Frode Svartdal

Frode Svartdal
UiT The Arctic University of Norway · Department of Psychology

PhD

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87
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (87)
Article
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Why do students leave universities? The current study addresses the problem of academic attrition from the perspective of students’ intentions. Specifically, we focus on the roles of academic self-efficacy and procrastination in exploring their relationships with attrition intentions. Based on existing research, we expected a negative relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Standard definitions of procrastination underscore the irrational nature of this habit, a critical criterion being that the procrastinating individual delays despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. However, an examination of more than 175 items in 18 procrastination scales reveals that they do not address such a forward-looking criterion....
Article
Full-text available
Inefficient study skills increase the probability that study work is perceived as difficult and aversive, with procrastination as a likely result. As a remedy, more effective study skills and habits may be encouraged. However, research indicates that good study skills and habits may not by themselves be sufficient to remedy problems, as this relati...
Article
Full-text available
Academic attrition is a worldwide problem representing a significant economic loss and a disadvantage for students in terms of health and career prospects. We focus on the roles of academic skills, academic self-efficacy, and students' integration in exploring their relation to attrition intentions. Based on existing research, we expected a negativ...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is common among students, with prevalence estimates double or even triple those of the working population. This inflated prevalence indicates that the academic environment may appear as "procrastination friendly" to students. In the present paper, we identify social, cultural, organizational, and contextual factors that may foster o...
Article
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Background: Using snus (Swedish moist snuff) is less harmful than smoking, but health warning labels (HWLs) on snus products do not reflect this relation. There are few studies on the effects of comparative risk information in snus warning labels. The purpose of this experiment is to examine whether risk perceptions differ after exposure to non-co...
Article
Full-text available
Scales measuring procrastination focus on different aspects of unnecessary and unwanted delay, delay in task implementation – an increased gap between intention and action – being a core characteristic. However, an inspection of existing procrastination scales reveals that the scales do not distinguish between two facets of implemental delay, onset...
Article
How has the concept of metacognition been used within basic and applied psychological research? We begin our answer by presenting a broad definition of metacognition, a historical overview of its development and its presence in research databases. To assess which function and facets are most frequently addressed within each of the sub-disciplines,...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: The study examines the roles of study skills and academic self-efficacy in irrational academic delay, academic procrastination. Background and aims: Transition from upper-secondary school to higher education requires adapting to relatively unguided and complex educational environment. Acquisition of at least basic study skills (e.g. note...
Poster
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The aim of this study was to create and validate a new self-efficacy measurement related to general oral health behaviour, and to explore the relationship between oral health self-efficacy and procrastination tendencies
Article
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The focus of this article is risky behavior in traffic. What do people learn from accidents and near-accidents? Experience with accidents may demand increased caution. However, near-accidents are inherently ambiguous: On the one hand, they signal that margins were good enough, inspiring increased risk-taking; on the other hand, they signal danger t...
Article
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Procrastination is related to unhealthy personal financial behaviors, such as postponing retirement savings, last minute shopping, and not paying bills on time. The present paper explores factors that could explain why procrastinators demonstrate more financial problems compared to non-procrastinators. Study 1 (N = 675) focused on planning, as both...
Article
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Bullying causes pain and harm to the victims and creates wounds that often remain even if the bullying stops. Additionally, the social dynamics of the classroom community, where most bullying takes place, may remain after the termination of the active bullying of a pupil. This combination of personal trauma and contextual conditions in the classroo...
Article
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This paper examines how procrastinators behave differently from non-procrastinators in implementing intended behavior. By focusing on time-related attributes of behavior, we demonstrate in five studies (aggregated N = 965) that onset delay seems to be a preferred option for procrastinators in common daily situations. Thus, when an action possibilit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To strengthen the risk message on snus warning labels, the European Union in 2016 removed "can" from the warning "This tobacco product (can) damages your health and is addictive." We tested how these and other textual warnings affect risk perception. Methods: Snus-using and non-using Norwegians aged 16-72 participated in two online s...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is among the most common of motivational failures, putting off despite expecting to be worse off. We examine this dynamic phenomenon in a detailed and realistic longitudinal design (Study 1) as well as in a large correlational data set (N = 7400; Study 2). The results are largely consistent with temporal motivation theory. People’s...
Article
Full-text available
Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample (N = 4,169) five different procrastination scales – Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS), Irrationa...
Article
Full-text available
Social Perception Training (SPT) is a program focused on changing the perceptual and cognitive processes involved in suboptimal social interactions. It is administered with whole class of pupils over ten weeks. No previous studies have evaluated its efficacy. The present study investigated the outcome benefit of the program in 18 primary and second...
