## About

75

Publications

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709

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Introduction

Additional affiliations

September 2019 - August 2023

January 2017 - September 2019

**SimTech Simulation Technology**

Position

- Researcher

November 2015 - September 2019

Education

January 2013 - March 2016

October 2009 - July 2012

October 2006 - October 2009

## Publications

Publications (75)

Following a fast initial breakthrough in graph based learning, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have reached a widespread application in many science and engineering fields, prompting the need for methods to understand their decision process. GNN explainers have started to emerge in recent years, with a multitude of methods both novel or adapted from o...

The separation power of a machine learning model refers to its capacity to distinguish distinct inputs, and it is often employed as a proxy for its expressivity. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to investigate the separation power of equivariant neural networks with point-wise activations. Using the proposed framework, we can deriv...

Error estimates for kernel interpolation in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces usually assume quite restrictive properties on the shape of the domain, especially in the case of infinitely smooth kernels like the popular Gaussian kernel. In this paper we prove that it is possible to obtain convergence results (in the number of interpolation points) f...

div class="section abstract"> Roundabouts are intersections at which automated cars seem currently not performing sufficiently well. Actually, sometimes, they get stuck and the traffic flow is seriously reduced. To overcome this problem a V2N-N2V (vehicle-to-network-network-to-vehicle) communication scheme is proposed. Cars communicate via 5G with...

The aim of this study was to design physics-preserving and precise surrogate models of the nonlinear elastic behaviour of an intervertebral disc (IVD). Based on artificial force-displacement data sets from detailed finite element (FE) disc models, we used greedy kernel and polynomial approximations of second, third and fourth order to train surroga...

Non-pharmaceutical measures such as preventive quarantines, remote working, school and workplace closures, lockdowns, etc. have shown effectiveness from an epidemic control perspective; however, they have also significant negative consequences on social life and relationships, work routines and community engagement. In particular, complex ideas, wo...

Optimizing traffic dynamics in an evolving transportation landscape is crucial, particularly in scenarios where autonomous vehicles (AVs) with varying levels of autonomy coexist with human-driven cars. While optimizing Reinforcement Learning (RL) policies for such scenarios is becoming more and more common, little has been said about realistic eval...

The aim of the paper is to assess how the traffic of roundabouts could be organized in the future. A mixed traffic is supposed to occur, featuring both fully automated vehicle and vehicles driven by humans. The case study is a part of a comprehensive research funded by European Commission, focusing on how improving the 5G network by Artificial Inte...

Non-pharmaceutical measures such as preventive quarantines, remote working, school and workplace closures, lockdowns, etc. have shown effectivenness from an epidemic control perspective; however they have also significant negative consequences on social life and relationships, work routines, and community engagement. In particular, complex ideas, w...

Kernel interpolation is a versatile tool for the approximation of functions from data, and it can be proven to have some optimality properties when used with kernels related to certain Sobolev spaces. In the context of interpolation, the selection of optimal function sampling locations is a central problem, both from a practical perspective, and as...

The aim of this study was to design physics-preserving and precise surrogate models of the non-linear elastic behaviour of an intervertebral disc (IVD). Based on artificial force-displacement data sets from detailed finite element (FE) disc models, weused greedy kernel and polynomial approximations of second, third and fourth order to train surroga...

Semi-Lagrangian schemes for the discretization of the dynamic programming principle are based on a time discretization projected on a state-space grid. The use of a structured grid makes this approach not feasible for high-dimensional problems due to the curse of dimensionality. Here, we present a new approach for infinite horizon optimal control p...

COVID-19 had a strong and disruptive impact on our society, and yet further analyses on most relevant factors explaining the spread of the pandemic are needed. Interdisciplinary studies linking epidemiological, mobility, environmental, and socio-demographic data analysis can help understanding how historical conditions, concurrent social policies a...

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have become the leading paradigm for learning on (static) graph-structured data. However, many real-world systems are dynamic in nature, since the graph and node/edge attributes change over time. In recent years, GNN-based models for temporal graphs have emerged as a promising area of research to extend the capabilities...

