Fritz Strack

Fritz Strack
University of Wuerzburg | JMU · Department of Psychology

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196
Publications
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Publications

Publications (196)
Article
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In many languages, masculine language forms are not only used to designate the male gender but also to operate in a generic fashion. This dual function has been found to lead to male biased representations when people encounter the generic masculine. In German, the now predominant substitute is the gender star form (e.g., Athlet*innen). In two expe...
Preprint
Full-text available
The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that an individual’s subjective experience of emotion is influenced by their facial expressions. Researchers, however, currently face conflicting narratives about whether this hypothesis is valid. A large replication effort consistently failed to replicate a seminal demonstration of the facial feedback hypoth...
Chapter
Vielleicht war ich einer der wenigen Albert-Schüler, die das Glück hatten, schon vor ihrer Studentenzeit mit seinen Arbeiten Bekanntschaft zu machen. Es war mein Griechisch-Lehrer, der versuchte, uns den „Traktat über kritische Vernunft“ als herausragende Schrift der modernen Aufklärung nahezubringen. Dies ist ihm in meinem Fall gelungen, denn von...
Article
We advocate that replications should be an integral part of the scientific discourse and provide insights about the conditions under which an effect occurs. By themselves, mere nonreplications are not informative about the “truth” of an effect. As a consequence, the mechanistic continuation of multilab replications should be replaced by diagnostic...
Article
The act of physically cleaning one’s hands may reduce the impact of past experiences, termed clean-slate effect. Cleaning was found to affect negative, neutral, and mildly positive states. We extend this influence to success, a self-serving state. We manipulated success vs. failure and measured changes in optimism (Experiment 1) or self-esteem (Exp...
Preprint
We advocate that replications should be an integral part of the scientific discourse and provide insights about the conditions under which an effect occurs. By themselves, mere nonreplica-tions are not informative about the “truth” of an effect. As a consequence, the mechanistic contin-uation of multi-lab replications should be replaced by diagnost...
Chapter
The human mind is not a fleshless computer. Rather, sensing and acting are integral parts of human cognition. In particular, the body influences abstract cognition, judgments, and action. How far the body’s influence goes, whether or not there are any amodal (i.e., non-embodied) cognitive processes, is a matter of debate. We adopt a dualistic view,...
Article
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During the past decades, economic theories of rational choice have been exposed to outcomes that were severe challenges to their claim of universal validity. For example, traditional theories cannot account for refusals to cooperate if cooperation would result in higher payoffs. A prominent illustration are responders’ rejections of positive but un...
Article
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Do people evaluate an open-minded midwife less positively than a caring midwife? Both open-minded and caring are generally seen as positive attributes. However, consistency varies—the attribute caring is consistent with the midwife stereotype while open-minded is not. In general, both stimulus valence and consistency can influence evaluations. Six...
Chapter
Full-text available
The authors posit the Reflective-Impulsive Model (RIM, Strack F, Deutsch, R Personal Soc Psychol Rev 8: 220–247, 2004) to explain the apparent duality of actions planned by reflective, deliberate thought and actions caused by spontaneous impulses. Building on existing theories of rational thought, impulse, impulse control, and implicit attitudes, t...
Article
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Anchoring denotes assimilation of judgment toward a previously considered value — an anchor. The selective accessibility model argues that anchoring is a result of selective accessibility of information compatible with an anchor. The present review shows the similarities between anchoring and knowledge accessibility effects. Both effects depend on...
Article
The accessibility of potentially relevant information is insufficient to predict its impact on judgment and behavior. Memory based judgments are consistent with the implications of what comes to mind when it does so easily, but not otherwise. The relative reliance on accessible content and subjective accessibility experiences varies with motivation...
Article
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According to the Selective Accessibility Model of anchoring, the comparison question in the standard anchoring paradigm activates information that is congruent with an anchor. As a consequence, this information will be more likely to become the basis for the absolute judgment which will therefore be assimilated toward the anchor. However, if the ac...
