Gail S. Brager

Gail S. Brager
University of California, Berkeley | UCB · Department of Architecture

About

31
Publications
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Publications

Publications (31)
Article
The ever-increasing demand for built spaces to cater to the needs of the tropical population compels for the adoption of sustainable building forms and passive design strategies. This research aims at studying the cases of six naturally ventilated occupied buildings constructed in the tropical ‘warm and humid’ climate of Pondicherry and Auroville,...
Article
Advances in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies have dramatically improved the indoor thermal environment, but attention should be paid on how this would affect building occupants’ thermal comfort perception. In this paper, we studied the mutually dependent relationship between indoor climate experience and occupants’ comf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As the climate changes, global use of airconditioning will proliferate as solutions are sought for maintaining thermal comfort in buildings. This rises alongside increased purchasing power as economies grow, harbouring the potential to unleash an unprecedented growth in energy demand. Encouraging higher levels of air movement at warmer temperatures...
Article
Full-text available
Occupant window-opening behaviour in Indian offices is a nascent field. This paper relies on the thermal comfort field study data from 28 Indian offices in Hyderabad and Chennai. Occupants in naturally ventilated buildings used the windows and doors adaptively as the seasons changed and the temperature varied. We found that 50% of the windows would...
Article
Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the builtenvironment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermalcomfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directionsfor contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literaturereview of major changes, developments, and trends in the fi...
Article
Climate change and the urgency of decarbonising the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This paper presents a literature review of major changes, developments and trends in the f...
Article
Team workspace is a specific example of an alternative office design strategy to support the activities of highly interactive, multi-disciplinary teams of knowledge workers. The design normally provides individual workspaces for private, concentrated work combined with nearby shared open spaces that support group work. The move toward this combinat...
Article
Mixed-mode buildings operate along a spectrum from sealed heating, ventilation and air-conditioning to 100% naturally ventilated, but little is known about their occupants' comfort expectations and experiences. Exceedance metrics, which quantify the percentage of time that a building's environment falls outside an expected thermal comfort zone, can...
Article
'Mixed-mode' refers to a hybrid approach to space conditioning that uses a combination of natural ventilation and some form of mechanical ventilation and/or cooling. This study focuses on mixed-mode in buildings with operable windows (as opposed to natural ventilation through vents). By utilizing active cooling only when and where it is necessary,...
Article
Full-text available
Office workers' preferences for air movement have been extracted from a database of indoor environmental quality surveys performed in over 200 buildings. Dissatisfaction with the amount of air motion is very common, with too little air movement cited far more commonly than too much air movement. Workers were also surveyed in a detailed two-season s...
Article
Standard 55-2004, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, incorporates advances in the understanding of human response to thermal environments. The standard specifies conditions of the indoor thermal environment that occupants will find acceptable. It is intended for use in design, commissioning, and testing of buildings and other occ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research (ASHRAE RP-884) demonstrated that occupants of naturally ventilated buildings are comfortable in a wider range of temperatures than occupants of buildings with centrally controlled HVAC systems. However, the exact influence of personal control in explaining these differences could only be hypothesized because of the limits of the exis...
Article
Recently accepted revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55—thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy, include a new adaptive comfort standard (ACS) that allows warmer indoor temperatures for naturally ventilated buildings during summer and in warmer climate zones. The ACS is based on the analysis of 21,000 sets of raw data compiled from field stu...
Article
Current thermal comfort standards and the models underpinning them purport to be equally applicable across all types of building, ventilation, occupancy pattern and climate zone. A recent research project sponsored by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, RP-884) critically evaluated these assumption...
Article
New concepts for standards on the indoor thermal environment are being proposed on the international level, with ISO (International Standard Organisation) and CEN (European Standard Organisation), and on the national level with ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers). Among the new developments are recomme...
Article
ASHRAE Standard 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, initially released in 1966 is hindering innovative efforts to develop more person-centered strategies for climate control in naturally ventilated or mixed-mode buildings. Based on ASHRAE-funded research, it is argued that adequate scientific basis exists to amend Standard 55...
Article
This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review on the topic of thermal adaptation in the built environment. The adaptive approach to modeling thermal comfort acknowledges that thermal perception in ‘real world’ settings is influenced by the complexities of past thermal history and cultural and technical practices. An important pr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The adaptive hypothesis predicts that contextual factors and past thermal history modify building occupants' thermal expectations and preferences. One of the predictions of the adaptive hypothesis is that people in warm climate zones prefer warmer indoor temperatures than people living in cold climate zones. This is contrary to the static assumptio...
Article
This paper discusses reassessment of indoor climate control in the context of current thermal comfort practice and research. We review the limitations of comfort models and standards with several examples. We examine how people's thermal sensation and preference may be influenced by culture and climate and associated issues of thermal expectations...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the logic of a microprocessor-controlled thermostat termed ‘comfortstat’ to address the needs of temporary room occupants such as hotel guests while reducing energy consumption. The ‘comfortstat’ design grew out of a study of thermal comfort control in a luxury hotel in San Francisco, California, USA. Hotel guests frequently ar...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Within the Center for the Built Environment (CBE) and in the greater building research and engineering community, there is growing interest in low energy cooling strategies that take advantage of natural ventilation. To support this rising interest, there is an associated need for more sophisticated models of occupant control of window...