Frédérique Valentin

Frédérique Valentin
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · UMR 8068

PhD and HDR
DR (Director of Research)

About

213
Publications
91,034
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3,785
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2000 - present
Université Paris Nanterre
Position
  • CNRS Researcher
October 1991 - October 2000
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
Full-text available
Funerary treatments affect the course of decomposition of a corpse. Such treatments may involve inhumation or cremation, and sometimes segmentation of the cadaver or the skeleton. At the Lapita site at Teouma (Vanuatu, c. 3000 BP), where 68 funerary contexts have been found, intentional transformations of the deceased were performed at different ti...
Article
Full-text available
With a cultural and linguistic origin in Island Southeast Asia the Lapita expansion is thought to have led ultimately to the Polynesian settlement of the east Polynesian region after a time of mixing/integration in north Melanesia and a nearly 2,000-y pause in West Polynesia. One of the major achievements of recent Lapita research in Vanuatu has be...
Article
Full-text available
The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific around 3,000 years ago marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long-established Papuan people of the New Guinea region is unclear. Here we present genome-wide ancient DNA data from...
Article
Ancestral Polynesian Society has been argued to represent a formative stage in Polynesian ethnogenesis. Recently discovered human burials at the Talasiu midden site in Tonga, dating to c . 2650 cal BP, now provide the earliest known evidence for Ancestral Polynesian mortuary behaviour. This article presents and evaluates the burials, comparing arch...
Article
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The Vanuatu archipelago served as a gateway to Remote Oceania during one of the most extensive human migrations to uninhabited lands ∼3,000 years ago. Ancient DNA studies suggest an initial settlement by East Asian-related peoples that was quickly followed by the arrival of Papuan-related populations, leading to a major population turnover. Yet the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Vanuatu archipelago served as a gateway to Remote Oceania during one of the most extensive human migrations to uninhabited lands, ~3,000 years ago. Ancient DNA studies suggest an initial settlement by East Asian-related peoples that was quickly followed by the arrival of Papuan-related populations, leading to a major population turnover. Yet, t...
Article
Full-text available
The Pacific region is of major importance for addressing questions regarding human dispersals, interactions with archaic hominins and natural selection processes¹. However, the demographic and adaptive history of Oceanian populations remains largely uncharacterized. Here we report high-coverage genomes of 317 individuals from 20 populations from th...
Article
Full-text available
Dossier d’Archéologie Polynésienne vol.6, Bilan de la recherche archéologique en Polynésie française 2005 - 2015, pp.323-330. ISSN: 1961-8506 http://www.culture-patrimoine.pf/spip.php?article942
Article
The contribution of dairy products to modern human diets has a debated role in the expansion of Neolithic economies and the dynamics of demographic transitions. While current methods allow discussing dairy production and processing, no approach allows reconstructing quantitatively its effective consumption. Calcium isotopes (δ44/42Ca) potentially r...
Article
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Kingdom of Tonga in Polynesia is one of the most obese nations where metabolic conditions, sedentary lifestyles, and poor quality diet are widespread. These factors can lead to poor musculoskeletal health. However, whether metabolic abnormalities such as osteoporosis occurred in archaeological populations of Tonga is unknown. We employed a microsco...
Article
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en Typological and geochemical analyses of stone adzes and other stone tools have played a significant role in identifying directionality of colonisation movements in early migratory events in the Western Pacific. In later phases of Polynesian prehistory, stone adzes are important status goods which show substantial spatial and temporal variation....
Article
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Tonga is a Polynesian island chain that was initially colonized by the Lapita culture about 2700 years ago. Its inhabitants went on to found the Tongan State about 700 years ago. Our project uses carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses to investigate and compare the diets of Lapita and Tongan State individuals. Sampled burial locations include...
Book
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Extract - Introduction to the book (english volume In Press) S’inscrivant au sein du nouveau mouvement historiographique sur l’archéologie du Pacifique, cet ouvrage propose une réflexion particulière sur l’histoire de l’archéologie océanienne francophone, qu’elle soit française, belge ou relative aux archipels francophones du Pacifique. 13 contribu...
Book
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The tremendous progress made in Pacific island archaeology in the last 60 years has considerably advanced our knowledge of early Pacific island societies, the rise of traditional cultural systems, and their later historical developments from European contact onwards. Interdisciplinarity is particularly stimulating in the Pacific region, where the...
Article
The archipelago of Vanuatu has been at the crossroads of human population movements in the Pacific for the past three millennia. To help address several open questions regarding the history of these movements, we generated genome-wide data for 11 ancient individuals from the island of Efate dating from its earliest settlement to the recent past, in...
Article
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The Late Glacial and early Holocene (ca. 15,000–6,000 cal BP) witnessed major changes in the environmental conditions which led to the establishment of temperate vegetation and animal species, thereby offering new subsistence opportunities to the population of hunter-gatherers. Measurements of the relative abundances in 13C and 15N were applied to...
Article
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The paper is an introduction to the study of European migration into Asia-Pacific through the case study of northern Taiwan. Here, several Spanish and Dutch colonial outposts were founded during the first part of the seventeenth century. Since 2011 and up to 2016 we have uncovered six burials of the cemetery of the Spanish colony of San Salvador de...
Article
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In Southeast Asia, the late prehistoric period, from the appearance of farming to the rise of proto-states, lasts only 1500-2000 years, and is thus extremely brief in comparison to Europe. Cemeteries represent critical sites in the chronological and cultural understanding of these changes, stimulated by influences from both China and India. Myanmar...
Article
