Fredrick C Hagerman

Fredrick C Hagerman
Ohio University · Department of Biomedical Sciences

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85
Publications
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6,786
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Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Sprint training is associated with several beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle, including an enhancement of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release. Unfortunately, several patient populations (e.g., the elderly, those with cardiac dysfunction) that might derive great benefit from sprint exercise are unlikely to tolerate it. The purpose of...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus "normal" speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensio...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a six-week (16-17 training sessions) low velocity resistance training program (LV) on various performance measures as compared to a traditional strength (TS) and a traditional muscular endurance (TE) resistance training program. Thirty-four healthy adult females (21.1 +/- 2.7 y) were rando...
Article
Biopsies fro the vastus lateralis muscle of male weightlifters (WL; n=6; X +/- SE, age=27.0 +/- 2.1 years), and non-weight-trained men (CON; n=7; age=27.0 +/- 2.0 years) were compared for fiber types, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and titin content, and fiber type-specific capillary density. Differences (p<0.05) were observed for percent fiber types IIC...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-two untrained men [mean (SD) age 22.5 (5.8) years, height 178.3 (7.2) cm, body mass 77.8 (11.9) kg] participated in an 8-week progressive resistance-training program to investigate the "strength-endurance continuum". Subjects were divided into four groups: a low repetition group (Low Rep, n = 9) performing 3-5 repetitions maximum (RM) for fo...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of traditional resistance training equipment in the measurement of muscular power. This was accomplished by measuring the velocity of movement through a measured distance during maximal effort lifts using a Smith rack. The reliability of the method was established using 10 male volunteers who perfor...
Article
Creatine supplementation has been shown to enhance muscle strength and power after only 5-7 d in young adults. Creatine supplementation could therefore benefit older individuals because aging is associated with a decrease in muscle strength and explosive power. We examined the effects of 7 d of creatine supplementation in normally active older men...
Article
A traditional progressive resistance exercise program consists of increasing the number of repetitions at a constant load until exceeding an established repetition range. Subsequently, the load is increased by 1.1 kg (2.5 lb) or more, and the lifter works at the new load until again exceeding the repetition range. This investigation examines the us...
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Skeletal muscle adaptations (fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) content, and capillarity) were assessed in the vastus lateralis muscle of young men and women after 8weeks of training with the Sportcord, an elastic resistance device. Ten men [mean (SD) age 20 (1.1)years] and 13 women [20 (1.2)years] performed two...
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Most resistance training studies of older subjects have emphasized low-intensity, short-term training programs that have concentrated on strength measurements. The purpose of this study was, in addition to the determination of strength, to assess intramuscular and transport factors that may be associated with strength increments. Eighteen untrained...
Article
During growth and repair of skeletal muscle fibers, satellite cells become activated, undergo mitosis, and a daughter nucleus becomes incorporated into the muscle fiber to increase myonuclear numbers. An increase in myonuclei appears to be required for this postnatal growth. This study examined whether muscle fibers of elderly men can hypertrophy w...
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This study presents data collected over the past 10 years on the muscle fiber type composition of the vastus lateralis muscle of young men and women. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of 55 women (21.2+/-2.2 yr) and 95 men (21.5+/-2.4 yr) who had volunteered to participate in various research projects. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC...
Article
Although endurance training has been repeatedly shown to favorably alter lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, data on the effects of resistance training are equivocal. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of short-term, high-intensity resistance training on the lipid profile of young men and women. The resistance training pro...
Article
This investigation examined hormonal adaptations to acute resistance exercise and determined whether training adaptations are observed within an 8-week period in untrained men and women. The protocol consisted of a 1-week pre-conditioning orientation phase followed by 8 weeks of heavy resistance training. Three lower-limb exercises for the quadrice...
Article
To investigate the capacity to hypertrophy and the satellite cell populations to change with age, the nucleo-cytoplasmic relationships and satellite cells were compared in skeletal muscles of young and elderly men before and after strength training. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were taken before and after 8 (young) or 16 weeks (elderly men) of...
Article
Mammalian skeletal muscle expresses at least two isoforms of the cytoskeletal protein titin (connectin; MW approximately 3000 kDa). These isoforms are associated with different passive force curves, and thus may affect physical performance. To study the distribution of titin and its possible influence on performance in humans, muscle biopsies were...
Article
Nine 1972 silver-medalist oarsmen were studied before the Olympic Games and 10 and 20 yr later. Peak power, metabolic responses, and heart rate were recorded during rowing ergometry; blood lactate was measured following exercise. The skinfold equation yielded percent body fat. The average change (multiple analysis of variance) among measurements fr...