The polynomial kernels are widely used in machine learning and they are one of the default choices to develop kernel-based classification and regression models. However, they are rarely used and considered in numerical analysis due to their lack of strict positive definiteness. In particular they do not enjoy the usual property of unisolvency for a...

Policy makers have implemented multiple non-pharmaceutical strategies to mitigate the COVID-19 worldwide crisis. Interventions had the aim of reducing close proximity interactions, which drive the spread of the disease. A deeper knowledge of human physical interactions has revealed necessary, especially in all settings involving children, whose edu...

In this paper we show how ideas from spline theory can be used to construct a local basis for the space of translates of a general iterated Brownian Bridge kernel kβ,ɛ for β∈N, ɛ≥0. In the simple case β=1, we derive an explicit formula for the corresponding Lagrange basis, which allows us to solve interpolation problems without inverting any linear...

The inference of novel knowledge, the discovery of hidden patterns, and the uncovering of insights from large amounts of data from a multitude of sources make data science to an art rather than just a mere scientific discipline. The study and design of mathematical models and signal processing tools able to analyze information represents a central...

In this paper we show how ideas from spline theory can be used to construct a local basis for the space of translates of a general iterated Brownian Bridge kernel $k_{\beta,\varepsilon}$ for $\beta\in\mathbb{N}$, $\varepsilon\geq 0$. In the simple case $\beta=1$, we derive an explicit formula for the corresponding Lagrange basis, which allows us to...

In this work we extend some ideas about greedy algorithms, which are well-established
tools for, e.g., kernel bases, and exponential-polynomial splines whose main
drawback consists in possible overfitting and consequent oscillations of the approximant.
To partially overcome this issue, we develop some results on theoretically
optimal interpolation...

Following a fast initial breakthrough in graph based learning, Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have reached a widespread application in many science and engineering fields, prompting the need for methods to understand their decision process. GNN explainers have started to emerge in recent years, with a multitude of methods both novel or adapted from o...

Data-dependent greedy algorithms in kernel spaces are known to provide fast converging interpolants, while being extremely easy to implement and efficient to run. Despite this experimental evidence, no detailed theory has yet been presented. This situation is unsatisfactory, especially when compared to the case of the data-independent P-greedy algo...

We consider the meshless solution of PDEs via symmetric kernel collocation by using greedy kernel methods. In this way we avoid the need for mesh generation, which can be challenging for non-standard domains or manifolds. We introduce and discuss different kind of greedy selection criteria, such as the PDE-P -greedy and the PDE-f -greedy for colloc...

Error estimates for kernel interpolation in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS) usually assume quite restrictive properties on the shape of the domain, especially in the case of infinitely smooth kernels like the popular Gaussian kernel. In this paper we leverage an analysis of greedy kernel algorithms to prove that it is possible to obtain co...

Federated Leaning is an emerging approach to manage cooperation between a group of agents for the solution of Machine Learning tasks, with the goal of improving each agent's performance without disclosing any data. In this paper we present a novel algorithmic architecture that tackle this problem in the particular case of Anomaly Detection (or clas...

Fairness-aware GANs (FairGANs) exploit the mechanisms of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to impose fairness on the generated data, freeing them from both disparate impact and disparate treatment. Given the model's advantages and performance, we introduce a novel learning framework to transfer a pre-trained FairGAN to other tasks. This reprog...

Standard kernel methods for machine learning usually struggle when dealing with large datasets. We review a recently introduced Structured Deep Kernel Network (SDKN) approach that is capable of dealing with high-dimensional and huge datasets - and enjoys typical standard machine learning approximation properties. We extend the SDKN to combine it wi...

Collaborative and Federated Leaning are emerging approaches to manage cooperation between a group of agents for the solution of Machine Learning tasks, with the goal of improving each agent’s performance without disclosing any data. In this paper we present a novel algorithmic architecture that tackle this problem in the particular case of Anomaly...

