Galina Weinstein

Galina Weinstein
University of Haifa | haifa

PhD

About

45
Publications
26,385
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114
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Galina Weinstein specializes in the special and general theories of relativity.
Education
January 1994 - May 2000
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Field of study
  • Einstein's theory of relativity

Publications

Publications (45)
Book
Full-text available
This book is a comprehensive monograph on Albert Einstein's Odyssey to Special and General Relativity. It is the second edition of the book, Einstein's Pathway to the Special Theory of Relativity. The book brings together the most recent studies regarding the discovery of Special Relativity between 1895 and 1905 and pertaining to the genesis of Gen...
Article
The question of Einstein's rejection of the November tensor is re-examined in light of conflicting answers by several historians. I discuss these conflicting conjectures in view of three questions that should inform our thinking: Why did Einstein reject the November tensor in 1912, only to come back to it in 1915? Why was it hard for Einstein to re...
Article
In his 1916 ground-breaking general relativity paper Einstein had imposed a restrictive coordinate condition, his field equations were valid for coordinate systems which are unimodular. Later, Einstein published a paper on gravitational waves. The solution presented in this paper did not satisfy the above restrictive condition. In his gravitational...
Book
Full-text available
This book pieces together the jigsaw puzzle of Einstein’s journey to discovering the special theory of relativity. Between 1902 and 1905, Einstein sat in the Patent Office and may have made calculations on old pieces of paper that were once patent drafts. One can imagine Einstein trying to hide from his boss, writing notes on small sheets of paper,...
Article
In his first November 4, 1915 paper Einstein wrote the Lagrangian form of his field equations. In the fourth November 25, 1915 paper, Einstein added a trace term of the energy-momentum tensor on the right-hand side of the generally covariant field equations. The main purpose of the present work is to show that in November 4, 1915, Einstein had alre...
Article
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The main purpose of the present paper is to show that a correction of one mistake was crucial for Einstein's pathway to the first version of the 1915 general theory of relativity, but also might have played a role in obtaining the final version of Einstein's 1915 field equations. In 1914 Einstein wrote the equations for conservation of energy-momen...
Article
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In 1956/1970 Gamow wrote that much later, when he was discussing cosmological problems with Einstein, he remarked that the introduction of the cosmological term was the "biggest blunder" he ever made in his life. But the cosmological constant rears its ugly head again and again and again. Apparently, Einstein himself has never used the apercu "bigg...
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In 1917 Einstein introduced into his field equations a cosmological term having the cosmological constant as a coefficient, in order that the theory should yield a static universe. Einstein desired to eliminate absolute space from physics according to "Mach's ideas". De Sitter objected to the "world-matter" in Einstein's world, and proposed a vacuu...
Article
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In 1905 the well-known physicist Max Planck was coeditor of the Annalen der Physik, and he accepted Einstein's paper on light quanta for publication, even though he disliked the idea of "light quanta". Einstein's relativity paper was received by the Annalen der Physik at the end of June 1905 and Planck was the first scientist to notice Einstein's r...
Article
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Upon reading Einstein's views on quantum incompleteness in publications or in his correspondence after 1935 (the EPR paradox), one gets a very intense feeling of deja-vu. Einstein presents a quantum hole argument, which somewhat reminds of the hole argument in his 1914 "Entwurf" theory of general relativity. PBR write in their paper, "An important...
Article
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This note is by no means a comprehensive study of Minkowski's space-time formalism of special relativity. The mathematician, Hermann Minkowski was Einstein's former mathematics professor at the Z\"urich Polytechnic. During his studies at the Polytechnic Einstein skipped Minkowski's classes. In 1904 Max Born arrived in the first time to G\"ottingen....
Article
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This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein co...
Article
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Between 1905 and 1907, Einstein first tried to extend the special theory of relativity in such a way so as to explain gravitational phenomena. This was the most natural and simplest path to be taken. These investigations did not fit in with Galileo's law of free fall. This law, which may also be formulated as the law of the equality of inertial and...
Article
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On January 4, 2012, the centenary of Henri Poincar\'e's death, a colloquium was held in Nancy, France the subject of which was "Vers une biographie d'Henri Poincar\'e". Scholars discussed several approaches for writing a biography of Poincar\'e. In this paper I present a personal and scientific biographical sketch of Poincar\'e, which does not in a...
Article
