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Introduction

Frederick David Tombe is a physics and applied mathematics graduate who attended Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, from 1978 to 1982. His research interests are in Electromagnetism and Mathematical Physics.
https://wiki.naturalphilosophy.org/index.php?title=David_Tombe

## Publications

Publications (100)

Serbian American electrical engineer Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), wrote,
“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Ākāśa or luminiferous ether, which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never endi...

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Hermann Arndt Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar and they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio, which became known as Weber's constant, was measured numerically to be c√2, where c was very...

While it is generally accepted that electric current involves the motion of electric charge through conducting channels, there is observable evidence in the field of pulse transmission, that electric current exhibits wave-like behaviour, and that two electric pulses can pass right through each other in opposite directions along the same wire. An at...

The Dirac Sea was proposed by P.A.M. Dirac in the year 1930 to explain the negative solutions to the Dirac Equation of 1928. A few years later, in 1934, Dirac invoked the Dirac Sea idea to explain the phenomena of electron-positron pair production and annihilation, that had been discovered by Carl Anderson in 1932. The suggestion was, that througho...

Electric energy that is generated at a power station flows in one direction only, away from the station and to the consumer, yet, at both the generator end and at the consumer end, the electric current itself alternates to-and-fro. How can this be possible? We will now take a closer look at the transient state that arises in an electric circuit dur...

The rattleback (Celtic stone) is the most mysterious phenomenon in classical mechanics. It freely undergoes a complete reversal of its angular momentum without the involvement of any apparent external torque. This mystery will now be investigated at the molecular level.

University physics courses teach that centrifugal force doesn't exist, while university applied maths courses teach that centrifugal force is merely a fictitious force that arises when making observations from a rotating frame of reference. Meanwhile, Sir Isaac Newton claimed that a centrifugal force is the equal and opposite reaction to a centripe...

The purpose here is to investigate why under certain conditions, cathode rays, being a stream of particles, can be diffracted in a crystal as if they were X-rays, hence apparently exhibiting wave behaviour.

The Planck-Einstein relation, E = hf, relates the energy of discrete pulses of black body radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays to their wave frequency. This relationship appears to contradict the wave theory of light. An investigation will now take place regarding whether the Planck-Einstein relation, and Planck’s constant itself, lie in the domain of...

Displacement current was originally conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in 1861 in connection with linear polarization in a dielectric solid which he believed to pervade all of space. Modern textbooks however adopt a different approach. The official teaching today is that displacement current is a consequence of extending the original solenoidal Ampèr...

Centrifugal force is an inertial effect which is induced by motion through the Minkowski 4D space-time continuum. While it can act in opposition to gravity, there is evidence from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, that gravity, if strong enough, can affect the physical structure of the 4D space-time continuum in such a way as to destroy the...

When a theory of electromagnetism promotes the idea that the medium for the propagation of light waves is an elastic solid comprised of electric particles, the question is always going to be asked as to why this medium would not generate friction in the planetary orbits, such as would cause the planets to spiral into the Sun. It would be impossible...

Centrifugal force is a well-known concept. It is the familiar outward acting force that is induced in rotating systems. It has many practical applications in engineering, and its mathematical formula plays a crucial role in planetary orbital analysis.
It is important therefore to investigate why the physics establishment shies away from embracing t...

Wireless radiation emitted from an antenna is generated on the same principle as that of a magnetic field. One might therefore imagine that the power source should encounter a reactive impedance. The standard belief, however, is that radiation resistance is not in fact reactive, but rather that it is a resistive impedance. This matter will be inves...

Since Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell wrote his Treatise in 1873, it has generally been believed that wireless electromagnetic radiation consists of sinusoidally oscillating electric and magnetic fields, perpendicular to each other and mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The reasons as to why Maxwell concluded these mutua...

Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (...

The Lorentz transformations are best known for the relativistic Lorentz factor, γ = 1/√(1 – v^2/c^2), which appears in the equations of special relativity. It is also known that the Lorentz transformations can be used to derive the Biot-Savart law in the form B = μεv×E, and also the magnetic force in the form E = v×B.
What is not so well-known, ho...

