G. Kocsis

G. Kocsis
Centre for Energy Research · Fusion Plasma Physics Department

PhD

About

195
Publications
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2,778
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Publications

Publications (195)
Article
A large superconducting machine, JT-60SA has been constructed to provide major contributions to the ITER program and DEMO design. For the success of the ITER project and fusion reactor, understanding and development of plasma controllability in ITER and DEMO relevant higher beta regimes are essential. JT-60SA has focused the program on the plasma c...
Article
The detachment regime has a high potential to play an important role in fusion devices on the road to a fusion power plant. Complete power detachment has been observed several times during the experimental campaigns of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Automatic observation and signaling of such events could help scientists to better understa...
Poster
Full-text available
Confinement changes in stellarators connected to rotational transform ι via low-order rationals or islands at the boundary or close to it => W7-AS, Heliotron-J, TJ-II • investigate confinement by systematic scan of configurations • W7-X has flexible coil system • non-planar coils (1 to 5) for main field • planar coils (A, B) for ι-& magn. axis vari...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A dedicated scan of magnetic configurations in Wendelstein 7-X has been performed with respect to the rotational transform ι to investigate the confinement properties in configurations located between the major resonances providing boundary islands for proper island divertor operation. The scan investigated configurations between the so-called high...
Article
Pulsed injections of boron carbide granules into Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) plasmas transiently increase the plasma stored energy and core ion temperatures above the reference W7-X experimental programs by up to 30%. In a series of 4 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments, the PPPL Probe Mounted Powder Injector provided 50 ms b...
Article
A 1-2 kHz electromagnetic mode is present in a large fraction of W7-X discharges in the standard magnetic field configurations with 5/5 edge island structure. The power in the mode is significantly reduced in other magnetic configurations. The mode can appear spontaneously and persist for the full duration of a discharge. Its full width at half max...
Article
Tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) was injected from the outboard midplane into Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) plasmas. Viewing from behind the flight path, the distribution of the light emissions from the TESPEL cloud particles (H, C and C ²⁺ ) was recorded using an ultrafast visible camera with a temporal resolution up to 2 µ s, which allows resol...
Article
Full-text available
Coated glass targets are a key component of the Wendelstein 7-X laser blow-off system that is used for impurity transport studies. The preparation and analysis of these glass targets as well as their performance is examined in this paper. The glass targets have a high laser damage threshold and are coated via physical vapor deposition with µm thick...
Article
A multi-purpose, wide-angle, visible overview video diagnostic, based on the EDICAM camera, was designed for JT-60SA superconducting tokamak, in order to fulfill both machine protection and scientific observation purposes. The detector is located inside the ‘port plug’ (a ca. 3 m long re-entrant tube), relatively close to the plasma boundary; the E...
Article
Full-text available
A series of ice pellets was injected into the advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). Although the pellets were small and slow, deep and efficient particle fueling could be observed experimentally. The most striking feature appearing after the injection of the pellets, however, was a transient increase in the energy confinement time. This tran...
Article
Full-text available
During the two most recent experimental campaigns in the advanced stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) (Klinger et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 014018; Bosch et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 116015; Wolf et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102020; Pedersen et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 0555030) hydrogen ice pellet injection was performed for the first time...
Article
Full-text available
Radiative power exhaust by impurity seeding was demonstrated for the first time in island divertor configurations at the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X. Feasibility of stable plasma operation was shown during seeding with both neon (Ne) and nitrogen (N2). High radiative power losses (80%) were found to reduce the divertor heat loads globally by 2/3 wi...
Article
In the past two campaigns of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator the overview video diagnostics played a key role in the daily experiments. The current software implementations went through numerous improvements and changes according to the continuously changing requirements. However, while the control software could handle all the needs, the change...
Article
A multi-purpose overview video system, based on EDICAM cameras, was set up at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, in order to fulfill both machine protection and scientific observation purposes. Places of strong plasma-wall interaction, which can easily evolve to hot-spots, were detected by the EDICAM operators during plasma operation, based on intense lo...
Article
The transport of heavy impurities has been investigated at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator during core electron root confinement (CERC) experiments. Iron atoms were injected via the laser blow-off technique and analyzed by VUV and x-ray spectrometers. The injected amount of iron does not change the global plasma parameters but yields strong enough...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effective power exhaust by impurity seeding and its dependence on the gas species used was demonstrated in island divertor configurations for the first time at Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). A systematic set of experiments has been conducted during the first island divertor campaign which show that switching from Neon (Ne) to nitrogen (N 2) as seeding gas...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Article originally published, and in the associated Publisher Correction, the members of the W7-X Team were not included. All versions of the Article, and the Publisher Correction, have now been amended to include these team members.
