Gabriele Masi

Gabriele Masi
Fondazione IRCCS Stella Maris - Università di Pisa (Italy) · Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology

MD

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268
Publications
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6,350
Citations
Citations since 2017
102 Research Items
2847 Citations
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Publications

Publications (268)
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Children with high Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits show deficits in recognizing and processing facial expressions. Alterations in emotion recognition have been linked to a higher synaptic concentration of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The current study investigated the relationship between the MAOA -Low-activity alleles and the ability to recogn...
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Psychopathic traits in community and referred youths are strongly associated with severe externalizing problems and low prosocial behavior. However, less is known about the mechanisms that may link youth psychopathy and these outcomes. Social dominance orientation (SDO), defined as the general individual orientation toward unequal and dominant/subo...
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Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is deliberate harm to the body surface without suicidal intent, though it may be a predictor of suicide attempts. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that persisting and recovering NSSI may have a different longitudinal risk for suicidal ideation and behavior and that the intensity of Cyclothymic Hypersensitive Temper...
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Background: Methylphenidate is the most frequently prescribed medication for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents in many countries. Although many randomised controlled trials support short-term efficacy, tolerability, and safety, data on long-term safety and tolerability are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety...
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Background Heterogeneous mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic are documented in the general population. Such heterogeneity has not been systematically assessed in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). To identify distinct patterns of the pandemic impact and their predictors in ASD/N...
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Introduction : Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is a pervasive pattern of violation of others’ rights, related to the concept of psychopathy. AsPD is stable over time from adolescence, with evidence of conduct disorder (CD) before 15 years. DSM-5 included a specifier “with limited prosocial emotions” (LPE), which characterizes adolescents wit...
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Background Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms, including the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or severely restricted food intake, associated with emotional symptoms, behavioral symptoms, developmental regression, and somatic symptoms. Among the possible triggering agents,...
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Objective To systematically investigate if there is a significant association between markers of autonomic functioning and emotional dysregulation (ED) in children and adolescents. Method Based on a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42021239635), we searched Pubmed, Web of Knowledge/Science, Ovid Medline, Embase and APA PsycInfo (21st April 20...
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In mental health care, transition refers to the pathway of a young person from a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) to an adult mental health service (AMHS). In Italy, the age of transition from adolescents to adults' mental health services is at the age of 18. Difficulties in transitioning have shown to favor patients' and families...
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Conduct Disorder is a diagnosis associated with behaviors at risk for the health and development of the subject, with high social costs and with serious consequences for the adolescent's life context. This disorder is predominantly found in the male population. However, girls with Conduct Disorder often have particularly severe and pervasive sympto...
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Catatonia is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, occurring in the context of different psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, in neurological and medical disorders, and after substance abuse or withdrawal. The relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schiz-ophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSDs) and catatonia has been previously disc...
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Dramatic events during the COVID-19 pandemic have acutely impacted the psychosocial environment worldwide, with negative implications for mental health, particularly for more vulnerable children and adolescents with severe psychiatric illnesses. Some data suggest that the pandemic waves may have produced different psychopathological consequences, f...
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Multiple studies support the relationship between ADHD and overweight/obesity in youth. Different mechanisms may be involved, such as temperamental and psychopathological factors. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific temperamental and psychopathological dimensions could mediate the relationship between ADHD and obesity. Th...
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Introduction Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent approved in the European Union for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults and adolescents (13–17 years). Clinical trials have shown a generally favorable balance between efficacy and tolerability. Areas covered This paper provides a review and commentary regarding the use of lurasidone i...
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Research on the association between callous–unemotional (CU) traits and intelligence yielded contradictory results. Moreover, several previous studies focused on global intelligence scores or verbal vs. nonverbal/performance abilities usually evaluated with short/abbreviated instruments. The current study builds on these previous works and explores...
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Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category, encompassing several endophenotypes and comorbidities, including sleep problems. However, no predictor of clinical long-term trajectories or comorbidity has yet been established. Sleep EEG has been proposed as a potential tool for evaluating th...
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There is ample evidence from literature and clinical practice indicating mathematical difficulties in individuals with ADHD, even when there is no concomitant diagnosis of developmental dyscalculia. What factors underlie these difficulties is still an open question. Research on dyscalculia and neurotypical development suggests visual perception of...
