Gabor Kovacs

Gabor Kovacs
Budapest University of Technology and Economics · Department of Mechatronics, Optics and Information Engineering

Dr. Univ Budapest University of Technology

About

65
Publications
7,970
Reads
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2,197
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - present
Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research
Position
  • Researcher
January 1990 - present
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Position
  • Lecturer
January 1990 - present
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
On 12 November 2014, the Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, bounced twice off the surface, then arrived under an overhanging cliff in the Abydos region. The landing process provided insights into the properties of a cometary nucleus1–3. Here we report an investigation of the previously undiscovered site of the second t...
Article
Remote sensing observations of dust particles ejected from comets provide important hints on the intimate nature of the materials composing these primitive objects. The measurement of dust coma backscattering ratio, BSR, defined as the ratio of the reflectance at phase angle 0 ◦ and 30 ◦ , helps tuning theoretical models aimed at solving the invers...
Article
Full-text available
While the structural complexity of cometary comae is already recognizable from telescopic observations1, the innermost region, within a few radii of the nucleus, was not resolved until spacecraft exploration became a reality2,3. The dust coma displays jet-like features of enhanced brightness superposed on a diffuse background1,4,5. Some features ca...
Article
Full-text available
We directly measure twenty overhanging cliffs on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko extracted from the latest shape model and estimate the minimum tensile strengths needed to support them against collapse under the comet's gravity. We find extremely low strengths of around one Pa or less (one to five Pa, when scaled to a metre length)....
Article
Context. The camera OSIRIS on board Rosetta obtained high-resolution images of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). Great parts of the nucleus surface are composed of fractured terrain. Aims. Fracture formation, evolution, and their potential relationship to physical processes that drive activity are not yet fully understood. Obser...
Article
Numerous water-ice-rich deposits surviving more than several months on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko were observed during the Rosetta mission. We announce the first-time detection of water-ice features surviving up to 2 yr since their first observation via OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) NAC (narrow angle camer...
Article
High-resolution OSIRIS/Rosetta images of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko acquired on the night run of 2016 April 9-10 show, at large scale, an opposition effect (OE) spot sweeping across Imhotep as the phase angle ranges from 0° to 17°. In this work, we fitted the phase curve of the whole surface imaged as well as three particular features using both the...
Article
In a Rosetta/OSIRIS imaging activity in 2015 June, we have observed the dynamic motion of particles close to the spacecraft. Due to the focal setting of the OSIRIS wide angle camera, these particles were blurred, which can be used to measure their distances to the spacecraft. We detected 109 dust aggregates over a 130 min long sequence, and find th...
Article
Context. Dust deposits or dust cover are a prevalent morphology in the northern hemi-nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). The evolution of the dust deposits was captured by the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft having escorted the comet for over two years. The observations shed light on the fundamental role of cometar...
Article
The study of dust, the most abundant material in cometary nuclei, is pivotal in understanding the original materials forming the Solar system. Measuring the coma phase function provides a tool to investigate the nature of cometary dust. Rosetta/OSIRIS sampled the coma phase function of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, covering a large phase angle r...
Article
We present a statistical analysis of the distribution of large scale topographic features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We observe that the cumulative cliff height distribution across the surface follows a power law with a slope equal to -1.69 +- 0.02. When this distribution is studied independently for each region, we find a good correlation...
Article
The Southern hemisphere of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet has become visible from Rosetta only since March 2015. It was illuminated during the perihelion passage and therefore it contains the regions that experienced the strongest heating and erosion rate, thus exposing the subsurface most pristine material. In this work we investigate, thanks...
Article
Images of the nucleus and the coma (gas and dust) of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko have been acquired by the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras since March 2014 using both the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). We use images from the NAC camera to study a bright outburst observed i...
Article
Full-text available
By using the imagery acquired by the OSIRIS-WAC camera, we prepare a high resolution morphological map of the Rosetta Sais final landing site, characterised by an outcropping consolidated terrain unit, a coarse boulder deposit and a fine particle deposit. Thanks to the 0.014 m resolution images, we derive the pebbles/boulders size-frequency distrib...
Article
We perform a thermo-physical analysis on water activity of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P). The sublimation of water is assumed to occur from beneath a global, desiccated dust mantle over the irregular-shaped nucleus. The concept of two thermal models, the recipe of model formulation and the strategy of application to comet 67P are described...
Article
The OSIRIS (optical, spectroscopic and infrared remote imaging system) instrument on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft collected data of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko for over 2 yr. OSIRIS consists of two cameras, a Narrow Angle Camera and a Wide Angle Camera. For specific imaging sequences related to the observation of dust aggregates in 67P's coma, th...
Article
Full-text available
Outbursts occur commonly on comets1 with different frequencies and scales2,3. Despite multiple observations suggesting various triggering processes4,5, the driving mechanism of such outbursts is still poorly understood. Landslides have been invoked6 to explain some outbursts on comet 103P/Hartley 2, although the process required a pre-existing dust...
Article
Full-text available