Article
This study examined the effects of hyperoxic training on specific cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses. A group of 19 male subjects trained for 5 weeks on a cycle ergometer at 70 percent of hyperoxic or normoxic maximal heart rate, the hyperoxic group (HG) breathing 70 percent O2, the normoxic group (NG) breathing 21 percent O2. The subjects w...
Article
Eleven men sprint trained two to three times per week for 6 wk to investigate possible exercise-induced slow-to-fast fiber type conversions. Six individuals served as controls. Both groups were tested at the beginning and end of the study to determine anaerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption. In addition, pre- and postbiopsies were extr...
Article
Eleven men sprint trained two to three times per week for 6 wk to investigate possible exercise-induced slow-to-fast fiber type conversions. Six individuals served as controls. Both groups were tested at the beginning and end of the study to determine anaerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption. In addition, pre- and postbiopsies were extr...
Article
Full-text available
An 8-wk progressive resistance training program for the lower extremity was performed twice a week to investigate the time course for skeletal muscle adaptations in men and women. Maximal dynamic strength was tested biweekly. Muscle biopsies were extracted at the beginning and every 2 wk of the study from resistance-trained and from nontrained (con...
Article
1) Total energy expenditure during marathon training and competition is among the highest reported for any endurance activity. 2) Although training intensity for the marathon may vary between 60-125% of maximal physical working capacity, elite runners must run consistently at about 80-90% of VO2max in order to achieve successful competitive perform...
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Full-text available
Six women who had participated in a previous 20-wk strength training study for the lower limb detrained for 30-32 wk and subsequently retrained for 6 wk. Seven untrained women also participated in the 6-wk "retraining" phase. In addition, four women from each group volunteered to continue training an additional 7 wk. The initial 20-wk training prog...
Article
The significance of the absolute elevations of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels after intense exercise and injuries was studied by measuring CK activities from seven healthy active males during a 2-week period, with a muscle biopsy taken between the first and second week. Most of the subjects (three lifters and two runners) carried on their normal...
Article
Twenty-four women completed a 20-week heavy-resistance weight training program for the lower extremity. Workouts were twice a week and consisted of warm-up exercises followed by three sets each of full squats, vertical leg presses, leg extensions, and leg curls. All exercises were performed to failure using 6-8 RM (repetition maximum). Weight train...
Article
Intramuscular lipid content was investigated in muscle biopsies from 10 well-trained endurance athletes before, immediately after, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after a marathon. Diets were controlled throughout the entire period of the study. Triglyceride content was ultrastructurally determined by the use of stereological methods. The volume percent li...
Article
Players on a major league baseball team underwent physical fitness testing over a seven-year period (1981 to 1987). The purpose was to evaluate fitness status and design individualized conditioning programs for both the off- and in-seasons based on the test results. Body composition, flexibility, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, and muscle streng...
Article
Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses of healthy adults were compared at similar incremental power outputs during a variable-resistance rowing exercise and a fixed-resistance cycle ergometer exercise. Repeated measurements of power (watts), VEBTPS, VO2STPD, and HR were obtained on 60 men and 47 women ranging in age from 20 to 74 yr. Average max...
Article
This study 1) quantitates the effect of a 42.2-km footrace (marathon) on leg extensor strength (maximal peak torque, MPT) and work capacity (WC, measured during a leg extensor fatigue test), and 2) describes the effect of either a rest or exercise regimen for 1 wk after the marathon on the recovery of MPT and WC. Ten trained male runners performed...
Article
In brief: Healthy people as well as highly trained athletes commonly experience delayed muscle soreness after severe exercise. Although many theories have been advanced, the pathophysiological basis for delayed muscle soreness is not known. The authors studied muscle biopsy samples from ten male runners immediately before and after a marathon and a...
Article
We describe the scientific basis for evaluating the biomechanics and associated physiological requirements of exercise performance in elite national rowers. Computer-assisted analysis of high-speed cinematography has demonstrated that efficiency in rowing is related to the relative proximity between peak force and the perpendicular position of the...
Article
Elite oarsmen and oarswomen possess large body dimensions and show outstadning aerobic and anaerobic qualities. Oarsmen have V̇O2max values of 6.1 ± 0.6 L/min and have incurred O2 debts of between 10 and 20 litres. The caloric expenditure of rowing estimated from the O2 cost of a 6-minute rowing ergometer exercise was calculated at 36 kcal/min, one...