Archaeological constructions of past identities often rely more or less explicitly on contemporary notions of culture and community in ways that can sometimes oversimplify the past and present. The archaeology of European colonialism has shown the proliferation of ‘hybrid’ identities that emerged from relatively recent cross-cultural encounters (th...
Article
We respond to issues raised in the recent Forum on “Ancient DNA and its contribution to understanding the human history of the Pacific Islands” in Archaeology in Oceania by Bedford et al. We first present an emerging model for the early peopling of Vanuatu combining the genetic and archaeological evidence. Second, we respond specifically to the cri...
Article
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We present the results of six years of archaeological work carried out in Heping Dao, Keelung, northern Taiwan. The site has revealed a rich archaeological record spanning a sequence that comprehends most of the history of Taiwan, including the most salient historical landmarks in it. The study of this long-term sequence of habitation in Heping Dao...
Article
Late prehistoric archaeological research in Myanmar is in a phase of rapid expansion. Recent work by the Mission Archéologique Française au Myanmar aims to establish a reliable Neolithic to Iron Age culture-historical sequence, which can then be compared to surrounding regions of Southeast Asia. Excavations at Nyaung’gan and Oakaie in central Myanm...
Article
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Recent genomic analyses show that the earliest peoples reaching Remote Oceania-associated with Austronesian-speaking Lapita culture-were almost completely East Asian, without detectable Papuan ancestry. However, Papuan-related genetic ancestry is found across present-day Pacific populations, indicating that peoples from Near Oceania have played a s...
Article
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L'homme fossile d'Asselar, découvert en 1927 dans l'actuel Mali, n'a été que peu exploité depuis l'étude de Boule et Vallois (1932). Daté de l'Holocène ancien, il est, avec la série d'Hassi-el-Abiod, un témoin des populations vivant dans un Sahara alors « vert », bien différent de celui que nous connaissons aujourd'hui. L'hypothèse d'un dépôt funér...
Article
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The fossilized human skeleton of Asselar was discovered in 1927 in present-day Mali. This specimen has been very little studied since it was first described by Boule and Vallois (1932). Dated to the early Holocene, it provides, together with the Hassi-el-Abiod series, evidence of the human groups who lived in then the fertile Sahara, which was very...
Article
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We investigated the contribution of freshwater resources to the diet of seven Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers (ca. 5300–7000 BC) from Northern France and Luxembourg using stable isotope ratios. In addition to the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N), we explored the potential of the sulphur isotopic ratios (δ34S) to detect and qu...
Article
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European farmers' first strides from the south The early spread of farmers across Europe has previously been thought to be part of a single migration event. David Reich and colleagues analyse genome-wide data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and the surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 BC. They analyse this in combination...
Article
Both archaeological and isotopic data document dietary changes over the first five centuries of Western Pacific island settlement, a time period beginning with the Lapita expansion about 3000 years ago. This change is marked by a decrease in marine food intake and an increase in vegetal food intake occurring in the Late Lapita/immediately post-Lapi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ancient DNA analysis of three individuals dated to ~3000 years before present (BP) from Vanuatu and one ~2600 BP individual from Tonga has revealed that the first inhabitants of Remote Oceania (“First Remote Oceanians”) were almost entirely of East Asian ancestry, and thus their ancestors passed New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Solomon...
Article
Ancient DNA from Vanuatu and Tonga dating to about 2,900-2,600 years ago (before present, BP) has revealed that the "First Remote Oceanians" associated with the Lapita archaeological culture were directly descended from the population that, beginning around 5000 BP, spread Austronesian languages from Taiwan to the Philippines, western Melanesia, an...
Article
The Arapus-Mangaasi site, located on the northwest coast of the island of Efate, Vanuatu, and first settled around 2800 BP, was excavated between 1999 and 2003 within the framework of a joint Australian National University-Vanuatu National Museum research and training program. The site yielded not only a range of cultural material that allowed the...
Article
South Vanuatu was an important hub of settlement and interaction in the tropical southwestern Pacific. A recent field project, the South Vanuatu Archaeological Survey, has begun carrying out field research, focusing initially on the islands of Futuna, Aniwa, and Tanna. This work builds upon pioneering research carried out in the 1960s, which in the...
Chapter
This chapter outlines an ongoing research program which investigates the evolving engagements between ni-Vanuatu and Europeans in the Port Sandwich region (in southern Malakula, Vanuatu) during the period from 1774 to 1915. The research has drawn on a multiplicity of sources—including oral traditions, historic documents, and archaeological surveys...
Article
The 2014-2016 seasons of the Mission Archéologique au Myanmar were focused on the “Nyaung’gan Bronze Age Culture Area”, which was the first late prehistoric site complex ever excavated, but never dated, by Myanmar archaeologists. The excavation of cemetery (Nyaung’gan & Oakaie 1) and settlement/industrial (Oakaie 2-4) loci, has now enabled a sequen...
Article
Full-text available
Farming was first introduced to southeastern Europe in the mid-7th millennium BCE - brought by migrants from Anatolia who settled in the region before spreading throughout Europe. However, the dynamics of the interaction between the first farmers and the indigenous hunter-gatherers remain poorly understood because of the near absence of ancient DNA...
Article
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Megalithic or earth-cut chambered tombs containing large numbers of buried individuals are a key feature of the Late Neolithic of northern France. The discovery and analysis of one such tomb at Bury offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate changing burial practices during the fourth and third millennia BC. This was not a static monument: fu...
Book
Full-text available
Dotées d’une double identité, maritime et terrestre, les îles du Pacifique, des Bismarck à l’île de Pâques, constituent des espaces physiques, sociaux et cognitifs aux caractéristiques variées et apparemment contraignantes. Or, des sociétés parvinrent à s’y adapter et à y maintenir des populations nombreuses que découvrirent les voyageurs occidenta...