Presentation
Full-text available
Effective power exhaust by impurity seeding and its dependence on the gas species used was demonstrated in island divertor configurations for the first time at Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). This includes investigation of the localization of external gas sources in the 3D plasma edge structure of the island divertor and the role of the details of the magn...
Article
Full-text available
The two leading concepts for confining high-temperature fusion plasmas are the tokamak and the stellarator. Tokamaks are rotationally symmetric and use a large plasma current to achieve confinement, whereas stellarators are non-axisymmetric and employ three-dimensionally shaped magnetic field coils to twist the field and confine the plasma. As a re...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Article originally published, A. Mollén’s affiliation was incorrectly denoted as number 10; it should have been 1. Throughout the Article, some technical problems in typesetting meant that the tilde symbol above b and one instance of a superscript 2 were too high to be visible; see the correction notice for details. Finally,...
Article
We present a detailed overview and first results of the new laser blow-off system on the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X. The system allows impurity transport studies by the repetitive and controlled injection of different tracer ions into the plasma edge. A Nd:YAG laser is used to ablate a thin metal film, coated on a glass plate, with a repetition ra...
Presentation
Full-text available
Intrinsic and actively injected impurities are shown to directly impact on plasma edge conditions in correlation to the 3D magnetic structure of the scrape-off layer (SOL) at Wendelstein 7-X. The location of intrinsic impurities is directly correlated to the main strike line heat and particle fluxes. Therefore, active gas injection must be aligned...
Article
In the first operational campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator we observed Marfe-like radiation belts at the plasma edge. We describe and analyze the behaviour of these radiation belts, especially with respect to the high density inside the belt, with a set of suitable diagnostics. We present evidence suggesting that these Marfe-like r...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnostic alkali atom (e.g., lithium) beams are routinely used to diagnose magnetically confined plasmas, namely, to measure the plasma electron density profile in the edge and the scrape off layer region. A light splitting optics system was installed into the observation system of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic at the Joint Eur...
Article
Full-text available
Wendelstein 7-X (W7‐X) is the world’s largest superconducting nuclear fusion experiment of the optimized stellarator type. In the first Operation Phase (OP1.1) helium and hydrogen plasmas were studied in limiter configuration. The heating energy was limited to 4 MJ and the main purpose of that campaign was the integral commissioning of the machine...
Article
A special video camera has been developed for the 10-camera overview video system of the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator considering multiple application needs and limitations resulting from this complex long-pulse superconducting stellarator experiment. The event detection intelligent camera (EDICAM) uses a special 1.3 Mpixel CMOS sensor with n...
Article
Full-text available
The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) fusion experiment is aimed at proving that the stellarator concept is suitable for a future fusion reactor. Therefore, it is designed for steady-state plasmas of up to 30 min, which means that the thermal control of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) is of vital importance to prevent damage to the device. In this paper a...
Article
Full-text available
The 2014–2016 JET results are reviewed in the light of their significance for optimising the ITER research plan for the active and non-active operation. More than 60 h of plasma operation with ITER first wall materials successfully took place since its installation in 2011. New multi-machine scaling of the type I-ELM divertor energy flux density to...
Article
The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed for a reduction of tungsten release during ICRF op...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter ran...
Article
Full-text available
The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme is directed towards physics input to critical elements of the ITER design and the preparation of ITER operation, as well as addressing physics issues for a future DEMO design. Since 2015, AUG is equipped with a new pair of 3-strap ICRF antennas, which were designed for a reduction of tungsten release during ICRF op...
Article
In the first campaign Wendelstein 7-X was operated with five poloidal graphite limiters installed stellarator symmetrically. In an ideal situation the power losses would be equally distributed between the limiters. The limiter shape was designed to smoothly distribute the heat flux over two strike lines. Vertically the strike lines are not uniform...
Article
Full-text available
After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initia...
Article
Observations on confinement in the first experimental campaign on the optimized Stellarator Wendelstein 7-X are summarized. In this phase W7-X was equipped with five inboard limiters only and thus the discharge length restricted to avoid local overheating. Stationary plasmas are limited to low densities <2-3 • 10¹⁹ m⁻³. With the available 4.3 MW EC...
Article
The measurement and correction of error fields in Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is critical to long pulse high beta operation, as small error fields may cause overloading of divertor plates in some configurations. Accordingly, as part of a broad collaborative effort, the detection and correction of error fields on the W7-X experiment has been performed us...
Article
Full-text available
In the past few years a ten channel video diagnostics system was developed, built and installed for Wendestein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). The system is based on EDICAM (Event Detection and Intelligent Camera) CMOS cameras (400 fps @ 1.3 Mpixel). In the first W7-X experimental campaign (OP1.1) the video diagnostic system was not integrated into the cen...