The Poynting vector, S = E×H, represents the rate of flow of electromagnetic energy per unit area per unit time. It appears in Poynting’s theorem because of the involvement of Ampère’s circuital law and Faraday’s law of time-varying electromagnetic induction. It will now be investigated as to whether or not the Poynting vector has any significance...

The purpose is to show that the equation E = mc^2 was already implicit in Maxwell's 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force" and that it doesn't mean that mass is equivalent to energy, but rather it relates to the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles which pervades all of space.

Displacement current is central to starlight in outer space, yet its theoretical justification in textbooks is confined to the restricted context of the space between the plates of a terrestrial electric capacitor. This article will examine how James Clerk Maxwell originally introduced the concept back in the nineteenth century. The modern textbook...

It is generally accepted that the tidal force is due to an inverse cube law force field. However, it is wrongly believed that this inverse cube law force field is the product of differential gravity. The lunar and solar orbits are nearly circular, and as such, gravity cannot be a factor in the tides, because it will have been nullified by orbital c...

Ampère’s Circuital Law is the most controversial of Maxwell’s equations due to its association with displacement current. The controversy centres around the fact that Maxwell’s entire physical basis for introducing the concept of displacement current in the first place, was the existence of a dense sea of molecular vortices pervading all of space....

Ampère’s Circuital Law is the most controversial of Maxwell’s equations due to its association with displacement current. The controversy centres around the fact that Maxwell’s entire physical basis for introducing the concept of displacement current in the first place, was the existence of a dense sea of molecular vortices pervading all of space....

Electromagnetic radiation in deep space, such as starlight, constitutes a propagated disturbance in the prevailing background magnetic field. EM waves can therefore either be directed along the magnetic lines of force, or perpendicular to them, or at any angle in between. With reference to the double helix theory of the magnetic field [1], the comm...

This article is withdrawn as of 25th September 2022. The reason for the withdrawal is that a transmission line pulse travels at a speed in the order of the speed of light, and as such, any associated electrostatic field will have converted into a magnetic field for the reasons explained in red before the abstract.

It will be shown how the magnetic vector potential, A, is a momentum which is central to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, and how the convective electromagnetic force E = v×B is the factor which enables the total time derivative to be used in Faraday's law.

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed a landmark experiment of profound significance. By discharging a Leyden jar (a capacitor), they linked the speed of light to the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge.
This experiment was electromagnetism’s Rosetta Stone because the re...

In Part III of his 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force", James Clerk Maxwell introduces the concept of displacement current in connection with the elasticity of the medium for the propagation of light. During the course of Part III, the luminiferous medium changes from an anisotropic sea of molecular vortices into an isotropic dielectric solid....

The centrifugal force and the Coriolis force will be described. There is a controversy over whether these forces are real or fictitious. This controversy will be examined in conjunction with its significance to electromagnetism.

Franz Maria Ulrich Theodor Hoch Aepinus, (1724-1802), suggested that the attractive forces between two uncharged bodies might be very slightly greater than the repulsive forces, and that this difference might be the cause of gravitation.

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is very close to the speed of...

The magnetic field is solenoidal, yet the Biot-Savart Law which is the textbook equation for the magnetic field, indicates the existence of a singularity owing to the fact that it involves an inverse square law in distance. This dilemma is solved within the context that an individual magnetic line of force constitutes a double helix of sinks and so...

A summary of how Maxwell used the experimental result of the 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch experiment in order to establish that light is a transverse wave in the same elastic solid that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. 1856 was the first historical connection between the speed of light and electromagnetism.

The straight line inertial path will be examined from the perspective that it is caused by pressure equilibrium in a sea of tiny aethereal whirlpools that are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate. This is opposite to the traditional perspective whereby centrifugal force is considered to be a consequence of the...

When analyzing pendulum motion, textbooks avoid invoking centrifugal force. All upward acting forces are accounted for by the tension in the rod. This tension must however be greater in magnitude than gravity in order for a net upward force to be possible. The role of centrifugal force in both the simple pendulum and the conical pendulum will there...