The Rosetta spacecraft spent ~2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposu...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the diurnal thermal cycle and the irregular shape of the nucleus, gas outflow of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko could be highly anisotropic as indicated by the colliminated dust jet structures on the sunlit side. Based on the OSIRIS imaging observations of the outgassing effect, a simple model of surface sublimation can be constructed b...
Article
The Rosetta spacecraft has investigated comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from large heliocentric distances to its perihelion passage and beyond. We trace the seasonal and diurnal evolution of the colors of the 67P nucleus, finding changes driven by sublimation and recondensation of water ice. The whole nucleus became relatively bluer near perihelion...
Article
Beginning in March 2014, the OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) cameras began capturing images of the nucleus and coma (gas and dust) of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using both the wide angle camera (WAC) and the narrow angle camera (NAC). The many observations taken since July of 2014 have been used to study the...
Article
During its two years mission around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, ESA's Rosetta spacecraft had the unique opportunity to follow closely a comet in the most active part of its orbit. Many studies have presented the typical features associated to the activity of the nucleus, such as localized dust and gas jets. Here we report on series of more ene...
Article
Full-text available
We present the results of the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus derived with the OSIRIS instrument during the closest fly-by over the comet, which took place on 14 th February 2015 at a distance of {\~} 6 km from the surface. Several images covering the 0{\deg}-33{\deg} phase angle range were acq...
Article
Deep Impact, EPOXI and Rosetta missions visited comets 9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, respectively. Each of these three missions was equipped with both multispectral imagers and infrared spectrometers. Bright blue features containing water ice were detected in each of these comet nuclei. We analysed multispectral propert...
Article
The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS), the scientific imaging system onboard the Rosetta mission, has been acquiring images of the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since 2014 August with a resolution which allows a detailed analysis of its surface. Indeed, data reveal a complex surface morphology whic...
Article
Full-text available
In May 2015, the southern hemisphere of comet 67P/C-G became visible by the OSIRIS cameras on-board the Rosetta spacecraft. The resolution was high enough to carry out a detailed analysis of the surface morphology, which is quite different from the northern hemisphere. Previous works show that fine particle deposits are the most extensive geologica...
Article
We present the results of the photometric and spectrophotometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko nucleus derived with the Optical, Spectroscopic and Infrared Remote Imaging System instrument during the closest fly-by over the comet, which took place on 2015 February 14 at a distance of ∼6 km from the surface. Several images covering the...
Article
Aims. The OSIRIS camera on board the Rosetta spacecraft has been acquiring images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)’s nucleus since August 2014. Starting in May 2015, the southern hemisphere gradually became illuminated and was imaged for the first time. Here we present the regional morphology of the southern hemisphere, which serves as...
Article
Context. We investigate the formation and evolution of comet nuclei and other trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the solar nebula and primordial disk prior to the giant planet orbit instability foreseen by the Nice model. Aims. Our goal is to determine whether most observed comet nuclei are primordial rubble-pile survivors that formed in the solar n...
Article
The Wide Angle Camera of the OSIRIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft is equipped with several narrowband filters that are centered on the emission lines and bands of various fragment species. These are used to determine the evolution of the production and spatial distribution of the gas in the inner coma of comet 67P with time and helioce...
Article
Aims. We aim to characterize the circular depressions of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and investigate whether such surface morphology of a comet nucleus is related to the cumulative sublimation effect since becoming a Jupiter family comet (JFC). Methods. The images from the Rosetta/OSIRIS science camera experiment are used to construct size freq...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the physical properties and dynamical origin of a curved jet of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that was observed repeatedly in several nucleus rotations starting on May 30 and persisting until early August, 2015.Methods. We simulated the motion of dust grains ejected from the nucleus surface under the influence of the gravity and viscou...
Article
Dust jets, i.e. fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus, have been observed in-situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986. Yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed, from localized physical mechanisms on the surface/sub-surface (see review in B...
Article
Context. Dust jets (i.e., fuzzy collimated streams of cometary material arising from the nucleus) have been observed in situ on all comets since the Giotto mission flew by comet 1P/Halley in 1986, and yet their formation mechanism remains unknown. Several solutions have been proposed involving either specific properties of the active areas or the l...
Article
We present observations of sunset jets on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by Rosetta/OSIRIS camera. In late April 2015, when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of ~1.8AU, clusters of dust jets that originated in the Ma’at region on the comet’s small lobe were identified from multipleimages and were apparently sustained for about an hour beyon...
Article
We carried out an investigation of the surface variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the detection of regions showing activity, the determination of active and inactive surface regions of the comet with spectral methods, and the detection of fallback material.Methods. We analyzed multispectral data generated with Optical, Spectroscopic, a...
Article
Full-text available
We carried out an investigation of the surface variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the detection of regions showing activity, the determination of active and inactive surface regions of the comet with spectral methods, and the detection of fallback material. Methods. We analyzed multispectral data generated with Optical, Spectroscopic,...
Article