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The paper proposes an ecological and portable protocol for the large-scale collection of reading data in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children based on recording the finger movements of a subject reading a text displayed on a tablet touchscreen. By capitalizing on recent evidence that movements of a finger that points to a scene...
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Background: Abnormal sensory reactivity is considered one of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and has been associated with autism severity, poorer functional outcomes, and behavioral difficulties across the lifespan. Its early characterization could provide valuable insights into the processes favoring the instantiation...
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Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly comorbid condition, and rates of co-occurring disorders are even higher in youth. Comorbid disorders strongly affect clinical presentation, natural course, prognosis, and treatment. Method This review focuses on the clinical and treatment implications of the comorbidity between BD and Attention-Deficit/...
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Recently there has been a growing interest in non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD. We evaluated the efficacy of a specific Omega-3/6 dietary supplement (two capsules containing 279 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 87 mg Docosahexaenoic Acid [DHA], 30 mg gamma linolenic acid [GLA] each) in ameliorating inattentive symptoms in inattentive-ADHD chi...
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Previous research identified emotion processing (i.e., emotion recognition and gaze pattern towards emotional stimuli) deficits in youths with callous-unemotional (CU) traits, though mixed results have emerged. CU traits frequently co-occur with high levels of the other psychopathy dimensions, namely narcissism and impulsivity, and overall, psychop...
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Importance Heterogeneous mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic are recognized in the general population, but it has not been systematically assessed in youth with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), including autism spectrum (ASD). Objective Identify subgroups of youth with ASD/NDD based on the pandemic impact on symptoms and service...
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Disruption in routine may be related to experiencing negative emotional states and to aggressive behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The lockdown because of COVID-19 contributed to the disruption of individuals’ routines, including the sleep–wake cycle. The current study tested a relationship between the adherence to the s...
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The rising prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has led to a quickly increasing need for effective interventions. Several criteria and measures have been developed to critically assess these interventions with particular focus on the evaluation of the efficacy. Given the huge diversity of ASD symptoms and the different levels of severity a...
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Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been related to an increased risk for behavioral addictions, the relationship between ADHD and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is still debated. The aim of this study is to address this topic by exploring the prevalence of IGD in a consecutive sample of ADHD youth, compared to a normal con...
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Background: The current conceptualization of schizophrenia as neurodevelopmental disorder should lead to innovative public health policies in terms of a reorganization of the mental health care systems, particularly in the transition from adolescence to adulthood, to reduce personal, familiar, and social costs and burdens. The purpose of the proje...
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Objectives: The acute tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been studied mainly in research samples. Taking advantage of the mandatory test-dose procedure required for starting MPH in Italy, this study aimed to assess the incidence of intolerable adverse events after initial expo...
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The literature on time perception in individuals with ADHD is extensive but inconsistent, probably reflecting the use of different tasks and performances indexes. A sample of 40 children/adolescents (20 with ADHD, 20 neurotypical) was engaged in two identical psychophysical tasks measuring auditory time thresholds in the milliseconds (0.25–1 s) and...
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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare, life-threatening, idiosyncratic adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Despite the increasing rates in the prescription of antipsychotics in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the occurrence and hallmarks of NMS in this specific population. NMS appears to b...
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Aggressive behaviors and disruptive/conduct disorders are some of the commonest reasons for referral to youth mental health services; nevertheless, the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in real-world clinical practice remains unclear. In order to define more appropriate targets for innovative pharmacological therapies for disruptive/conduct dis...
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This study aimed to further validate the self-reported version of the Proposed Specifiers Conduct Disorder (PSCD) scale, testing the associations between the PSCD with a scale that measures emotional/behavioral difficulties and prosocial behaviors (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ). A total of 536 Italian students (47.76% male; 11–14 ye...
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Background Cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament (CHT) has been related to both depression and bipolarity, as well as to suicidality. Recently, a psychometrically sound way of assessment has been validated in youth (Cyclothymic-Hypersensitive Temperament Questionnaire, CHTQ), but data on clinical populations are still scant. Aim of our study is to...