It will be argued that if Pythagoras’s Theorem can hold outside of three dimensions, then the only possibility might be in the special case of seven dimensions, but that even this would be highly doubtful.

The radial lines of force that are associated with both electrostatic and gravitational fields indicate the presence of fluid-like sinks and sources in matter, whether or not we know where these lead to. This article will examine how two sinks can be either mutually attractive or mutually repulsive depending on the rate of flow.

The radial lines of force that are associated with both electrostatic and gravitational fields indicate the presence of fluid-like sinks and sources in matter, whether or not we know where these lead to. This article will examine how two sinks can be either mutually attractive or mutually repulsive depending on the rate of flow.

This article follows on from the double helix theory of the magnetic field. A closer look will be taken at the relationship between electromagnetic radiation on the one hand and a magnetic field on the other.

This article takes a closer look at the bonding and stability mechanisms within the electron-positron dipole sea and how these result in the double helix theory of the magnetic field. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be further investigated.

A sea level object that is moving horizontally at a speed greater than 8km/sec is already in orbit and it will rise upwards due to centrifugal force. Two such objects tethered together while moving in opposite directions should therefore spiral upwards like a helicopter. It will be proposed that the atom is a dipole, and that it is the fundamental...

The purpose of presenting this standard derivation, largely copied from applied maths notes taken at Queen's University, Belfast, in 1979, is to show that centrifugal force is as real as gravity, and that no rotating frame of reference is necessary in order to observe it.

Owing to the fact that gravitational field strength has the same physical effect on the internal mechanism of an atomic clock as kinetic energy does, a redefinition of potential energy will be made which better emphasizes this reality. The existing definition of potential energy with its negative sign masks the cyclical oscillation of the internal...

On the astronomical scale, the potential energy in a closed orbit is due to the gravitational force of attraction. These are uncompressed orbits. The gravitational force is opposed by a centrifugal force acting internally from within the system. This article will now consider the nature of the potential energy in a system of multiple orbits that ar...

The situation where two orbits sit side by side occurs inside atomic and molecular matter, but is never observed on the astronomical scale. It will now be investigated whether or not two orbits in the same plane could repel each other with centrifugal force.

The purpose of presenting this standard derivation, largely copied from applied maths notes taken at Queen’s University, Belfast, in 1979, is to show that centrifugal force is as real as gravity, and that no rotating frame of reference is necessary in order to observe it.

The purpose of presenting this standard derivation, largely copied from applied maths notes taken at Queen's University, Belfast, in 1979, is to show that centrifugal force is as real as gravity, and that no rotating frame of reference is necessary in order to observe it.

The AC transformer is a transducer which converts between potential energy and kinetic energy. A step-up transformer increases the voltage and decreases the current while a step-down transformer does the opposite. Despite the low current, streaks of lightning arc out from high voltage cross country power cables when earthed objects get too close. T...

When the electromagnetic wave equation is derived in modern textbooks, Maxwell’s displacement current is used. While investigating the physical meaning of displacement current, this article will take a closer look at the magnetic vector potential A, which Maxwell considered to be a momentum lurking in behind the magnetic field.

The counterintuitive gravity defying behaviour that is exhibited by a pivoted gyroscope suggests the involvement of an active spin-induced force, similar in nature to the magnetic force, F = qv×B. The phenomenon of gyroscopic stability exhibits a strong spin-induced reactance which cannot be accounted for by the moment of inertia alone. The physica...

In the year 1855, German physicists Wilhelm Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment involving the discharge of a Leyden jar, from which they established the ratio between electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge. This ratio became known as Weber’s constant and it is numerically equal to c√2, where c is very close to the speed of...

Wikipedia is the on-line encyclopaedia that anybody can edit. The content changes on a daily basis. One of the rules for editing is that editors must not insert original research. The contents must reflect exactly what is stated in reliable sources.
Reliable sources present Coriolis force as an artefact of making observations from a rotating frame...

