G. Pigeon

G. Pigeon
Meteo France International · Projects and Operations

PhD

About

76
Publications
29,666
Reads
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4,854
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
3103 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - February 2017
Meteo France
Position
  • Agrometeorology Division Manager

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
To build healthy, resilient, and climate‐responsive cities, planners need ways to understand the local complexities of urban thermal climates. To assist in meeting this need, this study employs the simple classification of ‘local climate zones’ (LCZs) to conduct a spatiotemporal thermal climatic analysis of the Toulouse Metropolitan Region (France)...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the ability of a crop model forced by seasonal weather forecasts to anticipate correctly the agrometeorological variables affecting the growth of winter wheat in France. The method is based on wheat growth simulations over 199 sites in France for the period 1981–2005 driven by seasonal weather forecasts, consist...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article analyse les impacts obser- vés et projetés du changement clima- tique sur les systèmes humains et naturels, leur vulnérabilité et les pos- sibilités d’adaptation. Il donne un aperçu des principaux résultats pour l’hydrologie, l’agriculture, les écosys- tèmes naturels, les infrastructures, le transport, l’énergie, le tourisme, la santé e...
Article
Full-text available
The interannual variability of cereal grain yield and permanent grassland dry matter yield is simulated over French sites by the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) generic Land Surface Model (LSM). The two soil profile schemes available in the model are used to simulate the above-ground biomass (Bag) of ce...
Article
Societies have to both reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and undertake adaptation measures to limit the negative impacts of global warming on the population, the economy and the environment. Examining how best to adapt cities is especially challenging as urban areas will evolve as the climate changes. Thus, examining adaptation strategies for c...
Article
Full-text available
The simulation of root water uptake in land surface models is affected by large uncertainties. The difficulty in mapping soil depth and in describing the capacity of plants to develop a rooting system is a major obstacle to the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle and to the representation of the impacts of drought. In this study, long time se...
Article
Buildings’ energy systems release heat to the atmosphere that contributes to the urban heat island. In return, the energy demand from buildings depends on the meteorological conditions of their surroundings. Consequently, urban canopy models such as Town Energy Budget (TEB) have progressively included the representation of the main processes of bui...
Article
Full-text available
A single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model Urban (CLMU) is evaluated over two contrasting urban environments of Toulouse (France) and Melbourne (Australia). For the latter, three measurement sites are available characterized by a varying amount of vegetation, which supports a detailed assessment of the representation of urban vegetation...
Article
As the nonhydrostatic regional model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM) is increasingly employed for studying the effects of urbanization on the environment, the authors extend its surface-layer parameterization by the Town Energy Budget (TEB) parameterization using the tile approach for a single urban class. Th...
Article
Full-text available
SURFEX is a new externalized land and ocean surface platform that describes the surface fluxes and the evolution of four types of surfaces: nature, town, inland water and ocean. It is mostly based on pre-existing, well-validated scientific models that are continuously improved. The motivation for the building of SURFEX is to use strictly identical...
Article
The analysis of climate evolution during the 20th century confirms global warming for France (average increase of 1 degrees C), and the hazards for vegetation: lower rainfall in the south of France and a drier soil in all regions in the last 50 years (mostly in the south during the winter). Climatic projections for the 21st century are increasingly...
Article
Full-text available
Urban metabolism considers a city as a system with flows of energy and material between it and the environment. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences provide methods and models to estimate local scale energy, water, carbon and pollutant fluxes. However, good communication is required to provide this new knowledge and its implications to endusers...
Article
Urban canopy models (UCMs) are being used as urban-climate prediction tools for different applications including outdoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption. To take advantage of their low computational cost, UCMs are often forced offline without being coupled to mesoscale atmospheric simulations, which requires access to meteorological...
Article
A consequence of urban heat islands in summer is an increase in the use of air conditioning in urbanized areas, which while cooling the insides of buildings, releases waste heat to the atmosphere. A coupled model consisting of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH) and an urban energy balance model (TEB) has been used to simulate and quantify...
Article
Full-text available