Article
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Research on procrastination emphasizes trait explanations for unwanted delay, yet environmental factors are most probably significant contributors to the problem. In this paper, we review literature related to the influence of environmental factors on academic procrastination and investigate how such factors may be assessed in facilitating academic...
Article
Denne artikkelen tar for seg prokrastinering – uheldig utsettelse av planlagte oppgaver – og problemets relasjon til depresjon i studentpopulasjonen. Ikke all utsettelse er prokrastinering; ofte kan utsettelse være smart og fornuftig. Prokrastinering er «usmart» eller «irrasjonell» utsettelse, utsettelse som er til ulempe for personen, noe personen...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination is a common problem, but defining and measuring it has been subject to some debate. This paper summarizes results from students and employees (N = 2893) in Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Sweden using the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) (Steel, 2010), both assumed to measur...
Article
This paper reports preliminary results from a brief intervention designed to reduce academic procrastination. Students enrolled in an introductory psychology course received lectures and seminar sessions about procrastination and its causes and consequences. Students who were enrolled in an introductory psychology course received lectures and semin...
Article
Full-text available
Procrastination has been defined in different ways. Two instruments—the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)—focus on a core problem in procrastination—the irrational delay of intended behavio. The present paper examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translations of these scales. In five sam...
Article
Full-text available
The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian translation...
Article
Kontroversen mellom atferdsanalysen og kognitiv psykologi angår en rekke temaer. Denne artikkelen diskuterer ett av dem, nemlig betydningen av teori og hypotetiske konstrukter. Fire argumenter mot kognitiv psykologi diskuteres; spesiell vekt vies argumentet om at kognitiv psykologi studerer hypotetiske konstrukter mens atferdsanalysen ikke gjør det...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32), their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups. Chi...
Article
Procrastination – habitual delay of planned behavior – is a common problem, especially among students. This paper focuses on the negative consequences such delay has on wellbeing and health. Related to this question we examined how procrastination affects coping strategies under stress, and how students use delay to increase motivation. Students (n...
Article
Counterfactual thoughts are imagined alternatives to past events and outcomes. Such thoughts may address possible consequences and effects of a counterfactual turn of events, and also an affective evaluation of that simulated outcome. Previous research has shown that estimates of counterfactual consequences are exaggerated (Teigen, Kanten, & Terum,...
Article
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The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n ¼ 112) received an intervention intended to increase social...
Article
This paper discusses a report on the effect of ART in Swedish prisons (Danielsson, Fors, & Freij, 2011). The report compared two samples, one that received ART in the period 2003-2006, and another – the ”control group” – that was selected at a later time from the general Swedish prison population to match the ART sample. A closer examination of the...
Article
Svartdal, F. (2011). The reward value of near-miss situations. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology52, 209–217. What is a “positive” outcome? Clearly, obtaining something attractive is regarded as positive, but so is avoiding something negative. The present paper compared these two types of situations in scenario-type evaluations. Participants rated...
Article
Full-text available
The present report presents outcome results from a randomized controlled effect study on extended Aggression Replacement Training (ART). In a pre-post design, a 30-hour ART intervention was found to significantly reduce behavioral problems and increase social skills. The control group did not demonstrate comparable changes, but still indicated impr...
Chapter
The present report presents outcome results from a randomized controlled effect study on extended Aggression Replacement Training (ART). In a preÁpost design, a 30-hour ART intervention was found to significantly reduce behavioral problems and increase social skills. The control group did not demonstrate comparable changes, but still indicated impr...
Article
Humphreys (1939b) reported the PREE (partial reinforcement extinction effect) of a “verbal” classically conditioned response. His interpretation in terms of expectation corresponds well to the modern cognitive view of conditioning. To date, however, Humphreys (1939b) is the only study we are aware of that attempts to demonstrate the involvement of...
Article
When reinforcer rates are manipulated in within-subjects designs, persistence in subsequent extinction trials is sometimes greater to the response alternative associated with the higher reinforcer rate (“reversed” partial reinforcement extinction effect, RPREE). The RPREE is often held to be a contradiction to the conventional PREE. To explore the...
Article
Full-text available
Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational service...
Article
Full-text available
In 2002, Rogaland College—an educational institution for the training of social educators, nurses and occupational therapists in Norway—started a postgraduate training programme entitled “Training of Social Competence”. The main subject of the programme was Aggression Replacement Training (Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, Aggression Replacement Training:...
Article
P.M. is a synesthete who experiences colors when viewing alphanumeric symbols. Her search for a target differing from distractors by a synesthetic color feature takes the form of a pop-out search. Thus, it would seem that synesthesia can occur preattentively. However, discrepancies between the regression functions of response times observed in targ...