Wikipedia is the on-line encyclopaedia that anybody can edit. The content changes on a continual basis. One of the rules is that editors must not insert original research. The contents must reflect what is stated in reliable sources.
In the case of the centrifugal force article however, reliable sources don’t always agree, and over the years, the...

We often hear it said that centrifugal force is not a real force and that it is only the effects of inertia resulting from a body undergoing its uniform straight line path, as per Newton’s first law of motion. These effects of inertia however are very real and this suggests that the inertial path itself must have an underlying physical cause. This...

The counter intuitive behaviour of the Newton’s Cradle is not, as is generally believed, adequately explained in the literature. In particular, two important issues are overlooked. One of these is that the elasticity of the balls arises due to the fact that the balls are made of hard material that doesn’t easily deform during the collisions, when i...

It is proposed that all space is permeated with a dense electrically neutral sea of electrons and positrons which serves as the medium for the propagation of light. The challenge remains to devise a stable bonding mechanism within this luminiferous medium that conforms with Maxwell's equations by providing the necessary solidity and the physical me...

Galileo’s “Principle of Relativity” omits any consideration of an absolute frame of reference with respect to which motion is measured. Kinetic energy would appear to be a relative quantity whose magnitude depends on the chosen frame of reference, or in the case of its centrifugal force derivative, depends on which polar origin is chosen. The magni...

The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all matter and space, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and posi-trons are paired...

The modern teaching is that centrifugal force only exists as a fictitious force in a rotating frame of reference, and that the only force acting in an inertial frame of reference when a body undergoes circular motion is an inward acting centripetal force. On the contrary however, it is here proposed that a rotating frame of reference, rather than c...

James Clerk Maxwell is credited with having brought electricity, magnetism, and optical phenomena, together into one unified theory. The details of what exactly he did were however seriously distorted in twentieth century physics textbooks. Maxwell is most famous in connection with a set of equations which bear his name, but these equations have be...

Two electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the same wire in a transmission line appear to pass right through each other. We therefore require a theory of electric current that can account for this, while at the same time maintaining consistency with Ampère's circuital law.

Poynting's theorem applies to wireless telegraphy as well as to electric circuits and cable telegraphy. We will therefore seek to establish the commonality between these three phenomena.

Although Maxwell’s most important equations had already appeared throughout his seminal paper entitled “On Physical Lines of Force” [1], which was written in 1861, it was not until 1864 that Maxwell created a distinct listing of eight equations in his follow up paper known as “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” [2]. This was in a sect...

The rattleback (Celtic stone) is the most mysterious phenomenon in classical mechanics. It freely undergoes a complete reversal of its angular momentum without the involvement of any apparent external torque. This mystery will now be investigated.

The Coriolis force is a consequence of Newton's first law of motion and it can be observed in a radial force field as a transverse deflection of the radial component of the motion by an amount required to conserve angular momentum. It is a physical reality most commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting th...

A rolling wheel is driven forwards by virtue of the linear momentum in the upper half of the wheel. A closer examination of the forces involved will reveal the hand of the centrifugal force. The analysis also provides a visual aid to understanding the basic principles behind Ampère's Circuital Law and time-varying electromagnetic induction.

Wireless EM radiation relates to magnetization while the waves that travel alongside the conducting wires in transmission lines relate to linear polarization. This article will examine how these two phenomena may or may not be treated using the same basic electromagnetic wave equations.

Displacement current is the term in Maxwell's modified version of Ampère's Circuital Law that enables the electromagnetic wave equation to be derived. It was originally conceived by Maxwell in connection with displacement of the electric particles in his sea of molecular vortices. It was conceived to exist in deepest space and not necessarily to be...

If we consider space to be dynamical, aether hydrodynamics yields four fundamental forces. These four forces are divided into two groups of two. We have the rotational (or tangential) forces, and we have the irrotational (or radial) forces.
Bernoulli, Maxwell and Tesla all believed that space/aether is rendered into tiny whirlpools. As such we need...

During a collision, momentum is always conserved. The large scale kinetic energy on the other hand, may or may not be conserved. When kinetic energy on the large scale is conserved during a collision, we say that the situation is matched. It will be concluded that a matched collision involves only a large scale pulse of aether with a prodigious spe...