This chapter deals with kernel methods as a special class of techniques for surrogate modeling. Kernel methods have proven to be efficient in machine learning, pattern recognition and signal analysis due to their flexibility, excellent experimental performance and elegant functional analytic background. These data-based techniques provide so called...

Kernel-based schemes are state-of-the-art techniques for learning by data. In this work we extend some ideas about kernel-based greedy algorithms to exponential-polynomial splines, whose main drawback consists in possible overfitting and consequent oscillations of the approximant. To partially overcome this issue, we introduce two algorithms which...

Assessing the similarity of two images is a complex task that has attracted significant efforts in the image processing community. The widely used Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM) addresses this problem by quantifying a perceptual structural similarity. In this paper we consider a recently introduced continuous SSIM (cSSIM), which allows...

Semi-lagrangian schemes for discretization of the dynamic programming principle are based on a time discretization projected on a state-space grid. The use of a structured grid makes this approach not feasible for high-dimensional problems due to the curse of dimensionality. Here, we present a new approach for infinite horizon optimal control probl...

For dynamical systems with a non hyperbolic equilibrium, it is possible to significantly simplify the study of stability by means of the center manifold theory. This theory allows to isolate the complicated asymptotic behavior of the system close to the equilibrium point and to obtain meaningful predictions of its behavior by analyzing a reduced or...

Policy makers have implemented multiple non-pharmaceutical strategies to mitigate the COVID-19 worldwide crisis. Interventions had the aim of reducing close proximity interactions, which drive the spread of the disease. A deeper knowledge of human physical interactions has revealed necessary, especially in all settings involving children, whose edu...

Data-dependent greedy algorithms in kernel spaces are known to provide fast converging interpolants, while being extremely easy to implement and efficient to run. Despite this experimental evidence, no detailed theory has yet been presented. This situation is unsatisfactory especially when compared to the case of the data-independent $P$-greedy alg...

Kernel based methods yield approximation models that are flexible, efficient and powerful. In particular, they utilize fixed feature maps of the data, being often associated to strong analytical results that prove their accuracy. On the other hand, the recent success of machine learning methods has been driven by deep neural networks (NNs). They ac...

In this paper we analyze a greedy procedure to approximate a linear functional defined in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space by nodal values. This procedure computes a quadrature rule which can be applied to general functionals. For a large class of functionals, that includes integration functionals and other interesting cases, but does not include...

Standard kernel methods for machine learning usually struggle when dealing with large datasets. We review a recently introduced Structured Deep Kernel Network (SDKN) approach that is capable of dealing with high-dimensional and huge datasets - and enjoys typical standard machine learning approximation properties. We extend the SDKN to combine it wi...

Digital contact tracing is a relevant tool to control infectious disease outbreaks, including the COVID-19 epidemic. Early work evaluating digital contact tracing omitted important features and heterogeneities of real-world contact patterns influencing contagion dynamics. We fill this gap with a modeling framework informed by empirical high-resolut...

The inference of novel knowledge, the discovery of hidden patterns, and the uncovering of insights from large amounts of data from a multitude of sources make Data Science (DS) to an art rather than just a mere scientific discipline. The study and design of mathematical models able to analyze information represents a central research topic in DS. I...

For dynamical systems with a non hyperbolic equilibrium, it is possible to significantly simplify the study of stability by means of the center manifold theory. This theory allows to isolate the complicated asymptotic behavior of the system close to the equilibrium point and to obtain meaningful predictions of its behavior by analyzing a reduced or...

Kernel based methods provide a way to reconstruct potentially high-dimensional functions from meshfree samples, i.e., sampling points and corresponding target values. A crucial ingredient for this to be successful is the distribution of the sampling points. Since the computation of an optimal selection of sampling points may be an infeasible task,...

For certain dynamical systems it is possible to significantly simplify the study of stability by means of the center manifold theory. This theory allows to isolate the complicated asymptotic behavior of the system close to a non-hyperbolic equilibrium point, and to obtain meaningful predictions of its behavior by analyzing a reduced dimensional pro...