Article
Full-text available
Heuristics are strategies of simplifying judgments that allow individuals to make decisions under suboptimal circumstances. The research on heuristics had a profound and lasting impact on modern psychology, particularly on social psychology. Three classical examples are outlined in detail, the availability, the representativeness, and the anchoring...
Article
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Research on embodiment is rich in impressive demonstrations but somewhat poor in comprehensive explanations. Although some moderators and driving mechanisms have been identified, a comprehensive conceptual account of how bodily states or dynamics influence behavior is still missing. Here, we attempt to integrate current knowledge by describing thre...
Chapter
Duality models generally assume that human psychology is based on two separate systems of information processing. These systems have specific characteristics that differentiate them from one another. Such models are increasingly common in social psychology today. A selection of duality models is discussed and categorized according to three factors:...
Article
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The emotion of surprise entails a complex of immediate responses, such as cognitive interruption, attention allocation to, and more systematic processing of the surprising stimulus. All these processes serve the ultimate function to increase processing depth and thus cognitively master the surprising stimulus. The present account introduces phasic...
Article
While direct replications such as the “Many Labs” project are extremely valuable in testing the reliability of published findings across laboratories, they reflect the common reliance in psychology on single vignettes or stimuli, which limits the scope of the conclusions that can be reached. New experimental tools and statistical techniques make it...
Article
This article presents a short review of dual-process and dual-system theories from social and cognitive psychology and comments on their relevance for research on economic behavior. We view dual-process theories as a theoretical scaffolding which helps structure and interpret experimental results and can deliver important insights on human behavior...
Article
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There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a "replication crisis" in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more "exact" replications of published studies to assess the...
Article
Klein and colleagues (2014) conducted a "direct" replication of a study on the influence of frequency scales on behavioral reports. To do so, they administered a scale based on behavioral frequencies in a 1983 German sample to diverse samples whose (known) 2013 behavioral frequencies exceeded the historical values by a factor of two, resulting in a...
Article
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States that the invocation of conceptualizations of assimilation and contrast developed in other research paradigms might be fruitful in remedying the shortfall of information about the judgmental processes that underlie the effects of social comparisons. One paradigm in which the underlying processes of assimilation and contrast have been intensiv...
Article
It has been well documented that emotional stimuli modulate pain perception, but little is known about the reverse influence pain may have on emotion processing. According to the motivational priming theory, pain should facilitate the processing of unpleasant and hamper the processing of pleasant affective stimuli. To this end, we investigated the...
Article
Full-text available
Approach and avoidance are two basic motivational orientations. Their activation influences cognitive and perceptive processes: Previous work suggests that an approach orientation instigates a focus on larger units as compared to avoidance. Study 1 confirms this assumption using a paradigm that more directly taps a person's tendency to represent ob...
Chapter
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A central theme in current research on prejudice is the increasingly subtle nature of negative responses to members of stigmatized groups. For instance, with regard to racial prejudice in the United States, it has been argued that prejudice against African Americans has simply changed its face, instead of disappearing. This conclusion is based on f...
Chapter
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Leon Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance is arguably one of the most significant theories in the history of social psychology. The theory assumes that inconsistent cognitions produce an aversive feeling of dissonance, which motivates people to reduce the underlying inconsistency and to maintain a state of consonance. According to Fest...
Article
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Ancient philosophers already wondered why people sometimes act against their better judgment. That is, why do people yield to immediate short-term temptations even though they know that it will be detrimental to the pursuit of their long-term goals? Modern psychology has tackled the self-control problem from a variety of perspectives, such as cyber...
Article
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Recent findings suggest that the unconscious activation of the motivational orientations of approach and avoidance is accompanied by the adoption of a more global and a more local processing style, respectively. A global processing style, in turn, is assumed to instigate a focus on similarities whereas a local processing style is assumed to instiga...