SURFEX is a new externalized land and ocean surface platform that describes the surface fluxes and the evolution of four types of surface: nature, town, inland water and ocean. It can be run either coupled or in offline mode. It is mostly based on pre-existing, well validated scientific models. It can be used in offline mode (from point scale to gl...
Article
Projections of future climate suggest increases in extreme temperatures particularly in mid latitudes. In addition, the effect of heat waves, which are becoming a major “summer killer”, is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key parameter for health problems in case of heat waves since, on one han...
Article
This paper presents an urban canopy and building energy model based on a thermal network of constant resistances and capacitances. The RC model represents the fundamental physical relations that govern the energy interactions between buildings and their urban environment, retaining the sensitivity to the design parameters typically used in building...
Article
Full-text available
“Grand Paris” is a study carried out by ten teams of researchers and city planners in the aim of putting forward general guidelines for Paris urban area’s evolution by 2030. All the teams suggest making the area “greener” in some way, to combat climate warming by CO2 sequestration. Our team also shows that extending the nearby forests by 30 %, favo...
Article
Full-text available
The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM) that has been integrated i...
Article
Full-text available
SURFEX is a new externalized land and ocean surface platform that describes the surface fluxes and the evolution of four types of surfaces: nature, town, inland water and ocean. It is mostly based on pre-existing, well-validated scientific models that are continuously improved. The motivation for the building of SURFEX is to use strictly identical...
Article
The increase in air temperature produced by urbanization, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is often neglected in current building energy simulation practices. The UHI effect can have an impact on the energy consumption of buildings, especially those with low internal heat gains or with an inherent close interaction with the...
Article
Full-text available
The use of air-conditioning systems is expected to increase as a consequence of global-scale and urban-scale climate warming. In order to represent future scenarios of urban climate and building energy consumption, the Town Energy Budget (TEB) scheme must be improved. This paper presents a new building energy model (BEM) that has been integrated in...
Article
Full-text available
A scheme that couples a detailed building energy model, EnergyPlus, and an urban canopy model, the Town Energy Balance (TEB), is presented. Both models are well accepted and evaluated within their individual scientific communities. The coupled scheme proposes a more realistic representation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Projections of future climate suggest increases in extreme temperatures particularly in mid latitudes. In addition, the effect of heat waves, which are becoming a major “summer killer”, is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a solution except that air cooled A/C still exacerbates the heat island and...
Article
Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The use of climatic maps, such Urban Climate Zone‑UCZ, is adapted for this kind of application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the UCZ classification, integrated in the...
Conference Paper
For operational forecasts anticipate convective inhibition processes is as important than convective initiation processes. Based on the 15th July 2007 case study this work shows how the morning shallow convection over the Vosges is inhibited while it develops over the Black Forest. This case occurs during IOP 8b of the Convective and Orographically...
Article
Urban land surface schemes have been developed to model the distinct features of the urban surface and the associated energy exchange processes. These models have been developed for a range of purposes and make different assumptions related to the inclusion and representation of the relevant processes. Here, the first results of Phase 2 from an int...
Article
Urban land surface schemes have been developed to model the distinct features of the urban surface and the associated energy exchange processes. These models have been developed for a range of purposes and make different assumptions related to the inclusion and representation of the relevant processes. Here, the first results of Phase 2 from an int...
Article
Within the framework of the international field campaign COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study), a large suite of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation was operated, partially combined for the first time. This includes networks of in situ and remote-sensing systems such as the Global Positioning System as well as...
Article
Experimental data of the energy balance and the turbulence network installed during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) field campaign of 2007 are presented in this study. The network aims at providing continuous surface flux and other surface micrometeorological data of the required high accuracy and quality for fu...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer) field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactio...
Article
Concentrations and turbulent fluxes of accumulation mode particles were measured during the 2004–2005 ‘Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interaction in Toulouse Urban Layer’ project (CAPITOUL) at the top of two intersecting street canyons and in the urban boundary layer (UBL) in Toulouse, France. Particle numbers were strongly affected by boundary layer...
Article
Full-text available