The Faraday Paradox and the Newton’s rotating bucket experiment each concern situations involving relative motion where symmetry might be expected but isn’t observed. In the case of the Faraday paradox, a rotating magnet, when rotating about its magnetic axis, will induce no EMF on a stationary charged particle, where on the other hand, the recipro...

Gravity and electricity are both manifestations of aether flow. They differ only in the respect that gravity is a rarefied flow that gives rise to a tension/pull force, whereas electricity is a pressurized flow. A thunder cloud collects and stores aether from the gravitational inflow and releases it again under pressure in the form of electricity....

Electric current is not primarily a flow of charged particles. It is the flow of a fundamental fluid corresponding to the velocity field of the electric field and it can carry charged particles along with it. A dielectricmedium impedes electric currentdue to thefact thattheconstituent dipoles become linearly polarizedand induce a back EMF. A capaci...

An abominable by-product of the modern relativity era is the widely circulated notion that a magnetic field is the relativistic component of the electric field. This idea arises out of applying the Lorentz transformation to Heaviside's versions of Maxwell's equations. The result yields both the Biot-Savart law and the Lorentz force along with the r...

The aether alone cannot explain electromagnetism. In order to explain electromagnetism, we need to have a sea of tiny aether vortices, and in order to have a sea of tiny aether vortices, we need to have sources and sinks in the aether. These sources and sinks are what we call electric particles, and it is a dense ‘Electric Sea’ of positive (source)...

It is widely believed that electricity and magnetism were united by James Clerk Maxwell in the nineteenth century. In his 1865 paper ‘A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field’, Maxwell substituted the quantity ‘Displacement Current’ into Ampère’s circuital law and he obtained the electromagnetic wave equation. Displacement current is general...

The rotating electron-positron dipole is the primary physical unit of electromagnetism. It consists of an electron in a mutual central force orbit with a positron. The axis of rotation of this rotating dipole is perpendicular to a line joining the electron to the positron. Aether flows out of the positron, crosses over, and sinks down into the elec...

The historical linkage between optics and electromagnetism can be traced back to the year 1855, when Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch, by discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), demonstrated that the ratio of the electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge is equal to c√2, where c is the directly measured speed of light. Although not...

Some mathematical manipulations around the Biot-Savart Law in conjunction with an all pervading electron-positron sea.

This is a pioneering paper written in 1982/83 which has been superseded by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field".

This is a now abandoned article written in 1982 proposing that space is densely packed with electrons and positrons. Its contents were superseded in 2006 by "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field"

Note added on 20 th November 2011: Regarding the argument in this paper that the vorticity generated by a large scale spinning object would be absorbed by the background electron-positron sea, this will indeed prevent two large scale spinning bodies from repelling each other due to centrifugal force. However, it should have no bearing as regards un...

This article introduces 'Axial Coriolis Force' as a new concept which arises in connection with rotation. It is the deflection of a moving element from the transverse direction into the axial direction, and it can be observed in gyroscopes, rattlebacks, and in connection with Ampère's Circuital Law. This article will demonstrate that axial Coriolis...

The Lorentz force contains a convective term, v×H. It has been assumed in this series that this term is a Coriolis force. It was shown in an earlier paper that the centrifugal force, grad(A.v), should also be present in the Lorentz force but that it is missing. It will now be suggested that the v×H term in the Lorentz force may in fact be the gener...

PART 1 A unified derivation of Newton's law of gravitation, and Coulomb's law of electrostatics, demonstrates charge to be a property associated with acceleration, and inertial mass to be a measure of the amount of matter in a body. It also demonstrates inertial mass to have an effect on acceleration in relation to electrostatic forces, but not in...

Centrifugal force is the outward radial expansion that arises in connection with absolute rotation. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) demonstrated that centrifugal force obeys an inverse cube law relationship when angular momentum is conserved. This reveals the dielectric nature of space, since we know that the inverse cube law relationship is associat...