Article
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Judgmental anchoring constitutes an ubiquitous and robust phenomenon. Nevertheless, its underlying mechanisms remain somewhat mysterious. We discuss four accounts that attempt to explain anchoring effects: insufficient adjustment, conversational inferences and numeric priming seem to be insufficient to understand the phenomenon. As an alternative,...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Trotz der grosen Popularitat der bildgebenden Verfahren in den Neurowissenschaften stellen sich einige kritische Fragen, welche die Logik und die Methodologie der Hirnforschung betreffen. Daruber hinaus gibt es Zweifel am Erkenntnisgewinn, den die Psychologie aus der lokationsorientierten Hirnforschung ziehen kann und es entsteht d...
Article
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Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such...
Article
The present work was to examine the influence of food deprivation on food choice. For this purpose hungry versus satiated subjects were presented with a series of choices between two snacks in a complete block design of pairwise comparisons. Snacks systematically varied with respect to subjects' idiosyncratic taste preferences (preferred versus un-...
Article
Full-text available
We suggest that while approaching a target, individuals are tuned to cues indicating closeness. Conversely, while avoiding a target, individuals are tuned to cues indicating distance. for social targets, this means that approach should be associated with similarities whereas avoidance should be associated with differences between the self and the t...
Article
The main aim of this study was to test whether automatic action-tendencies to approach alcohol can be modified, and whether this affects drinking behaviour. Forty-two hazardous drinkers were assigned randomly to a condition in which they were implicitly trained to avoid or to approach alcohol, using a training variety of the alcohol Approach Avoida...
Article
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In semantic coherence judgements individuals are able to intuitively discriminate whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or not (incoherent) without consciously retrieving the common associate. A processing-fluency account for these intuitions is proposed, which assumes that (a) coherent triads are processed more fluently tha...
Article
In intuitions concerning semantic coherence participants are able to discriminate above chance whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent triad) or not (incoherent triad). These intuitions are driven by increased fluency in processing coherent triads compared to incoherent triads, which in turn triggers a brief and short positive...
Article
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The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by bl...
Article
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Though human beings embody a unique ability for planned behavior, they also often act impulsively. This insight may be important for the study of self-control situations in which people are torn between their long-term goals to restrain behavior and their immediate impulses that promise hedonic fulfillment. In the present article, we outline a dual...
Article
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The main purpose of this study was to examine if disgust toward unpalatable foods would be reduced among food-deprived subjects and if this attenuation would occur automatically even under moderate levels of food deprivation. Subjects were either satiated or food deprived for 15 hours and electromyographic activity was recorded at the levator muscl...
Article
People can intuitively detect whether a word triad has a common remote associate (coherent) or does not have one (incoherent) before and independently of actually retrieving the common associate. The authors argue that semantic coherence increases the processing fluency for coherent triads and that this increased fluency triggers a brief and subtle...
Article
The present study investigated how aggressive reactions to frustration are influenced by attributional processes. In particular, we examined how the information that another person did not intend a frustration affects anger and aggression. Previous research was inconclusive if attribution to unintentionality decreases anger and aggressive impulses...
Article
This study shows that high conceptual fluency induced by hidden semantic coherence automatically triggers a specific pattern of facial expressions. In the present study, word triads that either had or had not a common remote associate were read by individuals while automatic facial responses were recorded. Although participants were ignorant about...
Article
Numerous studies suggest that processing verbal materials containing negations slows down cognition and makes it more error-prone. This suggests that processing negations affords relatively nonautomatic processes. The present research studied the role of two automaticity features (processing speed and resource dependency) for negation processing. I...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses cognitive dissonance theory by providing a conceptual reanalysis of inconsistency processes that aims at specifying different sources of cross-cultural differences in dissonance-related phenomena. The central claim of the reanalysis is that the general processes associated with cognitive inconsistency are universal, even thou...
Article
In this study, restrained and unrestrained eaters’ immediate evaluations of high calorie content and low calorie content were measured, both when being deprived of food and when satiated. As an indirect measure, the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) [De Houwer, J. (2003). The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task. Experimental Psychology, 50, 77–85.]...
