Gabriel L Schlomer

Gabriel L Schlomer
University at Albany, The State University of New York | UAlbany · Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology

Ph.D. Family Studies and Human Development

About

51
Publications
39,991
Reads
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3,492
Citations
Introduction
I rarely check Research Gate. If you would like to request a pdf, please email me directly at gschlomer[at]albany.edu For additional information please see my website: https://padlab.weebly.com/
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - May 2013
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Guest Facilitator
Description
  • Risk and Resilience in Human Development: Foundations for Prevention (HDFS 522)
June 2012 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • For the last two years, my primary role on the gPROSPER study has involved analyzing genetic moderation of substance use interventions on a sample of 600 families that participated in intense in-home interviews.
August 2010 - May 2012
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Worked on projects related to military deployment as a part of a Department of Defense funded initiative. Responsibilities primarily included literature searches, program evaluation, and report development for non-academic audiences
Education
August 2005 - August 2010
The University of Arizona
Field of study
  • Family Studies and Human Development
August 2003 - May 2005
Western Illinois University
Field of study
  • General Experimental Psychology
August 1999 - May 2003
Indiana State University
Field of study
  • Psychology/Anthropology

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
To understand whose parenting (mothers vs. fathers) and which type of parenting (warmth vs. hostility) is more important in predicting adolescent aggression, this study applied dominance analysis to evaluate the relative importance of four different parenting dimensions (maternal hostility, paternal hostility, maternal warmth, and paternal warmth)....
Article
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This study using PROSPER data ( N = 977, age 11.5–age 15) investigated the longitudinal within-family associations between parent reported parental monitoring and adolescent aggression. Importantly, this study is the first one to examine parent gender and adolescent gender differences on these within-family associations. Results differed between mo...
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in the application life history theory to human development indicate two fundamental dimension of the early environment – harshness and unpredictability – are key regulators life history strategies. Few studies have examined the manner with which these dimensions influence development, though age at menarche (AAM) and age at fir...
Article
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Differential susceptibility theory stipulates that individuals vary in their susceptibility to environmental effects, often implying that the same individuals differ in the same way in their susceptibility to different environmental exposures. The latter point is addressed herein by evaluating the extent to which early-life harshness and unpredicta...
Article
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Little is known about the developmental course of informant discrepancies in adolescent aggressive behavior problems, though whether aggression increases or decreases over time depends on reporter. Evaluating discrepancies longitudinally can uncover patterns of agreement/disagreement between reporters across time and determine contexts that give ri...
Article
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The most extensively studied influence on adolescent conduct problem behaviors is peers, and the literature points to genetics as one source of individual differences in peer influence. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an environmental sensitivity genetic index comprised of DRD4, 5‐HTTLPR, and GABRA2 variation would moderat...
Article
Father absence has a small but robust association with earlier age at menarche (AAM), likely reflecting both genetic confounding and an environmental influence on life history strategy development. Studies that have attempted to disambiguate genetic versus environmental contributions to this association have shown conflicting findings, though genom...
Article
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Guided by paternal investment theory (PIT), the current research examines the effects of fathers on daughters' expectations for men in adulthood, and the role of these expectations in mediating women's short-term (casual or uncommitted) sexual behavior. Using a genetically informed differential sibling-exposure design (N = 223 sister pairs from div...
Chapter
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In the past 20 years, technological advances in genetics have made it relatively easy to add molecular genetic data collection to conventional datasets. This ease creates valuable opportunities for behavioral scientists to consider how genetic factors might influence individuals’ sensitivity to environmental experiences, including those that put in...
Article
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Better integrating human developmental factors in genomic research is part of a set of next steps for testing gene-by-environment interaction hypotheses. This study adds to this work by extending prior research using time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) to evaluate the longitudinal associations between the PROSPER preventive intervention delivery sy...
Article
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Life history theory posits father absence and associated stressors are key for regulating the development of reproductive phenotypes. The causal status of father absence has been questioned, however, because genetic confounding can account for this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior work that evaluated t...
Chapter
Approximately 48-66% of the variation in alcohol use disorders is heritable. This chapter provides an overview of the genetic influences that contribute to alcohol use disorder within a developmental perspective. Namely, risk for problematic alcohol use is framed as a function of age-related changes in the relative contribution of genetic and envir...
Article
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To illuminate which features of an unpredictable environment early in life best forecast adolescent and adult functioning, data from two longitudinal studies were examined. After decomposing a composite unpredictability construct found to predict later development, results of both studies revealed that paternal transitions predicted outcomes more c...
Article
Substantial research and theory over a number of years have linked father absence to earlier age at menarche (AAM). More recent work has centered on explaining the relative genetic and environmental contributions to this correlation. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the combined effects of father absence and variation in the LIN28B...
Article
Data from the in-school sample of the PROSPER preventive intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate associations between alcohol dehydrogenase genes and alcohol use across adolescence, and whether substance misuse interventions in the 6th and 7th grades (targeting parenting, family functioning, social norms, youth decision making, an...
Article
Full-text available
Girls who receive higher quality fathering engage in less risky sexual behavior (RSB) than their peers. Previous research identifies higher levels of parental monitoring/knowledge and reduced affiliation with deviant peers as potential mediators of this observed fathering effect. Although paternal investment theory posits a causal effect of fathers...
Article
Preventive intervention effects on adolescent alcohol misuse may differ based on genotypes in gene-by-intervention (G x I) interactions, and these G x I interactions may vary as a function of age. The current study uses a novel statistical method, time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), to test an age-varying interaction between a single nucleotide po...
Article