Article
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) (i.e., increased persistence following partial reward) is one of the most important generalizations from experimental studies of learning. Many theories of PREE assume that it involves cognitive and emotional mechanisms, but investigations of PREE have focused almost exclusively on behavioral measu...
Article
The role of verbalized rules in adaptation to learning contingencies is not well understood. Rules often facilitate behavioral contingency adaptation, but the opposite is also seen. The present research, using human student subjects, investigated the role of rules in behavioral adaptation to two alternating and independent contingencies, one instru...
Article
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE), defined as increased behavioral persistence following intermittent reward, is considered an important outcome of instrumental learning contingencies, both inside and outside the laboratory. Since adults have a rich experience with situations in which desired outcomes depend on instrumental respond...
Article
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) indicates that intermittent reinforcement during acquisition causes more persistent responding under subsequent extinction conditions compared to persistence following continuous reinforcement. This is the standard finding in between-groups comparisons. However, when reinforcer rates are manipulate...
Article
In two experiments with college students and office workers, we examined the effect of reward size and choice on subjective autonomy and interest in an initially uninteresting task. Participants promised a high reward demonstrated higher feeling of autonomy relative to those who received no, or only a low, reward - regardless of whether participant...
Article
The present experiment investigated effects of reinforcer value on sensitivity to operant force contingencies in humans. Subjects were exposed to non-salient, non-verbal operant contingencies with feedback stimuli of either low or high motivational value. Subjects who received feedback stimuli with back-up reinforcers of high motivational value dem...
Article
The present article reports evidence from human subjects that high payoff for instrumental performance may cause reduced vigour of response compared to the vigour observed for lower payoffs. Vigour of response, as measured by force of pressing (Experiment 1) and number of fortune wheel turns (Experiment 2), was inversely related to payoffs, with hi...
Article
Two experiments tested whether invoked strain of cognitive resources reduced or prevented sensitivity of human behavior to nonverbal operant contingencies. If processing of a nonverbal operant contingency requires use of a limited-capacity central-processing mechanism, sensitivity to that contingency should be negatively affected by limitation of p...
Article
A low-level and nonsalient attribute of behavior (i.e., speed of pressing) was subjected to differential nonverbal operant reinforcement when rules governed a high-level attribute of that behavior (i.e., counting by means of key presses). Unknown to the subjects, reinforcers depended on reduced (slow group) or increased (fast group) speed of pressi...
Article
Over an experimental session of 80 trials, subjects counted brief auditory stimuli (“clicks”) in stimulus presentation periods and indicated the number counted by pressing a key the corresponding number of times in subsequent response periods. “Correct” answers resulted in feedback. Unknown to the subjects, the feedback criterion was based on speed...
Article
The present study attempted to specify the actual degree of consistency in synesthetic experience in two synesthetes and three non-synesthetes. By comparing colour chip selections, and size and density ratings, to the same set of stimulus letters on separate occasions, it was found that the synesthetic subjects showed a high consistency in respondi...
Article
Svartdal, F. & Fossland, B. (1988). Synesthesia. A review and discussion. Nordisk Psykologi, 40, 48–63.Synesthesia is defined as an experience within one sense modality as a function of stimulation in another sense modality. In this paper, different kinds of synesthesia are reviewed, and selected problems in the field are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Article
The Skinnerian analysis ofsuperstitious behavior in terms of accidental or adventitious reinforcement (Skinner, 1948) is discussed in light of subsequent findings both within operant psychology and other areas of empirical psychology. First, a short review and criticism of the Skinnerian analysis of superstition is presented. Secondly, it is pointe...
Article
It is argued that even if an operant can be defined formally as the “interrelationships among SD, R, and Srein”, specific operants require delimitations of emitted behaviour and stimuli in terms of specific sets of contingencies of reinforcement. It is argued that the class membership of operant responses can be determined neither by reference to S...
Article
Det er veldokumentert at partiell eller intermitterende forsterkning (forsterkning en gang i blant) gir en mer motstandsdyktig respons sammenlignet med kontinuerlig forsterkning. Dette påvises klarest ved at uavhengige grupper av forsøksdeltakere først eksponeres for partiell vs. kontinuerlig forsterkning. I neste fase opphører så forsterkning (eks...
Article
The use of mobile text messaging - SMS - has grown quite enormously over a short period of time. This has happened in spite of the fact that mobile phones have a quite clumsy user interface and that the cost of sending a message is relatively high. Three types of explanations for the popularity of SMS are suggested and discussed here: ; The rationa...

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Projects (3)
Project
https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/6227/new-perspectives-on-procrastination
Project
http://journal.frontiersin.org/researchtopic/6227/new-perspectives-on-procrastination