Article
Full-text available
Although the role of trust in group processes has been well established, less is known about the role of trust in social network processes. Trust, conceptualized to have generalized and particularistic aspects, was measured by generalized trust (people can be trusted in general) and relationism (people can be trusted if one has relationships), and...
Article
Full-text available
Research on racial prejudice is currently characterized by the existence of diverse concepts (e.g., implicit prejudice, old-fashioned racism, modern racism, aversive racism) that are not well integrated from a general perspective. The present article proposes an integrative framework for these concepts employing a cognitive consistency perspective....
Article
Full-text available
Based on the conceptualization of approach as a decrease in distance and avoidance as an increase in distance, we predicted that stimuli with positive valence facilitate behavior for either approaching the stimulus (object as reference point) or for bringing the stimulus closer (self as reference point) and that stimuli with negative valence facili...
Article
It is broadly agreed that the processing of a word triad with a common remote associate (coherent triad) leads to its partial activation, which is the process underlying intuitive coherence judgments. The present studies demonstrate that this process not only is independent of the intention to find the common associate (CA), but rather may be impai...
Article
Previous research has shown that extended training in non-stereotypic responding (i.e., negating stereotypes and affirming counterstereotypes) can reduce automatic stereotype activation. In the present research, we claim that the effects of non-stereotypic association training on automatic stereotype activation are primarily driven by the affirmati...
Article
Full-text available
Although the role of trust in group processes has been well established, less is known about the role of trust in social network processes. Trust, conceptualized to have generalized and particularistic aspects, was measured by generalized trust (people can be trusted in general) and relationism (people can be trusted if one has relationships), and...
Article
An important goal for consumer psychology is to understand when and why consumer behavior is driven by impulses versus rational decisions. Models accounting for the different shades of consumer behavior should spell out how impulsive versus reflective precursors of action are instigated, how they transform into behavior, when they conflict with eac...
Chapter
A Classic Example of the Mind MovingThe Role of Accessibility: Some Initial ConsiderationsThe Classic Social Cognition View: Accessibility X ApplicabilityNon-motivational Qualifications of the Passive Accessibility X Fit ViewContent or Phenomenology?Motivated Limits on the Passive Priming X Fit ViewTheory Based CorrectionTarget Based CorrectionSumm...
Book
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******This 2007 listing pertains to a 1992 book for which the full text is already on ResearchGate under the same title****** This volume brings together several authors from different areas of psychology and the neighbouring social sciences. Each one contributes their own perspective on the growing interest topic of subjective well-being. The aim...
Book
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What determines the territories of psychology? How have the boundaries of psychological research and practice been developed in history, and how might or should they be changed nowadays? This volume presents new approaches to these questions, resulting from a three-year collaboration among internationally known psychologists, neuroscientists, socia...
Article
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This article describes a dual-system model of consumer behavior. This model is based on the assumption that all human behaviors are a joint function of reflective and impulsive mechanisms. Those mechanisms have different principles of operation but contribute to the act of buying. However, the relative contribution of impulsive and reflective proce...
Article
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The present research investigated whether automatic social-cognitive skills are based on the same representations and processes as their controlled counterparts. Using the cognitive task of negating valence, the authors demonstrate that enhanced practice in negating the valence of a stimulus can lead to changes in the underlying associative represe...
Article
An experiment was conducted in order to assess the impact of discredited testimony presented by a key witness in a court setting. One of two videotaped cases was presented to subjects who were asked to assume the role of jurors and to make judgments as to the defendant's liability on the basis of the evidence presented. The three possible effects o...
Article
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Dual-system models explain social cognition and behavior as a joint function of 2 interconnected mental faculties, each operating according to different principles. In this article, we use the Reflective-Impulsive Model as an example and first describe 3 major advantages of dual-system models, i.e., their integrative power, their foundation in well...