Electrostatics is dipolar, gravity is monopolar, and magnetism is ostensibly non-polar. Any unified field theory will therefore have to explain how to reconcile these three distinct characteristics. The common link between all of these phenomena is the fact that they are all a consequence of aether flow. It only remains to establish the arrangement...

In 1835 Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis drew attention to a mathematical term of the form 2mv×ω that arises in connection with rotation. Many years later, this term was named the 'Coriolis Force' in his honour. Coriolis was working in the context of water-wheels and he was attempting to analyze the dynamics from the perspective of a rotating frame of refe...

In order to undermine the idea of a luminiferous aether, it has been argued that a physical medium for the propagation of light would necessarily cause friction which would eventually cause the planetary orbits to collapse. It will now be demonstrated how a dense electron-positron sea actually contributes towards Kepler's laws of planetary motion a...

The Coriolis force will be shown to be a real transverse centrifugal force that arises naturally in conjunction with the conservation of angular momentum. Centrifugal Force I. Centrifugal force is the inverse cube law repulsive force which is induced by transverse motion relative to any point in space, and which acts at right angles to the transver...

James Clerk-Maxwell suggested that magnetic repulsion is caused by centrifugal force acting between tiny molecular vortices that fill all space. In this article, Maxwell's molecular vortices are considered more accurately to constitute rotating electron-positron dipoles, and the electromagnetic wave equation is derived from the angular momentum of...

Maxwell's 1865 paper 'A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field' appears to abandon the theory of molecular vortices that was a central feature of his 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force'. After writing part I of his 1861 paper, Maxwell realized that a purely hydrodynamical approach to electromagnetic theory was insufficient and so he intr...

When a body moves through an elastic medium so as to cause a differential transverse stress on either side of the body, a force will be induced at right angles to the direction of motion. This induced force which is observed to be acting on the planets in orbit, on electric currents in a magnetic field, and on aeroplanes in flight, can be traced to...

The inertial path alone is a sufficient basis from which we can deduce the existence of a dielectric luminiferous medium. The additional observation that magnetic lines of force break and rejoin in the dynamic state is a sufficient basis from which we can further deduce that the positive and negative particles in the luminiferous medium must be arr...

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, by examining various rotational scenarios, that the cyclonic behavior in the atmosphere and in the ocean currents cannot be explained by the conventional Coriolis force approach. Instead, it must be explained by fine-grain Coriolis force in the Earth's magnetic field. We also have the additional evidence...

It is commonly taught nowadays that centrifugal force doesn't exist, except as a fictitious force that is only observable from a rotating frame of reference. This belief is based on Newton's law of inertia which states that a body undergoing straight line motion at constant speed experiences no net force, and that curved path motion involves only a...

Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and Kepler's law of areal velocity are two manifestations of a single principle which requires two distinct phenomena for its full understanding. The former is an expression for the rate of change of angular momentum, with particular reference to the sea of tiny molecular vortices which acts as the domain...

All atomic and molecular matter possesses a net negative charge that accounts for gravity. Negative charge can be explained hydrodynamically in terms of mutually attracting aether sinks. In this article, we equate aether with vitreous fluid. When aether is compressed into a material body, this will linearly polarize the internal electron-positron d...

In the nineteenth century, James Clerk-Maxwell was unable to explain the linkage between gravity and electromagnetism. He realized that gravitational lines of force must involve a pressure, as is the case with magnetic lines of force when they are involved in mutual repulsion. He also realized that the pressure in the magnetic lines of force acts l...

It is suggested that the magnetic vector potential A and the electric current density J are effectively one and the same thing. They both represent a flow of aether. As such we can show that the full expression for centrifugal force becomes grad (ρv²) where ρ is aether density. This expression confirms the close link between centrifugal force, kine...

## Questions

Questions (15)

## Projects

Projects (3)

To establish that electrons play only an insignificant role in cross country power transmission lines, and that the bulk of the energy is carried in the form of pressurized fluid-like aether in the wire, which overspills into the dielectric space beyond the wire, capacitance therefore being a major factor in the power transmission.