effect throughout development. Inequality in educational outcomes between children from different SES backgrounds exists in all Western countries. It has been proposed that a cause of this inequality lies in the interplay between...
Article
Full-text available
Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of...
Article
Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in ∼50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in DS-ALL susceptibility is unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analy...
Conference Paper
Relative to other lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs), mutant LUAD displays dismal prognosis warranting the need for new strategies for early treatment of this lung cancer subtype. Limiting these advances is our poor understanding of events that drive mutant LUAD development. In efforts to fill this void, we recently found that mice with knockout of G-pro...
Conference Paper
Relative to other lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs), mutant LUAD displays dismal prognosis warranting the need for new strategies for early treatment of this lung cancer subtype. Limiting these advances is our poor understanding of events that drive mutant LUAD development. In efforts to fill this void, we recently found that mice with knockout of G-pro...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is challenging to study whether children resemble their parents due to nature, nurture, or a mixture of both. Here we used a novel design that employs the fact that parents transmit 50% of their alleles to their offspring. The combined effect of these transmitted and non-transmitted alleles on a trait are summarized in a polygenic score (PGS). T...
Article
Background: The overall 5-year survival of lung cancer remains dismal despite the current treatment regimens. Testing for driver mutations has become routine practice for oncologists due to the presence of targeted therapy readily available for patients. Deep targeted sequencing through next generation sequencing (NGS) is an adequate methodology t...
Article
Full-text available
Study question: Is there an increased prevalence of male microchimerism in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, as evidence of fetal exposure to blood and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) from a (vanished) male co-twin resulting in regression of the Müllerian duct derivatives? Summary answer: Predominant absence of male microch...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent genome‐wide association studies of hypospadias have implicated the role of genetic variants in or near the diacylglycerol kinase kappa (DGKK) gene. However, these variants are largely identified among samples of mild and moderate hypospadias cases. Therefore, we evaluated previously identified DGKK variants among second‐ and third...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Uninvolved normal-appearing airway epithelium has been shown to exhibit specific mutations characteristic of nearby non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Yet, its somatic mutational landscape in patients with early-stage NSCLC is unknown.Objectives: To comprehensively survey the somatic mutational architecture of the normal airway epithe...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide...
Article
Full-text available
Background Genomic investigation of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), the only known precursor lesion to lung adenocarcinomas (LUAD), presents challenges due to the low mutant cell fractions. This necessitates sensitive methods for detection of chromosomal aberrations to better study the role of critical alterations in early lung cancer patho...
Article
Full-text available
Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of mortality that influence risk for many complex diseases and disorders1. They are heritable2,3 and etiologically related4,5 behaviors that have been resistant to gene discovery efforts6,7,8,9,10,11. In sample sizes up to 1.2 million individuals, we discovered 566 genetic variants in 406 loci associated w...
Article
The tendency to conceive spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twins is a complex trait with important contributions from both environmental factors and genetic disposition. In earlier work, we identified the first two genes as maternal susceptibility loci for DZ twinning. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants influencing multiple births and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: DNA methylation arrays are widely used in epigenome-wide association studies and methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) studies. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of monozygotic (MZ) twin correlations and mQTLs on data obtained with the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC array) and compared the performance of...
Article
Objective: Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a rare and aggressive form of uterine cancer. It is bi-phasic, exhibiting histological features of both malignant epithelial (carcinoma) and mesenchymal (sarcoma) elements, reflected in ambiguity in accepted treatment guidelines. We sought to study the genomic and transcriptomic profiles of these elements...
Article
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare inherited skin and mucous membrane fragility disorder complicated by early-onset, highly malignant cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The molecular etiology of RDEB SCC, which arises at sites of sustained tissue damage, is unknown. We performed detailed molecular analysis using who...
Article
Background and aims Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes including multi‐substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identify associations with genetic variants. Methods...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: There are very few strategies to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at its primitive stages largely due to our poor understanding of molecular aberrations in development of the malignancy and that would be ideal targets for early treatment. Work from our group and others revealed that visually "normal" airway cells carry alteratio...
Article
Purpose: Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) compared to children without DS. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several susceptibility loci in childhood ALL, studies of ALL in children with DS are lacking. Therefore, we conducted the first GWAS of DS-ALL. Me...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants....
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Loneliness is an aversive response to a discrepancy between desired and actual social relationships and correlates with personality. We investigate the relationship of loneliness and personality in twin‐family and molecular genetic data. Method: Phenotypic correlations between loneliness and the Big Five personality traits were estimated...
Article
Full-text available
Loneliness is a heritable trait that accompanies multiple disorders. The association between loneliness and mental health indices may partly be due to inherited biological factors. We constructed polygenic scores for 27 traits related to behavior, cognition, and mental health and tested their prediction for self‐reported loneliness in a population‐...
Article
Full-text available
For the participants in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) we constructed the extended pedigrees which specify all relations among nuclear and larger twin families in the register. A total of 253,015 subjects from 58,645 families were linked to each other, to the degree that we had information on the relations among participants. We describe the a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Most candidate gene studies on the neurobiology of voluntary exercise behavior have focused on the dopaminergic signaling pathway and its role in the mesolimbic reward system. We hypothesized that dopaminergic candidate genes may influence exercise behavior through additional effects on executive functioning and that these effects are onl...
Article
A significant proportion of college students are adult children of an alcoholic parent (ACoA), which can confer greater risk of depression, poor self-esteem, alcohol and drug problems, and greater levels of college attrition. However, some ACoA are resilient to these negative outcomes. The goal of this study was to better understand the psychobiolo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions, and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in over 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and the UK...
Article
The Avera Twin Register (ATR) aims to study environmental and genetic influences on health and disease using a longitudinal repository of biological specimens, survey data, and health information provided by multiples and their family members. The ATR is located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which is a rural and frontier area in the Midwestern Unit...
Article
Transcriptome sequencing (mRNA-seq) is becoming a very versatile technique for profiling tumors, extending beyond its original intent of transcript quantification, identification of alternative transcripts, and detection of gene fusions. For instance, through recent advancements in RNA-seq data analyses, one can now computationally assess allele-sp...
Article
Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) is a rare and aggressive form of uterine cancer. It is bi-phasic, exhibiting histological features of both malignant epithelial (carcinomatous) and mesenchymal (sarcomatous) elements. Studies have indicated that UCS arises from sarcomatous differentiation of high-grade carcinoma while others have suggested a bi-clonal n...
Article
Lung cancer, of which non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form, is the second most prevalent cancer in the U.S. and the leading cause of cancer mortality. Field cancerization phenomenon establishes that normal appearing tissues surrounding a tumor will exhibit a field effect – particularly in smokers – with the tissues proximal to...