Article
Full-text available
The optimized, superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X went into operation and delivered first measurement data after 15 years of construction and one year commissioning. Errors in the magnet assembly were confirmend to be small. Plasma operation was started with 5 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power and five inboard limiters....
Article
Using spatially calibrated images of fast visible cameras, a database was established containing pellet cloud images and the related pellet- and plasma parameters. Using this database, two scalings were derived for the cloud size along the magnetic field lines as a function of pellet speed and ablation rate (first case) and pellet speed, pellet vol...
Article
Using spatially calibrated images of fast visible cameras, a database was established containing pellet cloud images and the related pellet- and plasma parameters. Using this database, two scalings were derived for the cloud size along the magnetic field lines as a function of pellet speed and ablation rate (first case) and pellet speed, pellet vol...
Article
Full-text available
Fusion energy research has in the past 40 years focused primarily on the tokamak concept, but recent advances in plasma theory and computational power have led to renewed interest in stellarators. The largest and most sophisticated stellarator in the world, Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), has just started operation, with the aim to show that the earlier we...
Article
Full-text available
Wendelstein 7-X, a superconducting optimized stellarator built in Greifswald/Germany, started its first plasmas with the last closed flux surface (LCFS) defined by 5 uncooled graphite limiters in December 2015. At the end of the 10 weeks long experimental campaign (OP1.1) more than 20 independent diagnostic systems were in operation, allowing detai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several tokamaks like NSTX [1], EAST [2] and DIII-D [3] have reported improvement in several key plasma parameters like pedestal pressure and width concurrent with the presence of lithium (Li) in the plasma. At ASDEX Upgrade explorative experiments have been performed to find out if such effects can be observed under reactor relevant conditions whe...
Article
Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with superconducting magnetic field coils that just started plasma operation at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) Greifswald. Utilizing the electron beam technique the first vacuum flux surface measurements were performed during the commissioning of the magnet system. For the magnetic configu...
Article
Experiments have been performed at ASDEX Upgrade, aiming to investigate the impact of lithium in an all-metal-wall tokamak and attempting to enhance the pedestal operational space. For this purpose, a lithium pellet injector has been developed, capable of injecting pellets carrying a particle content ranging from 1.82 × 1019 atoms (0.21 mg) to 1.64...
Article
A summary of the first operational phase (OP1.1) at the stellarator W7-X is given. The operational setup of heating and diagnostics as well the results of experiments are briefly described. Plasma parameters and confinement are better than expected: Te > 8 keV and Ti > 2 keV at ne ≈ 3×10¹⁹ m⁻³ yielding β0 ≈ 2.5 %. The results for ECR heating with X...
Article
The complete refuelling of the plasma density loss (pump-out) caused by mitigation of Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) is demonstrated on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The plasma is refuelled by injection of frozen deuterium pellets and ELMs are mitigated by external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). In this experiment relevant dimensionless paramete...
Article
Full-text available
Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is a large optimized stellarator (B=2.5T, V=30m(3)) aiming at demonstrating the reactor relevance of the optimized stellarators. In 2015 W7-X will begin its first operation phase (OP1.1) with five inertially cooled inboard limiters made of graphite. Assuming the heat loads can be spread out evenly between the limiters, 1 seco...
Article
25th Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), Govt Russian Federat, Stă Petersburg, RUSSIA, OCT 13-18, 2014
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Standard operation in a future fusion reactor will aim to establish a high core density in order to harvest a maximum of output power. In addition, a high separatrix density is essential for achieving the necessary detached divertor scenario [1]. Therefore, in the ITER project and in European DEMO studies [2], core fuelling to planned...
Article
Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mi...
Data
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Data
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Article
An innovative fast camera (EDICAM – Event Detection Intelligent CAMera) was developed by MTA Wigner RCP in the last few years. This new concept was designed for intelligent event driven processing to be able to detect predefined events and track objects in the plasma. The camera provides a moderate frame rate of 400 Hz at full frame resolution (128...
Article
In ITER, pellets are used for ELM pacing and fueling. More importantly, ELM control and in particular control of the first ELM needs to be demonstrated in the non-nuclear phase of ITER during operation in H or He. Whilst D pellets have been established as an ELM control technique in the stationary phase with D target plasmas in devices with C as pl...
Article
Considering the requirements of the newly built Wendelstein 7-X stellarator a ten-channel overview video diagnostic system was developed and is presently under installation. The system covering the whole torus interior can be used not only to observe the plasma but also to detect irregular operational events which are dangerous for the stellarator...
Article
Foreseen to perform pellet investigations in the new stellarator W7-X, the former ASDEX Upgrade Blower Gun was revised and revitalized. The systems operational characteristics have been surveyed in a test bed. The gun is designed to launch cylindrical pellets with 2 mm diameter and 2 mm length, produced from frozen deuterium D2, hydrogen H2 or a ga...