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Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with gaze pattern deficits in youths, though it has not yet been explored if environmental factors could influence this relationship. Since parenting can influence both CU traits and children's emotion processing, the current study sought to test whether parenting moderated the relation between gaze pa...
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In recent years, there has been growing interest in investigating the effect of specific pharmacological treatments for ADHD not only on its core symptoms, but also on social skills in youths. This stands especially true for ADHD patients displaying impulsive aggressiveness and antisocial behaviors, being the comorbidity with Disruptive Behavior Di...
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Background: Empathy has long been considered a multidimensional construct, encompassing cognitive, affective and behavioral domains. Deficits in empathic competences in early childhood contribute to psychopathology, and have been variably implicated in several clinical conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and conduct disorders. Aim...
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Early adolescence, with its several changes and demands, represents a delicate period of life. Several studies highlighted that during early adolescence, emotional and behavioral problems tend to increase. Using a person-centered approach, the present study explored the emotional and behavioral functioning profiles in a sample of Italian preadolesc...
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Navigation is a complex process, requiring target localization, route planning or retrieval, and physical displacement. Executive functions (EFs) such as working memory, inhibition and planning are fundamental for succeeding in this complex activity and are often impaired in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Our aim was to analyz...
Preprint
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Background. The literature on time perception in individuals with ADHD is extensive but inconsistent, probably reflecting the use of different tasks and performances indexes. Methods. A sample of 40 children/adolescents (20 with ADHD, 20 neurotypical) was engaged in two identical psychophysical tasks measuring auditory time thresholds for both subs...
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The lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse psychological effects on children and parents. While parenting is essential for positive development, increased parental distress has interfered with children’s wellbeing. In our study, we aimed to identify the predictors of parental distress in families of children with neuropsychiatric dis...
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Background: Beside the core symptoms, patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently show relevant difficulty in developing relationships with peers. Although ADHD symptoms may account for social impairment, deficits in cognitive and/or affective empathy have also been involved. Our aim was to investigate the effect of me...
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Background: When COVID-19 was declared as a pandemic, many countries imposed severe lockdowns that changed families' routines and negatively impacted on parents' and children's mental health. Several studies on families with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) revealed that lockdown increased the difficulties faced by individuals with ASD...
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a multicomplex disorder characterized by an umbrella of specific issues in the areas of social communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors [...]
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Background: Severe suicide ideation or attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) present both differences and relevant overlaps, including frequent co-occurrence and shared risk factors. Specific categorical diagnoses, namely bipolar disorder (BD), may affect clinical features and natural histories of suicidal or not suicidal self-harm behaviou...
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Background: Increasing attention has been recently paid to precursors of bipolar disorder (BD). Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been reported among the most common prodromes of BD. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of BD in youths affected by ADHD based on prospective studies. Methods: A systematic rev...
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LEGO®-based therapy is a social skills development program aimed at children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science bibliographic databases were searched from their date of inception to August 2020. The review included 19 studies. Studies we...
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Background The failure to regulate emotions, namely emotional dysregulation (ED), is a relevant construct in adolescent psychiatry, in terms of prognostic and developmental implications. We developed and validated a novel self-report questionnaire for the assessment of ED, the RIPoSt-Y, both in clinical and non-clinical samples. Methods Items sele...
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Phantom Phone Signal (PPS) refers to the false perception of a mobile phone ringing, vibrating and blinking, when in fact it did not. A recent literature about PPS is growing, parallel to an increasing interest about its possible psychopathological implications. The present review aims to synthesize the current knowledge about the phenomenon, and t...
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Emotional dysregulation (ED) is currently the most frequently used term to describe children with an impaired regulation of emotional states. Recent research studies speculate whether ED may be a neurodevelopmental disorder itself, a shared risk factor, or a common key feature of several psychiatric disorders, including, among others, attention def...
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In the last decades, the conceptualization of schizophrenia has dramatically changed, moving from a neurodegenerative process occurring in early adult life to a neurodevelopmental disorder starting be-fore birth, showing a variety of premorbid and prodromal symptoms and, in relatively few cases, evolving in the full-blown psychotic syndrome. High r...
