Gabriela Goldschmidt

Gabriela Goldschmidt
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | technion · Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning

About

70
Publications
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Publications

Publications (70)
Article
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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21650349.2022.2021480
Article
This research note addresses the formulation of questions in design research. On the premise that well formulated research questions have far-reaching implications for other aspects of the development and impact of research, articulating quality research questions is an issue of the highest concern. In this note we propose a framework for the formu...
Chapter
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We discuss the role and importance of sketching during conceptual design ideation and position it as instrumental in understanding what it means to design. To do this we first define design as a generative, transformative act. We then situate sketching as an effective means through which the transformative requirement of design is achieved as reaso...
Conference Paper
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The relationship between creative processes and problem structuring (PS-self-interpretation of a problem while solving it) is often overlooked in research. We explored how PS affects the outcome's creativity in the context of two problem types: open or closed presentation, and novelty or usefulness focus. 48 students and architects completed a prel...
Chapter
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For five hundred years designers have been sketching manually as part of the early ideation phase in the design process. In this phase ideas are generated and explored, and on the basis of their visual representation as sketches they are transformed, developed and refined, until a satisfactory integrated solution is reached. In our era of digital t...
Article
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For a long time, the creativity literature has stressed the role of divergent thinking in creative endeavor. More recently, it has been recognized that convergent thinking also has a role in creativity, and the design literature, which sees design as a creative activity a priori, has largely adopted this view: Divergent and convergent thinking are...
Chapter
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A comprehensive notion of design that includes pre-design and post-design is presented in this chapter as hinging on an extended design space. Not just the array of possible solutions, the design space is modeled as comprising two main components. The first is design expertise, which is composed of five tiers: pre-design, task framing, design acts,...
Article
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This paper is a first attempt to explain design creativity on the basis of a cognitive theory of memory patterns when processing visual stimuli, proposed by Liane Gabora [1]. The claim is that the structure and activity of neural network patterns in memory activation while attending to stimuli, and the designer's sensitivity, expertise, visual lite...
Conference Paper
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For the longest time, design was an activity with no distinction among disciplines. Over time, separate design disciplines had formed their own cultures and their own educational practices. In this paper, we use data from a limited set of design reviews along with a literature survey to conduct a comparative analysis of contemporary reviewing and c...
Book
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The MIT Press BOOK NEWS This book presents linkography, a method for the notation and analysis of the design process. Developed by Gabriela Goldschmidt in an attempt to clarify designing, linkography documents how designers think, generate ideas, put them to the test, and combine them into something meaningful. With linkography, Goldschmidt shows t...
Chapter
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This paper presents a model of the role of sketching in the early, search phase of design. After outlining the model, it is substantiated by research findings based on case studies and empirical experiments. The point of view is cognitive, and the model and supporting evidence investigate the role of sketching as a thinking aid. Sketching provides...
Article
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This paper compares the design thinking approaches of three groups of student-designers: industrial design and architecture undergraduates, and design PhD candidates. Participants responded to an open-ended design brief, working individually. Upon submission of their designs they were debriefed about their design processes. We compare the groups ba...
Chapter
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This chapter is based on the assumption that because designing (of tangible artifacts) is aimed at specifying configurations and properties of entities, designers must manipulate forms and shapes and they must resort to visual reasoning to do so. Visual reasoning in designing is seen as the interplay between two modes of reasoning: embodiment and r...
Chapter
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Architects use language intensively along the design process. Students are often asked to talk about their concepts, which sets the verbal language as the main tool used by students for communicating information, in spite of the fact that the architectural act is conceived as visual/spatial. The study challenges the notion that language is inferior...
Chapter
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In the past 10 years design thinking has become a popular buzzword in the design and business communities alike. While much has been written on the subject in both academic and popular literature no consensus has been reached as to its actual definition and nature. The following study employs a semiotic analysis in order to identify lexical pattern...
Chapter
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No one trajectory leads to becoming a design researcher. This paper is an interim overview of one case of a designer who became a design researcher. Through concerns derived from experience as a designer and a design teacher, and learning from observations of children designing, some fundamental questions were formulated under the common theme of d...
Chapter
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Architecture is a cultural arena based on ideas, which communally produce styles and individually, at their best, generate outstanding buildings. Every building tackles form and function. In our era architecture is expected to innovate in its forms, while ensuring perfect functionality. Form and function handling are rough correlates of originality...
Article