This study investigated the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene’s moderation of associations between exposure to a substance misuse intervention, average peer substance use, and adolescents’ own alcohol use during the 9th-grade. OXTR genetic risk was measured using five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and peer substance use was based on youths’ n...
Article
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Now, more than ever, evaluation is an essential component for all programs. Although the need for outcome data is clear, collecting data from youth populations is often difficult, particularly among youth who are vulnerable and/or disenfranchised. While the use of paper-and-pencil (PAP) surveys is a commonly used method of data collection, differen...
Article
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In reviewing the field of youth development, of which youth workers are a part, it is clear it has had a long and complex history that is intertwined with other disciplines. More recently youth workers have experienced a transformation of sorts, with youth programs in the past being seen exclusively as a place to play and have fun, whereas today’s...
Article
This study addresses replication in candidate gene × environment interaction (cG×E) research by investigating if the key findings from Brody, Beach, Philibert, Chen, and Murry (2009) can be detected using data (N = 1,809) from the PROSPER substance use preventive intervention delivery system. Parallel to Brody et al., this study tested the hypothes...
Article
Prior research indicates that being reared in stressful environments is associated with earlier onset of menarche in girls. In this research, we examined (a) whether these effects are driven by exposure to certain dimensions of stress (harshness or unpredictability) during the first 5 years of life and (b) whether the negative effects of stress on...
Article
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Although peer pressure can influence adolescents' alcohol use, individual susceptibility to these pressures varies across individuals. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence adolescents' susceptibility to their peer environment due to the role dopamine plays in reward sensation during social interactio...
Article
Prevention intervention programs reduce substance use, including smoking, but not all individuals respond. We tested whether response to a substance use prevention/intervention program varies based upon a set of 5 markers (rs16969968, rs1948, rs578776, rs588765, & rs684513) within the cluster of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes (CHRNA...
Article
Several studies have established that child interparental conflict evaluations link parent relationship functioning and adolescent adjustment. Using differential susceptibility theory (DST) and its vantage sensitivity complement as our framework, we examined differences between adolescents who vary in the DRD4 7 repeat genotype (i.e. 7+ vs. 7-) in...
Article
Candidate gene-by-environment interaction research (cGxE) holds promise for helping us understand for whom and why environments matter for families and development. In their commentary on our target article (Schlomer, et al. this issue), Salvatore and Dick present their view of the current state and future of cGxE research and frame the debate rega...
Article
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Data drawn from the in-home subsample of the PROSPER intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate the moderation of intervention effects on underage alcohol use by maternal involvement and candidate genes. The primary gene examined was dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Variation in this gene and maternal involvement were hypothesized to mod...
Article
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Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent ag...
Article
Tobacco-related behaviors and the underlying addiction to nicotine are complex tangles of genetic and environmental factors. Efforts to understand the genetic component of these traits have identified sites in the genome (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, or SNPs) that might account for some part of the role of genetics in nicotine addiction. Encour...
Chapter
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This chapter provides a review of the current state of the principles, procedures, and practices within program evaluation. We address a few incisive and difficult questions about the current state of the field: (1) What are the kinds of program evaluations? (2) Why do program evaluation results often have so little impact on social policy? (3) Doe...
Article
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Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal ag...
Article
The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have led to historically high rates of military deployment for the United States. The increased deployment tempo of the current conflicts necessitates a closer look at the literature on the impact of deployment on families specific to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). In this a...
Article
Recent military conflicts have resulted in longer and more frequent deployments than past conflicts for US Servicemembers; this increased deployment tempo has potential consequences for youth's well-being. This review article synthesizes the research that has examined the impact of parental deployment in the United States since 2001 on youth's func...
Article
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Girls receiving lower quality paternal investment tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior (RSB) than peers. Whereas paternal investment theory posits that this effect is causal, it could arise from environmental or genetic confounds. To distinguish between these competing explanations, the current authors employed a genetically and environment...
Article
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The current study tested sex-specific pathways to early puberty, sexual debut, and sexual risk taking, as specified by an integrated evolutionary-developmental model of adolescent sexual development and behavior. In a prospective study of 238 adolescents (n = 129 girls and n = 109 boys) followed from approximately 12-18 years of age, we tested for...
Chapter
Full-text available
The field of evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) seeks to integrate the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology (EP) and developmental systems theory. EDP can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream EP by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection with the study of human development, focusing on the epigenet...
Article
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Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present artic...
Article
Parental deployment during military conflicts has the potential to impact child adjustment. As increased numbers of military Service members have children, it is critical to understand the association between military deployment and child adjustment. In order to resolve inconsistencies in the existing literature, we performed a meta-analytic review...
Article
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Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psycholo...
Article
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Parent–offspring conflict theory (POCT) has been underutilized in studies of human family dynamics. An implication of POCT is that the presence of siblings will increase conflict in biological parent–child dyads, and that half siblings will increase that conflict more than full siblings. Evidence consistent with this prediction was found in a longi...
Article
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This article urges counseling psychology researchers to recognize and report how missing data are handled, because consumers of research cannot accurately interpret findings without knowing the amount and pattern of missing data or the strategies that were used to handle those data. Patterns of missing data are reviewed, and some of the common stra...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum;...