Because of the diurnal thermal cycle and the irregular shape of the nucleus, gas outflow of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko could be highly anisotropic as indicated by the colliminated dust jet structures on the sunlit side. Based on the OSIRIS imaging observations of the outgassing effect, a simple model of surface sublimation can be constructed b...
Article
Full-text available
The Rosetta mission of the European Space Agency has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014 and is now in its escort phase. A large complement of scientific experiments designed to complete the most detailed study of a comet ever attempted are onboard Rosetta. We present results for the photometric and spectrophot...
Article
Full-text available
Since OSIRIS started acquiring high-resolution observations of the surface of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, over one hundred meter-sized bright spots have been identified in numerous types of geomorphologic regions, but mostly located in areas receiving low insolation. The bright spots are either clustered, in debris fields close...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the first major temporal morphological changes observed on the surface of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the smooth terrains of the Imhotep region. We use images of the OSIRIS cameras onboard Rosetta to follow the temporal changes from 24 May 2015 to 11 July 2015. The morphological changes observed on the surface ar...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the dust coma within the Hill sphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We aim to determine osculating orbital elements for individual distinguishable but unresolved slow-moving grains in the vicinity of the nucleus. In addition, we perform photometry and constrain grain sizes. Methods. We performed astrometry and photometry using i...
Article
Context. During the most recent perihelion passage in 2009 of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ground–based observations showed an anisotropic dust coma where jet–like features were detected at ∼ 1.3 AU from the Sun. The current perihelion passage is exceptional as the Rosetta spacecraft is monitoring the nucleus activity since March 2014, when a c...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. The OSIRIS camera onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has been acquiring images of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P)’s nucleus at spatial resolutions down to ~0.17 m/px ever since Aug. 2014. These images have yielded unprecedented insight into the morphological diversity of the comet’s surface. This paper presents an overview of the region...
Article
Full-text available
Context. OSIRIS, the scientific imaging system onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, has been imaging the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its dust and gas environment since March 2014. The images serve different scientific goals, from morphology and composition studies of the nucleus surface, to the motion and trajectories of dust grai...
Article
The factors shaping cometary nuclei are still largely unknown, but could be the result of concurrent effects of evolutionary and primordial processes. The peculiar bilobed shape of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko may be the result of the fusion of two objects that were once separate or the result of a localized excavation by outgassing at the inter...
Article
Full-text available
Context. OSIRIS, the scientific imaging system onboard the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, has been imaging the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its dust and gas environment since March 2014. The images serve different scientific goals, from morphology and composition studies of the nucleus surface, to the motion and trajectories of dust grai...
Article
The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) experiment onboard the Rosetta spacecraft currently orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has yielded unprecedented views of a comet's nucleus. We present here the first ever observations of meter-scale fractures on the surface of a comet. Some of these fractures form polygo...
Article
Pits have been observed on many cometary nuclei mapped by spacecraft. It has been argued that cometary pits are a signature of endogenic activity, rather than impact craters such as those on planetary and asteroid surfaces. Impact experiments and models cannot reproduce the shapes of most of the observed cometary pits, and the predicted collision r...
Article
Full-text available
Images from the OSIRIS scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta show that the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko consists of two lobes connected by a short neck. The nucleus has a bulk density less than half that of water. Activity at a distance from the Sun of >3 astronomical units is predominantly from the neck, where jets have been seen consi...
Article
Sensitive imaging systems with high dynamic range onboard spacecrafts are susceptible to ghost and stray-light effects. During the design phase, the Dawn Framing Camera was laid out and optimized to minimize those unwanted, parasitic effects. However, the requirement of low distortion to the optical design and use of a front-lit focal plane array i...
Article
Cathode ray tube (CRT) displays are probably the most widely used color imaging devices, and include TV sets and computer monitors. Although the CRT color representations are adequate for people with normal color vision, color-deficient users would be expected to experience problems of color identification and discrimination with CRT images, just a...
Article
Using an optimization method, thin film coated eyeglasses were designed, produced and tested on several color vision tests. It was found that optimized filters can significantly enhance color vision ability, while the associated loss of luminance is less than 35%. However, the improvement is dependent on the extent of the color vision deficiency.
Conference Paper
Using the spectral emission of the video display, and the sensitivity curves of the color-deficient eye, a special filter eyeglass can be designed to enhance or even completely correct defective color vision.
Article
Based on the analysis of known, corrected, classical triplet type objectives and given the basic specification requirements, diagrams of the constructional length and image distance of their equivalent thin lens systems are prepared. By keeping the constructional length and image distance constant and applying simple formulas, the focal lengths and...
Article
The evolution of computer technology in the last decade produced a new computer category: the graphical workstation. These high performance computers, with multitasking graphical operating systems can increase the productivity of optical engineers significantly, however, the development of an optical design software which utilizes the extraordinary...

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