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Designers try to ‘enlist’ whatever they can to help themselves arrive at high quality, novel and original designs. When stimuli are used for this purpose, usually provided at the onset of the design process, these stimuli, or sources, may have one of two effects: they may enhance the design search and contribute to a high-quality, creative design,...
Article
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A design is said to be as successful as the leading idea that drives it is. Mature designers make frequent use of 'stock ideas' accumulated over time and stored in memory and personal archives. Novices do not yet possess developed collections of sources that can be tapped. In this study it was hypothesized that stimuli in the form of texts presente...
Conference Paper
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Visual stimuli have been shown to have a considerable impact on design creativity, but their crucial role is not reflected in most current design creativity models. Likewise, although there is ample knowledge today about memory activation while processing stimuli and the difference between processing during creative thinking and ordinary processing...
Conference Paper
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This article outlines applied and basic design creativity research as practiced today and as it is seen in the future, in light of the high demand for creativity and innovation coming from business, and the changing conceptualization of creativity in our society. Design creativity is seen as indispensable but also dangerous when misinterpreted and...
Article
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The design studio has been, and will probably continue to be, the cornerstone of design education. Its major feature is the one-on-one desk critique (crit), in which student and teacher discuss the student's work in progress on a regular and frequent basis. The studio is a learning by doing environment, and the crit is the setting in which students...
Article
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Is cognitive conflict detrimental to the development of innovative ideas in design teams, or is it a precondition for innovative performance? Assuming that there is a relationship between cognitive conflict and innovation, what kind of strategies do teams use in situations of cognitive conflict and what are the consequences for creativity? This pap...
Article
Full-text available
A design is said to be as successful as the leading idea that drives it is. Mature designers make frequent use of 'stock ideas' accumulated over time and stored in memory and personal archives. Novices do not yet possess developed collections of sources that can be tapped. Previous research proved that the intentional exposure of novice designers t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A prescription for a computer based support system for conceptual design is presented. The necessary components needed are listed, and their implementation in a complete system is shown. Combining the components with the right balance among them is the key to a successful transition of today's conceptual design phase, using pencil and paper, to a c...
Article
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Whereas design team mental models do not differ significantly from team mental models in other domains, task mental models in design are different in that they are contingent on visual representations. To design a tangible entity that must be specified in terms of form, size, materials, colours and so on, the team conducts a search in which partial...
Article
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Research in cognitive psychology and in design thinking has shown that the generation of inner representations in imagery and external representations via sketching are instrumental in design problem solving. In this paper we focus on another facet of visual representation in design: the ‘consumption’ of external visual representations, regarded as...
Article
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The paper presents aspects of designer action that stress cognitive strategies for effective design problem solving, under the headings of exploration and representation. It proposes that links among design moves and shifts between design arguments are of prime importance in exploration and the design space should accommodate and expose them. The p...
Article
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The design studio, at the heart of design education everywhere, embodies the underlying presumption that students who work side by side, and often in collaboration, benefit from being exposed to a large number of ideas of peers and instructors. Good ideas, it is believed, are the base for creative design processes. In this study we follow ideas as...
Chapter
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Design offices have always been littered with physical artefacts, including components, prototypes and models, as well as drawings and various paper-based design objects. Radcliffe and Harrison (1994) noted that physical artefacts, including existing products and prototypes, are an important part of the design environment in a small manufacturing c...
Chapter
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In a lovely little book titled What, if Anything, is an Architect? the late Tom Heath (1991) offers no definition, and no direct reply to the question evoked by the title. Rather, the book is a collection of short articles about issues that pertain to architecture and to the architect’s activities and concerns. We would like to adopt a similar stra...
Chapter
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Between 1975 and 1977, James Stirling’s office entered three competitions for the design of museums in Germany. Although only the last design, for the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, was a winning entry that resulted in the building of the museum according to Stirling’s plans, all three designs were widely published in leading architectural magazines....
Chapter
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Whether we define designing as systematic problem solving or, conversely, as free-wheeling artistic creation, we postulate that there is agreement about the following: During the process of designing, designers continually reason about prospective features of the designed entity and the rationale for accepting or rejecting them. This is taken to be...
Article
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Read-write acts of drawing, or - the economy of treasure hunting
Article
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This paper proposes that the use of visual analogy in problem solving is an example of similarity-based reasoning, cognitively facilitated by imagistic operations. We show that in designing, which is an example of ill-structured problem solving, this type of reasoning is most valuable. We offer evidence that novices, in particular, benefit from gui...
Article