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Projects (3)
Project
The emerging field of evolutionary-developmental psychology represents a truly interdisciplinary approach to the study of child development; it influences nearly all other subfields of psychology as well as most other disciplines in the life and behavioral sciences. The assumption that early stress leads to dysregulation and impairment is widespread in developmental science and informs prevailing models (e.g., toxic stress). My work within evolutionary-developmental psychology articulates an alternative evolutionary approach to this topic, focusing on developmental adaptation to stress. The central premise of my research is that early adversity prompts the development of costly but adaptive strategies that promote survival and reproduction under stressful conditions (see especially Ellis & Del Giudice, 2019, Annual Review of Psychology).
Project
My theoretical and empirical work in this area examines links between childhood experience and sexual development. This work stands on the shoulders of a landmark theory, first presented in 1991 by Jay Belsky and colleagues, linking childhood experience, interpersonal orientation, and reproductive strategy. This theory posited that levels of stress and support in extra-familial environments influence family dynamics (marital relationships, parent-child relationships), thereby shaping children’s early emotional and behavioral development and, through it, subsequent sexual development and behavior in adolescence and beyond. I have taken the lead role in a series of prospective, longitudinal investigations that have tested core propositions derived from this theory, particularly regarding relations between family environments and pubertal timing (e.g., Ellis et al., 1999, 2003, 2012; Ellis & Garber, 2000; Ellis & Essex, 2007; Tither & Ellis, 2008; Ellis, Shirtcliff et al., 2011; James, Ellis et al., 2012). Based on my theoretical and empirical work, my colleagues and I have advanced a series of revisions and extensions of Belsky’s original theory, including a reanalysis of family environments to distinguish between harsh-conflictual and warm-supportive family dynamics and their relative effects on pubertal maturation (Ellis et al., 1999); development of a complementary theory of paternal investment that emphasizes the unique effects of fathers and other adult males in regulation of daughters’ sexual development (Ellis et al., 1999, 2003, 2012; Ellis & Garber, 2000; Ellis, 2004; Ellis & Essex, 2007; Tither & Ellis, 2008; Deardorff, Ellis et al., 2011); development of an alternative theory of the function of pubertal timing as a mechanism for calibrating the length of childhood to match the quality of family environments (Ellis, 2004; Ellis & Essex, 2007); reconceptualization of childhood stress as constituting two fundamental dimensions of variation—harshness and unpredictability—that ultimately guide reproductive development (Ellis, Figueredo, et al., 2009; Brumbach, Figueredo, & Ellis, 2009; Belsky, Schlomer, & Ellis, 2012; Cabeza De Baca, Barnett, & Ellis, 2015); incorporation of the importance of changes in childhood conditions during sensitive age periods as a critical factor in early pubertal development (Tither & Ellis, 2008); and development of a mediational model linking socioeconomic status, psychosocial stress in families, fat deposition in middle childhood, and onset of puberty (Deardorff et al., 2011; Ellis & Essex, 2007). Currently, the main focus of my work moving forward in this area is to further develop my research program on the effects of fathers on sexual development in daughters. I am particularly interested in (a) further testing the causal relationship between low paternal investment and accelerated pubertal development, risky sexual behavior, and early reproduction in daughters and (b) investigating what proximal psychological changes occur in response to paternal absence or disengagement that promote these sociosexual outcomes. To address these issues, my current NSF grant (Collaborative Research: Impact of Fathers on Risky Sexual Behavior and Decision-Making in Daughters) involves a powerful natural experiment and a series of randomized experiments to examine the impact of paternal absence and disengagement on young women’s sexual psychology and risky sexual behavior—to determine whether and how fathers influence daughters’ sociosexual outcomes. This works implements a genetically- and environmentally-controlled sibling-comparison methodology (Tither & Ellis, 2008; Ellis, Schlomer et al., 2012; DelPriore, Schlomer, & Ellis, 2017; DelPriore, Shakiba, Schlomer, Hill, & Ellis, 2019), which examines the effects of differential exposure of sisters within families to father absence and investment while growing up, and randomized experiments that investigate the effects of paternal disengagement on women’s perceptions of male mating behavior and intent (DelPriore, Proffitt Leyva, Ellis, & Hill, 2018).