Greedy kernel approximation algorithms are successful techniques for sparse and accurate data-based modelling and function approximation. Based on a recent idea of stabilization (Wenzel et al., A novel class of stabilized greedy kernel approximation algorithms: convergence, stability & uniform point distribution. e-prints. arXiv:1911.04352, 2019) o...

Digital contact tracing is increasingly considered as a tool to control infectious disease outbreaks. As part of a broader test, trace, isolate, and quarantine strategy, digital contract tracing apps have been proposed to alleviate lock-downs, and to return societies to a more normal situation in the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Early work evaluating d...

Contact tracing, both manual and potentially with digital apps, is considered a key ingredient in the control of infectious disease outbreaks, and in the strategies making it possible to alleviate the lock-down and to return to a quasi-normal functioning of society in the COVID-19 crisis. However, the current leading modeling framework for evaluati...

Greedy kernel approximation algorithms are successful techniques for sparse and accurate data-based modelling and function approximation. Based on a recent idea of stabilization of such algorithms in the scalar output case, we here consider the vectorial extension built on VKOGA. We introduce the so called $\gamma$-restricted VKOGA, comment on anal...

In this paper we analyze a greedy procedure to approximate a linear functional defined in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space by nodal values. This procedure computes a quadrature rule which can be applied to general functionals, including integration functionals. For a large class of functionals, we prove convergence results for the approximation b...

Kernel based methods provide a way to reconstruct potentially high-dimensional functions from meshfree samples, i.e., sampling points and corresponding target values. A crucial ingredient for this to be successful is the distribution of the sampling points. Since the computation of an optimal selection of sampling points may be an infeasible task,...

This chapter deals with kernel methods as a special class of techniques for surrogate modeling. Kernel methods have proven to be efficient in machine learning, pattern recognition and signal analysis due to their flexibility, excellent experimental performance and elegant functional analytic background. These data-based techniques provide so called...

A variety of methods is available to quantify uncertainties arising with\-in the modeling of flow and transport in carbon dioxide storage, but there is a lack of thorough comparisons. Usually, raw data from such storage sites can hardly be described by theoretical statistical distributions since only very limited data is available. Hence, exact inf...

We present a novel acceleration method for the solution of parametric ODEs by single-step implicit solvers by means of greedy kernel-based surrogate models. In an offline phase, a set of trajectories is precomputed with a high-accuracy ODE solver for a selected set of parameter samples, and used to train a kernel model which predicts the next point...

For certain dynamical systems it is possible to significantly simplify the study of stability by means of the center manifold theory. This theory allows to isolate the complicated asymptotic behavior of the system close to a non-hyperbolic equilibrium point, and to obtain meaningful predictions of its behavior by analyzing a reduced dimensional pro...

For certain dynamical systems it is possible to significantly simplify the study of stability by means of the center manifold theory. This theory allows to isolate the complicated asymptotic behavior of the system close to a non-hyperbolic equilibrium point, and to obtain meaningful predictions of its behavior by analyzing a reduced dimensional pro...

Kernel based regularized interpolation is a well known technique to approximate a continuous multivariate function using a set of scattered data points and the corresponding function evaluations, or data values. This method has some advantage over exact interpolation: one can obtain the same approximation order while solving a better conditioned li...

In this paper we consider the problem of approximating vector-valued functions over a domain $\Omega$. For this purpose, we use matrix-valued reproducing kernels, which can be related to Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of vectorial functions and which can be viewed as an extension to the scalar-valued case. These spaces seem promising, when model...

Modern simulation scenarios frequently require multi-query or real-time responses of simulation models for statistical analysis, optimization, or process control. However, the underlying simulation models may be very time-consuming rendering the simulation task difficult or infeasible. This motivates the need for rapidly computable surrogate models...

We propose a novel kernel-based method for image reconstruction from scattered Radon data. To this end, we employ generalized Hermite–Birkhoff interpolation by positive definite kernel functions. For radial kernels, however, a straightforward application of the generalized Hermite–Birkhoff interpolation method fails to work, as we prove in this pap...