A consequence of urban heat islands in summer is the increased use of air-conditioning during extreme heat events : the use of air-conditioning systems, while cooling the inside of buildings releases waste heat (as latent and sensible heat) in the lower part of the urban atmosphere, hence potentially increasing air street temperatures where the hea...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer) field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactio...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of urban surface energy balance models now exist with different assumptions about the important features of the surface and exchange processes that need to be incorporated. To date, no comparison of these models has been conducted; in contrast, models for natural surfaces have been compared extensively as part of the Project for Inte...
Conference Paper
The Convective and Orographically-Induced Precipitation Study (COPS) is an international field campaign which took place during the summer of 2007 over the Vosges, the Rhine Valley and the Black-Forest. The aim of this intensive observation campaign was to study various phases of convection and convective environment and improve quantitative precip...
Article
The aim of this study is to better understand the direct radiative impact of urban aerosol particles on atmospheric dynamics. This work is based on data collected in Toulouse, France, during the CAPITOUL field campaign, and on explicit aerosol modeling using the mesoscale model MesoNH (Lafore et al., 1998) fully coupled with the ORILAM (ORganic and...
Article
We describe a below-cloud scavenging module of aerosol particles by raindrops for use in a three-dimensional mesoscale cloud resolving model. The rate of particle removal is computed by integrating the scavenging efficiency over the aerosol particle and the drop size distributions. Here the numerical integration is performed accurately with a Gauss...
Article
Full-text available
a b s t r a c t Concentrations and turbulent fluxes of accumulation mode particles were measured during the 2004e2005 'Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interaction in Toulouse Urban Layer' project (CAPITOUL) at the top of two intersecting street canyons and in the urban boundary layer (UBL) in Toulouse, France. Particle numbers were strongly affected by...
Article
L'étude des précipitations convectives induites par l'orographie (Cops selon l'acronyme anglais) est un projet international coordonné qui comprend une campagne d'observations de terrain et un programme scientifique et qui vise à améliorer la qualité des prévisions des précipitations orographiques convectives à la fois par l'observation quadridimen...
Article
Full-text available
L'étude des précipitations convectives induites par l'orographie (Cops selon l'acronyme anglais) est un projet international coordonné qui comprend une campagne d'observations de terrain et un programme scientifique et qui vise à améliorer la qualité des prévisions des précipitations orographiques convectives à la fois par l'observation quadridimen...
Article
Full-text available
Cities interact with the atmosphere over a wide range of scales from the large-scale processes, which have a direct impact on global climate change, to smaller scales, ranging from the conurbation itself to individual buildings. The review presented in this paper analyzes some of the ways in which cities influence atmospheric thermodynamics and air...
Article
Full-text available
The Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme computes the surface energy balance for urban areas. It is intended to be coupled with atmospheric models for numerical weather prediction, air quality forecasts or research applications. Up to now, it has been evaluated for dry and hot seasons over light industrial (Vancouver) or dense urban (Mexico City, Marse...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we present a numerical simulation of the urban-breeze circulation observed in Toulouse, South-West of France, during the Intensive Observation Period number 5 (IOP5, 3rd and 4th July 2004) of the CAPITOUL experiment (Feb. 2004–2005). The numerical simulation is performed with the non-hydrostatic atmospheric model MesoNH (Lafore et al....
Article
Full-text available
An experimental study focused on the urban-breeze circulation observed in Toulouse, South-West of France, during the Intensive Observation Period number 5 (IOP5, 3rd and 4th July 2004) of the CAPITOUL experiment (Feb. 2004 to Feb. 2005) is presented. The influence of the urban breeze circulation on the structure and the dynamics of the Atmospheric...
Article
Full-text available
The CAPITOUL experiment is a joint experimental effort in urban climate, including the energetic exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere, the dynamics of the boundary layer over the city and its interactions with aerosol chemistry. The campaign took place in the city of Toulouse in southwest France, for one year, from February 2004 to Febr...
Article
Full-text available
Titre traduit en anglais : From urban climate observation to integrated modelling of the city. Résume traduit en anglais : The best known aspect of urban microclimate is the “heat island” which can range from 2° C for a village of 1,000 inhabitants to 12° C for a large city.This article examines the changes caused by urbanisation and how they are b...
Article
The anthropogenic heat release, QF, has been estimated for the old European agglomeration of Toulouse (France) from February 2004 to March 2005 in the frame of the CAPITOUL experiment. Surface energy balance (SEB) measurements have been conducted at a downtown site, over a dense urban area. A method is proposed to estimate QF at the local scale aro...