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Evidence from everyday life suggests that differences in social behaviors between males and females exist, both in animal and in humans. These differences can be related to socio‐cultural determinants, but also to specialized portions of the brain (the social brain), from the neurotransmitter to the neural network level. The high vulnerability of t...
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with sleep problems, possibly due to shared pathophysiology. Microstructural sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations may likely represent markers of disordered cortical maturation in ADHD, although literature data are still conflicting, deserving further assessment. Afte...
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On 11 March 2020, a national lockdown was imposed by the Italian government to contain the spread of COVID19 disease. This is an observational longitudinal study conducted at Fondazione Stella Maris (FSM), Italy to investigate lockdown-related emotional and behavioural changes in paediatric neuropsychiatric population. Families having children (1.5...
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Although childhood‐onset psychiatric disorders are often considered as distinct and separate from each other, they frequently co‐occur, with partial overlapping symptomatology. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly co‐occur with each other and with other mental disorders, particularly disruptive...
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Suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents are closely associated to bipolar disorders (BD). Growing evidence also suggests that high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD) are at increased risk for suicidal ideation and behaviors. Although BD and HF-ASD are frequently comorbid, no studies explored suicidality in these individuals. This...
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Background: Bipolar Disorders (BD) in youth are a heterogeneous condition with different phenomenology, patterns of comorbidity and outcomes. Our aim was to explore the effects of gender; age at onset (prepubertal- vs. adolescent-onset) of BD; and elements associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorder (...
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Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are episodic manifestations that mimic epileptic seizures (ES) although not associated with electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and ES, however, can often cooccur. Emotional distress in adolescents can trigger PNES, but the psychopathological and personality features a...
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This study contributes to the literature on the parental correlates of children’s narcissism. It addresses whether parental overvaluation may drive the putative link between parents’ narcissism and children’s narcissism and self-esteem. The cross-sectional design involved a community sample of 519 school-age children (age ranging from 9 to 11 years...
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Executive functions have been previously shown to correlate with empathic attitudes and prosocial behaviors. People with higher levels of executive functions, as a whole, may better regulate their emotions and reduce perceived distress during the empathetic processes. Our goal was to explore the relationship between empathy and executive functionin...
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Background: It is currently debated whether specific psychiatric disorders or Internalizing versus Externalizing psychopathological dimensions are associated to Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD). We explored this issue in youth with and without IAD referred to a third-level Department of Adolescent Psychiatry during a 12-month period. Method: All t...
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Background Children's self-views encompass two independent dimensions: self-esteem and narcissism, which recently have received growing attention from researchers and clinicians. The current study sought to test whether these dimensions might predict the developmental course of children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder diagnosis. Method The samp...
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In recent years, the study of eye movements has increasingly become a window into neurological function and processes. This paper reports data about applications of eye-tracking technology in the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially in studying the clinical characteristics of ADHD. These studies indicated that eye-tracking approach rep...
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Background: Specific risk factors may affect persistent suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) in adolescence. Non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSIs) are possible antecedent or associated factors of suicidality. Aims: To compare clinical features in adolescents with mood disorders referred for severe SI and for SA, and to explore differenc...
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Objective: This study was the first attempt to explore the efficacy of a mindfulness protocol for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and their parents. Method: Fifty male children with ADHD and ODD diagnosis, aged 8 to 12, were randomly assigned to the mindfulness intervention ( n...
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Background: Although a better understanding of the prodromes of affective disorders in youth has important clinical and research implications, empirical data are still unconclusive. Cyclothymic-hypersensitive temperament (CHT) has been linked to both depression and bipolarity, as well as to suicidality. Its conceptualization is still debated, as we...
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Background Emotional dysregulation (ED) and callous unemotional (CU) traits can be associated with ADHD in youth, influencing its natural history and outcome, but their effect on medication efficacy is unexplored. We examined whether two measures of baseline ED and CU traits, the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) and the Anti...
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RIASSUNTO. Recentemente la ricerca ha focalizzato l’attenzione sul narcisismo come tratto di personalità non necessariamente patologico, che può essere presente fin dall’età scolare e può condurre, in taluni casi, a conseguenze negative nello sviluppo del bambino, come problematiche affettive e comportamentali. Dopo aver illustrato le principali ip...