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This paper deals with four topics: The first subject is Abraham's spherical electron, Lorentz's contracted electron and B\"ucherer's electron. The second topic is Einstein's 1905 relativity theory of the motion of an electron. Einstein obtained expressions for the longitudinal and transverse masses of the electron using the principle of relativity...
Article
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The Finnish physicist Gunnar Nordstr\"om developed a competing theory of gravitation to Einstein's 1912-1913 gravitation theory. The equivalence principle was valid in his theory and it also satisfied red shift of the spectral lines from the sun. However, it was unable to supply the Perihelion of Mercury, such as Einstein's theory; it led to a Peri...
Article
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Over the years many have written biographies of Einstein. They all based their biographies on primary sources, archival material: memories and letters of people who were in contact with Einstein, Einstein's own recollections; interviews that Einstein had given over the years, and letters of Einstein to his friends - youth friends like Marcel Grossm...
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Childhood and Schooldays: Albert Einstein, and the family members seemed to have exaggerated the story of Albert who developed slowly, learned to talk late, and whose parents thought he was abnormal. These and other stories were adopted by biographers as if they really happened in the form that Albert and his sister told them. Hence biographers wer...
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Einstein at the Z\"urich Polytechnic: he skipped classes, did not attend all the lectures of his Professors, and before going to the examinations he studied instead from the notebooks of his good friend from class, Marcel Grossmann. Einstein the free-thinker did not respect the two major professors in the Polytechnic - Heinrich Friedrich Weber and...
Article
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In the Patent Office Einstein hatched his most beautiful ideas, and there he spent his "Happy Bern Years". These wonderful ideas led to his miraculous year works of 1905. Einstein was not an expert in academic matters, and he was out of academic world. Neither did he meet influential professors, or attend academic meetings. He discussed his ideas w...
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In 1905 Einstein presented the Clock Paradox and in 1911 Paul Langevin expanded Einstein's result to human observers, the "Twin Paradox." I will explain the crucial difference between Einstein and Langevin. Einstein did not present the so-called "Twin Paradox." Later Einstein continued to speak about the clock paradox. Einstein might not have been...
Article
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Five topics: A rigid body does not exist in the special theory of relativity; distant simultaneity defined with respect to a given frame of reference without any reference to synchronized clocks; challenges on Einstein's connection of synchronization and contraction; a theory of relativity without light, composition of relative velocities and space...
Article
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Einstein was the first to explore the inertial mass-energy equivalence. In 1905 Einstein showed that a change in energy is associated with a change in inertial mass equal to the change in energy divided by c2. In 1900 Poincar\'e considered a device creating and emitting electromagnetic waves. The device emits energy in all directions. As a result o...
Article
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Before 1905, Poincar\'e stressed the importance of the method of clocks and their synchronization, but unlike Einstein, magnet and conductor (asymmetries in Lorentz's theory regarding the explanation of Faraday's induction) or chasing a light beam and overtaking it, were not a matter of great concern for him. In 1905 Poincar\'e elaborated Lorentz's...
Article
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The intermediate stage of the development of general relativity is inseparable of Marcel Grossmann's mathematical assistance. Einstein acknowledges Grossmann's help during 1912-1914 to the development of general relativity. In fact, as with special relativity so was it with General relativity, Einstein received assistance only from his old friends,...
Article
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In 1895 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz derived the Fresnel dragging coefficient in his theory of immobile ether and electrons. This derivation did not explicitly involve electromagnetic theory at all. According to the 1922 Kyoto lecture notes, before 1905 Einstein tried to discuss Fizeau's experiment "as originally discussed by Lorentz" (in 1895). At this...
Article
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Writers read Einstein's letter to Mari\'c from 1901 in which he wrote: "bringing our work on relative motion to a successful conclusion!" What came afterwards was boosted by a claim that Joffe had seen the original relativity paper manuscript, and that it was signed "Einstein-Marity" (i.e., "Mari\'c"). This drew the attention of some writers to dev...
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This is a prelude to a book which I intend to publish. This paper describes my temporary thoughts on Einstein's pathway to the special theory of relativity. See my papers on my thoughts on Einstein's pathway to his general theory of relativity. Never say that you know how Einstein had arrived at his special theory of relativity, even if you read hi...
