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Fredrik Christiansen

Fredrik Christiansen
Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies

PhD

About

86
Publications
33,105
Reads
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2,134
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2019 - present
Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
February 2015 - February 2019
Murdoch University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2013 - February 2015
Deakin University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
Studies of body condition are key to understanding the health, bioenergetics and ecological roles of marine mammals. Due to challenges in studying marine mammals at sea, body condition is often approximated using metrics representing the size of the dorsal surface visible from aerial imagery, but quantifying variability in body volume would enable...
Article
Full-text available
Bioenergetic approaches are increasingly used to understand how marine mammal populations could be affected by a changing and disturbed aquatic environment. There remain considerable gaps in our knowledge of marine mammal bioenergetics, which hinder the application of bioenergetic studies to inform policy decisions. We conducted a priority-setting...
Article
Full-text available
The study of biological form is a vital goal of evolutionary biology and functional morphology. We review an emerging set of methods that allow scientists to create and study accurate 3D models of living organisms and animate those models for biomechanical and fluid dynamic analyses. The methods for creating such models include 3D photogrammetry, l...
Article
Full-text available
Photo identification is an important tool in the conservation management of endangered species, and recent developments in artificial intelligence are revolutionizing existing workflows to identify individual animals. In 2015, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hosted a Kaggle data science competition to automate the identification...
Article
Food provisioning promotes close interaction with wildlife but can negatively impact the targeted species. Repeated behavioural disruptions have the potential to negatively impact vital rates and have population level consequences. In Bunbury, Western Australia, food-provisioned female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops aduncus, suffer reduced reproduct...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is a global phenomenon, yet impacts on resource availability to predators may be spatially and temporally diverse and asynchronous. As capital breeders, whales are dependent on dense, predictable prey resources during foraging seasons. An Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of Eastern North Pacific (ENP) gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus)...
Article
Full-text available
Key points: Baleen whales exhibit some of the fastest foetal growth rates in the animal kingdom. Despite this, the energetic cost of gestation is largely unknown, as well as the influence of maternal body size on foetal growth rates and calf birth sizes. We combined historical whaling records and drone photogrammetry data to determine foetal growt...
Article
Animal body size and growth patterns play important roles in shaping the life history of species. Baleen whales include the largest animals on the planet, with somatic growth costs expected to be substantial. We used unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry and long-term individual sighting histories from photo identification (1991−2019) to estimate...
Article
Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) sing in mating aggregations in the form of song displays, but much less is known about how both sexes use sound on their feeding grounds. Here, we test different hypotheses about the function of vocalizations in 14 foraging humpback whales tagged with sound and movement recording Dtags in Greenland. We...
Article
Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus (KG) feed on the skin and blubber of living southern right whales Eubalaena australis (SRWs) off Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. The whales respond strongly to KG micropredation by changing their immediate (acute) behavior during attacks and their overall (chronic) surfacing pattern and body posture to minimize gull e...
Article
Full-text available
Creating accurate 3D models of marine mammals is valuable for assessment of body condition, computational fluids dynamics models of locomotion, and for education. However, the methods for creating 3D models are not well-developed. We used photography and video to create 3D photogramme-try models of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). We accessed...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Ryan, C. (2020). Lipid content of whale blubber cannot be measured using biopsies. J. Exp. Biol. 223, jeb227710. doi:10.1242/jeb.227710
Article
Full-text available
• Spinner dolphins, Stenella longirostris , are the primary target for marine mammal tourism in Egypt. The present study investigated the short‐term effects of tourist presence on the behaviour of spinner dolphins at Sha'ab Samadai (Samadai Reef), in the southern Egyptian Red Sea. • The reef has a large central lagoon where a population of spinner...
Article
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used for wildlife research and monitoring, but little information exists on their potential effect on marine mammals. We assessed the effects of a UAV on the behavior of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in Australia. Focal follows of ten right whale mother‐calf pairs were conducted using a...
Article
Full-text available
The North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis (NARW), currently numbering <410 individuals, is on a trajectory to extinction. Although direct mortality from ship strikes and fishing gear entanglements remain the major threats to the population, reproductive failure, resulting from poor body condition and sublethal chronic entanglement stress,...
Article
Full-text available
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of the Bocas del Toro archipelago are targeted by the largest boat-based cetacean watching operation in Panama. Tourism is concentrated in Dolphin Bay, home to a population of resident dolphins. Previous studies have shown that tour boats elicit short-term changes in dolphin behavior and communication; howev...