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The use of analogy, including visual analogy, is a powerful problem-solving strategy that can help explain new problems in terms of familiar ones. There is evidence that problem-solvers have difficulty in making spontaneous use of this strategy, despite its proven effectiveness. However, guidance to use it greatly increases accessibility to analogy...
Article
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A challenge of design education is the question of how to help designers develop skills in design problem-solving. How can designers be taught to use relevant prior knowledge to solve new design problems? To answer this question we must know more about differences between experts and novices regarding the use of prior knowledge to solve ill-defined...
Article
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In the search for helpful computer tools for sketching in the early phases of design, the approach was taken to experimentally study sketching behaviour. In two series of experiments two mental processes revealed themselves as essential in the creative process: Restructuring and Combining. These two processes are in turn influenced by expertise in...
Article
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Sophisticated computational technologies enable the development of support systems for architectural design that are meant to facilitate access to design knowledge. Systems of precedence knowledge are in good currency at present as they are expected to enhance creativity in the early conceptual phases of the design process by interacting with given...
Article
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A figure combination task, in which three components are combined into an object, was administered under imagery-alone and externalization conditions to subjects with different levels of sketching expertise. In externalization conditions the imaged combinations were sketched. In accordance with earlier studies, the combinations were rated equally c...
Article
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Models of problem solving hinge on the idea of the problem space. Current models of the problem space do not account for indeterministic processes, e.g. those which exist in the solving of design problems, which are inherently ill-structured. While maintaining the concept of the problem space, this paper proposes a modified description of represent...
Article
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Who does better in design, loners or teams? Different traditions, different tastes and different beliefs are in disagreement on this question. Theories that deal with this subject, to the extent that they exist, are based mostly on ad hoc observations. In this study the productivity of the design processes of an individual and a team, who reach equ...
Article
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Designers invariably use imagery to generate new form combinations which they represent through sketching. But they also do the reverse: they sketch to generate images of forms in their minds. Common belief regards such activity as non-rational. In contrast, we assert that interactive imagery through sketching is a rational mode of reasoning, chara...
Article
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Article
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Architectural designing is seen as a process of small-step transformations of partial images of a still nonexisting entity. A design problem is solved when a satisfactory visual representation of a design concept is produced. To deal with pictorial properties of the design concept, the designer utilizes visual thinking, which is represented through...
Article
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Architectural research of the last two or three decades has been largely devoted to design methodology. Systematic evaluations of design products and prescription of their desired qualities led to specifications for better designs and possible routines to achieve them. Computers have facilitated this task. The human designer, however, has largely r...
Article
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The generation of architectural form is by definition a creative activity. As a rule, architects engage in intensive, fast, freehand sketching when they first tackle a design task. This study investigated the process of sketching and revealed that by sketching, the designer does not represent images held in the mind, as is often the case in lay ske...
Article
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Processes of designing as monitored in reality are not necessarily congruent with what so-called rational design methods may lead one to expect. Design tasks are interpreted in dissimilar manners by different designers who are presented with identical materials. The materials of a given program define a solution space within which a designer detect...
Article
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Through studies of processes of architectural designing, a sub-process of interpretation emerges as the single most important force in the shaping of design solutions. An interpretation is formed when design moves, which are enacted on knowledge pertaining to the task, transform its pieces into a stable structure by achieving a unique relationship...
Article
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All designers know that it is impossible to infer a design solution from the givens of a task alone, no matter how complete and well presented they are. Therefore, designers seek to complementinformation they receive, and the material they bring into the task environment includes visual images. Images may be gathered from every imaginable source, f...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is based on the assumption that because designingis aimed at specifying configurations of entities, designers mustmanipulate forms and shapes and they must resort to visual reasoning todo so. Visual reasoning in designing is seen as the interplay betweenfigural and conceptual reasoning, such that the one supports andcontinues the other i...
Article
Full-text available
Designing is seen as a process of small-step transformations of partial images of a still non-existing entity. The ultimate objective of the process is the production of sufficiently coherent and comprehensive representations of design entity, so as to allow the construction of a visual simulation of it, physically or mentally. Sketching is univers...

Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
The Design-Tech 2019 conference is a new and unique platform for researchers and practitioners in the field of design initiated to showcase their work and research. Being held for the first time at the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, the conference will enable attendees to visit one of the most vibrant start-up eco-systems in the world.
Project
One project looks at the impact of the timing of constraint introduction on design creativity. Another project looks at the impact of problem structuring and need for closure (personality trait) on creative problem solving. A third project deals with design education: : student-teacher interactions in the studio.