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In 1907 Einstein discussed with Wilhelm Wien the occurrences of superluminal velocities in dispersive and absorptive media. Einstein tried to present to Wien an expression for the group velocity in dispersive media that was based on his 1905 relativistic addition theorem for velocities, which he claimed to be valid for absorptive media, and to demo...
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Before developing his 1915 General Theory of Relativity, Einstein held the "Entwurf" theory. Tullio Levi-Civita from Padua, one of the founders of tensor calculus, objected to a major problematic element in this theory, which reflected its global problem: its field equations were restricted to an adapted coordinate system. Einstein proved that his...
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In December 1911, Max Abraham published a paper on gravitation at the basis of which was Albert Einstein's 1911 June conclusion about a relationship between the velocity of light and the gravitational potential. In February 1912, Einstein published his work on static gravitational fields, which was based on his 1911 June theory. In March 1912, Eins...
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I discuss Albert Einstein's 1914 review paper, "The Formal Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" from two points of view: the main elements in the paper that appear to have led to the downfall of the Einstein-Grossman theory; and the elements that seem to have inspired Einstein during October 1915 to reformulate the 1914 Einstein-Grossman...
Article
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I discuss Einstein's path-breaking November 1915 General Relativity papers. I show that Einstein's field equations of November 25, 1915 with an additional term on the right hand side involving the trace of the energy-momentum tensor appear to have sprung from his first November 1915 paper: the November 4, 1915 equations. Second paper among three pa...
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We offer a novel historical-philosophical framework for discussing experimental practice which we call ‘Generating Experimental Knowledge’. It combines three different perspectives: experimental systems, concept formation, and the pivotal role of error. We then present an historical account of the invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (ST...
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Before 1905 Poincaré defined Lorentz's local time by means of a thought experiment in which observers synchronize their watches with light signals. In 1905 Einstein presented a similar thought experiment in his relativity paper. The similarity between Poincaré's and Einstein's thought experiment is striking. I suggest that Poincaré's thought experi...
Article
this paper I demonstrate that Einstein's 1920 reasoning hardly differed from the one Poincar had presented prior to 1905. Thus, whil Einstein was a hero because he did away with the ether, this situation lasted a few years only. This is not to underestimate the magnitude of 2001 C. Roy Keys Inc
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In my paper "Einstein's ether part A" I mainly re-examined the bucket experiment and earth's daily rotation (the problems that had been occupying Mach and Poincaré) from Einstein's General Relativistic point of view. In this paper I further discuss Einstein's General Relativistic solution to the problems that had been occupying Mach and Poincaré.
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According to conventional wisdom, Poincaré failed to derive a relativity theory mainly as a result of his stubborn adherence to the ether. In (1905) Einstein constructed a relativity theory that was based on the assertion that the ether was superfluous. In 1908 Minkowski formulated the theory of the "absolute world". The nineteenth century ether no...
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Ludwik Kostro is the most influential historian and philosopher of science who has written about Einstein's post 1916 return to the ether concept (1988, 1992). He has endeavored to show that (Kostro, 1988, p. 239): "the notion of the ether was not destroyed by Einstein, as the general public believe." In addition, Kostro showed (1988, p.238): "Lore...
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This paper is divided into three parts, in which I suggest five answers to the question: Why did Poincar retain the ether? These answers are based on Poincar's own reasoning: the ether was required for the explanation of stellar aberration, to remove action-at-a-distance, to remove absolute rotation and absolute space from physics, to save broken t...
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This paper is divided into three parts, in which I suggest five answers to the question: Why did Poincaré retain the ether? These answers are based on Poincaré's own reasoning: the ether was required for the explanation of stellar aberration, to remove action-at-a-distance, to remove absolute rotation and absolute space from physics, to save broken...
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In this paper I discuss Poincaré's solution to the following problem: the principle of relativity is not valid for rotations and we thus can claim for absolute rotation. The principle of relativity was experimentally not valid for uniform rotations, and therefore it lost of its complete validity. Logical conventionalism (the philosophical principle...
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In this paper I concentrate on the dynamic aspects of the special theory of relativity (in the non-Minkowski formalism), and not on the kinematic part of the story as is usually done. Following up the dynamic story leads to a new point of view as to Poincaré's important role in the development of special relativity. Much of Poincaré's dynamic work...

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