Article
We investigated the short-term effects of non-targeted tourism on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off the coast of Montenegro, South Adriatic, by comparing dolphin group behaviour during impact (the presence of non-targeted tourism vessels) and control (absence of all marine vessels) scenarios. Tourism vessel and dolphin b...
Article
An animal's body condition provides valuable information for ecophysiological studies, and is an important measure of fitness in population monitoring and conservation. While both the external body shape of an animal, as well as its internal tissues (i.e. fat content) can be used as measures of body condition, the relationship between the two is no...
Article
Swim-with-whale tourism is a lucrative and rapidly growing industry worldwide. Whale-watching can cause negative effects on the behaviour of targeted animals. Although this is believed to be particularly true for close-up interactions, such as swim-with operations, few empirical studies have investigated this. In 2016, the Western Australian State...
Article
The eastern North Pacific gray whale Eschrichtius robustus experienced an unusual mortality event (UME) in 2019-2020, with 384 whales found dead along the Pacific coasts of Mexico, USA and Canada. A similar UME in 1999-2000 was speculated to have been caused by starvation, but body condition data were not available to test this hypothesis. Between...
Article
Most baleen whales migrate to low-latitude breeding grounds during winter to give birth and nurse their calves during the early stages of growth and development. While mothers invest a large amount of energy into the early development of their calves, the time allocated to important behaviours associated with maternal care (e.g. nursing) as well as...
Article
Body mass is a key life‐history trait in animals. Despite being the largest animals on the planet, no method currently exists to estimate body mass of free‐living whales. We combined aerial photographs and historical catch records to estimate the body mass of free‐living right whales (Eubalaena sp.). First, aerial photogrammetry from unmanned aeria...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining morphometric data on free-ranging marine megafauna is difficult, as traditional methods rely on post-mortem or live-capture techniques. We linked stereo-laser photogrammetry with long-term demographic data to compare length-at-age (LaA) growth curves of two well-studied populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in...
Article
Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) invest substantial amounts of energy in their calves, while facing the risk of having them predated upon by eavesdropping killer whales (Orcinus orca). We tested the hypothesis that southern right whale mother-calf pairs employ acoustic crypsis to reduce acoustic detectability by such predators. Specifica...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Food-provisioning of wildlife can facilitate reliable up-close encounters desirable by tourists and, consequently, tour operators. Food-provisioning can alter the natural behavior of an animal, encouraging adverse behavior (e.g. begging for food handouts), and affect the reproductive success and the viability of a population. Studies linki...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the factors that contribute to a population’s habitat use is important for conservation planners and managers to identify reasons behind a population’s distribution. Habitat use often differs between sexes, however few studies on sexually monomorphic species document this difference, resulting in misleading ecological interpretations...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat selection is strongly influenced by spatial variations in habitat quality and predation risk. Repeated exposure of wildlife to anthropogenic activities in important habitats may affect habitat selection, leading to negative biological consequences. We quantified the cumulative human exposure of a small, genetically isolated and behaviourall...
Article
Full-text available
• Whale watching can affect cetacean behaviour, and can in some cases lead to long‐term negative effects on survival and reproduction. • The waters of Juneau (Alaska) represent a summer feeding ground for the Central North Pacific stock of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781). The recent dramatic expansion of the local whale‐wat...
Article
The cost of reproduction is a key parameter determining a species' life history strategy. Despite exhibiting some of the fastest offspring growth rates among mammals, the cost of reproduction in baleen whales is largely unknown since standard field metabolic techniques cannot be applied. We quantified the cost of reproduction for southern right wha...
Article
Full-text available
Large-scale climate modes such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence population dynamics in many species, including marine top predators. However, few quantitative studies have investigated the influence of large-scale variability on resident marine top predator populations. We examined the effect of climate variability on the abundance...
Article
The following information is missing from the Funding section: This work has been partly funded by the EC FP7 PERSEUS Project (Grant. Agr. 287600) and by the Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University (Project number FOA-2016-20530). © 2017 Akkaya Bas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of th...
Article
Full-text available
Burrunan dolphins Tursiops australis are frequently targeted by tourism operations in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. This study aimed to provide first insights into whether swim-with-dolphin vessels in Port Phillip Bay affect the behaviour of Burrunan dolphins via the use of Markov chain models. The presence of swim-with-dolphin vessels affected dolp...