We present a novel acceleration method for the solution of parametric ODEs by single-step implicit solvers by means of greedy kernel-based surrogate models. In an offline phase, a set of trajectories is precomputed with a high-accuracy ODE solver for a selected set of parameter samples, and used to train a kernel model which predicts the next point...

In this work, we consider two kinds of model reduction techniques to simulate blood flow through the largest systemic arteries, where a stenosis is located in a peripheral artery i.e. in an artery that is located far away from the heart. For our simulations we place the stenosis in one of the tibial arteries belonging to the right lower leg (right...

In this work, we consider two kinds of model reduction techniques to simulate blood flow through the largest systemic arteries, where a stenosis is located in a peripheral artery i.e. in an artery that is located far away from the heart. For our simulations we place the stenosis in one of the tibial arteries belonging to the right lower leg (right...

In the recent paper [1], a new method to compute stable kernel-based interpolants has been presented. This rescaled interpolation method combines the standard kernel interpolation with a properly defined rescaling operation, which smooths the oscillations of the interpolant. Although promising, this procedure lacks a systematic theoretical investig...

Kernel-based methods provide flexible and accurate algorithms for the reconstruction of functions from meshless samples. A major question in the use of such methods is the influence of the samples locations on the behavior of the approximation, and feasible optimal strategies are not known for general problems. Nevertheless, efficient and greedy po...

In the recent paper [8], a new method to compute stable kernel-based interpolants has been presented. This \textit{rescaled interpolation} method combines the standard kernel interpolation with a properly defined rescaling operation, which smooths the oscillations of the interpolant. Although promising, this procedure lacks a systematic theoretical...

Kernel-based methods in Numerical Analysis have the advantage of yielding optimal recovery processes in the “native” Hilbert space \(\mathcal {H}\) in which they are reproducing. Continuous kernels on compact domains have an expansion into eigenfunctions that are both L
2-orthonormal and orthogonal in \(\mathcal {H}\) (Mercer expansion). This paper...

In this paper we propose a new stable and accurate approximation technique which is extremely effective for interpolating large scattered data sets. The Partition of Unity (PU) method is performed considering Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) as local approximants and using locally supported weights. In particular, the approach consists in computing, f...

In applied sciences, such as physics and biology, it is often required to
model the evolution of populations via dynamical systems. In this paper, we
focus on the problem of approximating the basins of attraction of such models
in case of multi-stability. We propose to reconstruct the domains of attraction
via an implicit interpolant using stable r...

We present an algorithm to approximate large dataset by Radial Basis Function (RBF) techniques. The method couples a fast domain decomposition procedure with a localized stabilization method. The resulting algorithm can efficiently deal with large problems and it is robust with respect to the typical instability of kernel methods.

In the last years, in the setting of Radial Basis Function (RBF), the study of approximation algorithms has particularly focused on the construction of (stable) bases for the associated Hilbert spaces. One of the way of describing such spaces and their properties is the study of a particular integral operator and its spectrum. We proposed in a rece...

It is well known that radial basis function interpolants suffer from bad conditioning if the basis of translates is used. In the recent work by Pazouki and Schaback (2011), [5], the authors gave a quite general way to build stable and orthonormal bases for the native space NΦ(Ω)NΦ(Ω) associated to a kernel ΦΦ on a domain Ω⊂RsΩ⊂Rs. The method is sim...

It's well know that Radial Basis Function approximants suffers of bad
conditioning if the simple basis of translates is used. A recent work of
M.Pazouki and R.Schaback gives a quite general way to build stable, orthonormal
bases for the native space based on a factorization of the kernel matrix A.
Starting from that setting we describe a particular...

We implement in Matlab a Gauss-like cubature formula on bivariate domains whose boundary is a piecewise smooth Jordan curve (curvilinear polygons). The key tools are Green’s integral formula, together with the recent software package Chebfun to approximate the boundary curve close to machine precision by piecewise Chebyshev interpolation. Several t...