Article
Full-text available
The proportion of creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) isoenzyme MB activity was increased in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from five long-distance runners, both 2 h before (mean 7.7%, SD 2.4%) and 30 min after (mean 7.2%, SD 1.2%) a marathon race, as compared with that in biopsies from five nonrunners (controls less than or equal to 1.0%). Further...
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Full-text available
Muscle biopsy specimens were removed from the vastus lateralis muscles of three groups of human subjects: controls, weight lifters, and distance runners. The runners proved to be a unique group with respect to the variables measured (low body weight and percentage body fat, and high VO2 max). Additionally, a histochemical analysis of the biopsy spe...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of running a marathon and subsequent rest or exercise during a 7-day recovery period on muscle glycogen, glycogen synthase, hexokinase, and the activity of hexose monophosphate pathway enzymes. Ten well-trained runners were randomly assigned to either a postmarathon rest or exercise group. The r...
Article
Nine members of the U.S. Men's Olympic Rowing Team were studied during the in-season (IS) and off-season (OS). Maximum power, VE, VO2, and heart rate were measured during a 6-min rowing ergometer exercise during IS and OS. Per cent body fat and isokinetic quadriceps strength were also determined. Biopsies were removed from the vastus lateralis and...
Article
This study describes the events occurring in exercise-induced muscular necrosis. Biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles of volunteer human marathon runners were extracted prior to and at intervals for 7 days following a marathon, and investigated ultrastructurally. Most of the preparations, including the pre-marathon samples, showed evidence of musc...
Article
The relationship between fiber type composition and the increase in blood ammonia was examined following a maximal O2 consumption (VO2max) test. Muscle biopsies were taken from the middle portion of the vastus lateralis for determination of fiber type percentages. Two subject groups were selected on the basis of a high (HST) or low (LST) percentage...
Article
Under local anesthesia, a muscle biopsy was removed from an individual with a high percentage of type II subtypes. The muscle sample was assayed for myofibrillar ATPase activity using various acid preincubation pH values. Subtle differences were found to exist in the acid-lability of ATPase activity among the type II fibers. These observations sugg...
Article
Muscle biopsies were removed from the vastus lateralis muscle of four healthy individuals with a unique fiber type distribution. Fibers were divided into slow-twitch (type I) and fast-twitch (types IIA, IIAB, and IIB) based upon the pH lability of myofibrillar ATPase. An unusually high percentage of types IIB and IIAB allowed a quantitative ultrast...
Article
Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of an elite power lifter during training and following a 7-month detraining period. The effects of detraining were investigated by combining ultrastructure, histochemistry, and pertinent metabolic data. Muscle fibers were classified ultrastructurally as fast-twitch and slow-twitch. Fast-tw...
Article
Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of 14 male subjects: 3 long distance runners, 2 world class power lifters and 9 active, although not highly trained, individuals used as controls. The fibers were investigated by electron microscopy and the mitochondrial volume percent, lipid volume percent and Z-line width were analyzed morph...
Article
Unlike distance runners, who set an aerobic pace, elite rowers quickly achieve extremely high energy expenditures, and therefore high lactate levels, which they must tolerate throughout the race. The original objective of the authors was to delineate physiological profiles for an international caliber oarsman and oarswoman to represent the US. In a...
Article
Metabolic function was measured by open-circuit spirometry for 310 competitive oarsmen during and following a 6-min maximal rowing ergometer exercise. Aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions to exercise were estimated by calculating exercise O2 cost and O2 debt.O2 debt was measured for 30 min of recovery using oxygen consumption (Vo2) during lig...
Article
Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of 5 female collegiate field hockey players and 5 untrained female students. The fibers were classified histochemically as fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), fast-twitch-glycolytic (FG) and slow-twitch-oxidative (SO). The fibers were found to be similar to those of males in distrib...
Article
Full-text available
Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of 12 males: 5 control subjects, 4 power lifters and 3 distance runners. Three fiber "types" were distinguished by comparing serial sections for alkaline myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activities: 1. high ATPase and low SDH; fast-twitch-glycolytic...
Article
Pulse rate and oxygen consumption were measured for 19 boys (agen 12-13) assigned to either Distance, Interval, or No-Training regimens, during a 5 min. run at 6 m.p.h., zero % grade on a motor driven treadmill prior to a 12 week conditioning period, following conditioning, and after four months of deconditioning. Oxygen consumption was assessed by...
Article
Oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured for five highly conditioned oarsmen and for four unconditioned oarsmen during maximal work on a rowing ergometer. The conditioned group was made up of members of the current U.S. National Team. The unconditioned subjects were former Olympic and international caliber oarsmen who had almost totally abst...

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