Article
Full-text available
The non-lethal impacts of marine vessels on cetaceans are now a globally recognised threat. This study is the first to investigate the effect of marine traffic on the behaviour of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Istanbul Strait, Turkey. Istanbul Strait is one of the busiest international waterways in the world and has been exposed t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
During the 2016 swim-with humpback whale trial in Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia, we assessed potential impacts on whales, risks to the safety of swimmers, and the efficacy of the Department of Parks and Wildlife trial swim-with-whale protocols. From an independent research vessel and on-board whale-watch vessels, trained observers collect...
Article
Full-text available
Marine traffic is threatening cetaceans on a local and global scale. The Istanbul Strait is one of the busiest waterways, with up to 2,500 vessels present daily. This is the first study to assess the magnitude of short- and long-term behavioural changes of the endangered Black Sea harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) in the presence of mar...
Data
Original data on the swimming directional changes of porpoises. (XLS)
Data
R codes for directional changes on porpoise swimming under the vessel speed, distance and density. (R)
Data
Original data used during Markov Chain analysis and model selections. (XLS)
Data
R codes for Markov Chain analysis. (R)
Article
Full-text available
As the world's human population increases along the coastal zone, with major alteration of coastal embayments, increased on-water activities and a plethora of other intrusions into the coastal zone, there is a simultaneous increase in pressures on marine mammals. Growing evidence indicates that many marine mammals are highly susceptible to declines...
Article
Full-text available
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of h...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the rapid increase in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in marine mammal research, knowledge of the effects of UAVs on study animals is very limited. We recorded the in-air and in-water noise from two commonly used multi-rotor UAVs, the SwellPro Splashdrone and the DJI Inspire 1 Pro, to assess the potential for negative noise effec...
Data
The electronic supplementary material (ESM_F_Christiansen) contains the following:Description of data sets and variables used in analyses Figure S1. Dolphin sightings per month and year Figure S2. Dolphin conditioning as a function of COA estimated over different time periods Figure S3. Temporal trends in boat intensity, COA, dolphin prey CPUE and...
Article
Full-text available
Food provisioning of wildlife is a major concern for management and conservation agencies worldwide because it encourages unnatural behaviours in wild animals and increases each individual's risk for injury and death. Here we investigate the contributing factors and potential fitness consequences of a recent increase in the frequency of human inter...
Article
Full-text available
An animal’s home range is driven by a range of factors including top-down (predation risk) and bottom-up (habitat quality) processes, which often vary in both space and time. We assessed the role of these processes in driving spatiotemporal patterns in the home range of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), an important marine megaherbivore. We satell...
Article
Full-text available
An animal's body condition will affect its survival and reproductive success, which influences population dynamics. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the body condition of large whales and its relationship to reproduction. We assessed the body condition of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) at a breeding/resting ground...
Article
Ocean currents play an important role in the movement and distribution of organisms and for small animals it is often assumed that their movements in the ocean are determined by passive drift. Here we challenge this assumption by conducting an experiment at the scale of an entire ocean basin to test whether small (~35 cm) juvenile loggerhead sea tu...
Article
Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
Animal behaviour can provide valuable information for wildlife management and conservation. Studying the detailed behaviour of marine mammals involves challenges not faced by most animal behaviour researchers due to the size, mobility and lack of continuous visibility of these animals. We describe several methods developed by marine mammal scientis...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Whale-watching activities can induce behavioral changes that may negatively affect cetacean populations. However, these changes may vary depending on species, populations and environmental features. It is important to determine inter-specific variation in cetacean responses to stressors in order to identify the best metrics for evaluation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The influence of large-scale environmental and oceanic patterns on small-scale cetacean distribution and abundance remains largely under studied. This study provides the first insights into sex-specific patterns in abundance and movements of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in relation to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Six yea...
Article
Infectious pathogens figure prominently among those factors threatening marine wildlife. Mass mortality events caused by pathogens can fundamentally alter the structure of wild fish stocks and depress recruitment rates and yield. In the most severe instances, this can precipitate stock collapses resulting in dramatic economic losses to once valuabl...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The pressures on coastal marine mammals are increasing as the world’s human population rises and with it the consequential expansion in world trade and port developments, and the continued movement of people to the coastal zone. Monitoring the effect of coastal development on marine mammals is challenging because: (1) the impacts of coastal develop...