Frederick M. Stephen

Frederick M. Stephen
University of Arkansas | U of A · Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology

PhD

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133
Publications
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Introduction
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Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Full-text available
Pine wilt disease is one of the most serious introduced threats to coniferous forests worldwide. Its causal agent, the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is vectored primarily by cerambycids of the genus Monochamus Dejean throughout its native (North America) and introduced (Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Portugal) ranges. Despite s...
Article
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Discovery of a potentially destructive non-native woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), in pine forests of eastern North America has elicited interest in appropriate management options. A parasitic nematode, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae), was introduced as a biological control agent in the Southern Hemi...
Article
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Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is a pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America. A non-native, S. noctilio F., was discovered along the southeastern shore of Lake Ontario in New York in 2004 and its current distribution now includes seven northeastern states, plus Ontario and Quebec. Its discovery led to a sharp increase...
Article
Full-text available
Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an innocuous pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to eastern North America, utilizing dead or dying pine trees as hosts. Although S. nigricornis F. does not cause economic damage, a closely related species, Sirex noctilio, was discovered in New York in 2004 and has continually spread throughout the northe...
Article
Full-text available
The establishment and spread of Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), in northeastern North America necessitates reliable monitoring methods for this alien woodwasp pest of Pinus. The native congener, Sirex nigricornis F., is common across the eastern U.S.A. and has been studied as a proxy for S. noctilio. Predicting the emergence of S. nocti...
Article
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The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) (SPB) is an eruptive pest of pine forests in the southeastern United States. Numerous studies have been conducted on the relationships among SPB population dynamics, climatic factors, natural enemies, and competitors, but the influence of changes in forest management through time on SPB activity has...
Article
Understanding how tree growth strategies may influence tree susceptibility to disturbance is an important goal, especially given projected increases in diverse ecological disturbances this century. We use growth responses of tree rings to climate, relationships between tree-ring stable isotopic signatures of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O), wood ni...
Article
Full-text available
Parasitic nematodes were isolated from Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) females collected in baited traps across pine forests of Arkansas and Mississippi, USA. We examined 650-720 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and compared Arkansas and Mississippi sequences to sequences from nematodes collected in Illinois, Louisiana and New York t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Species that exploit the same resource in a similar manner belong to feeding guilds and can be subject to intraguild interactions. These intraguild interactions can include competition or predation and can be increased by species coexisting in space and time. In the southeastern U.S. Monochamus titillator and Ips grandicollis have multivoltine gene...
Article
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Following a disturbance, why does one tree survive while another dies? Physiological mechanisms may explain varying responses to disturbance between different tree species, but fewerstudies have investigated conspecific variation in resilience to forest disturbance. We propose that a dynamic signal found in trees may provide clues to their post-dis...
Article
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El sudeste de los Estados Unidos tiene una industria de madera de pino de milliones de dólares que podría ser afectada de manera significativa por el establecimiento y expansión de Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), la avispa no nativa de la madera, que fue descubierta recientemente en el noreste de los Estados Unidos. Varios factores, inc...
Conference Paper
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Monochamus titillator and M. carolinensis are large wood-boring beetles commonly found in southeastern pine forests. These beetles interact with both their host pine trees and commonly associated bark beetles in ways that are still poorly understood. Our objectives are to determine if (1) healthy shortleaf pines can be successfully colonized by Mon...
Research
Full-text available
Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator are large wood-boring beetles which are commonly associated with dead or dying pine trees in the southeastern United States in abundant numbers. While studies have traditionally classified Monochamus as secondary insect pests several reports have placed Monochamus species as primary pests in other g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monochamus beetles (Lamiinae: Cerambycidae) are large wood-boring beetles whose primary hosts are conifers in the genus Pinus. These beetles have traditionally been classified as secondary forest insects, but recent studies have shown that they may be primary pest insects in jack pine. Our objective is to determine if Monochamus species can success...
Conference Paper
The native pine-inhabiting woodwasp, Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is not known to be a pest in its native range of the eastern U.S. and Canada. However, the recently introduced woodwasp, S. noctilio, has been known to cause widespread mortality to commercial pine plantations in areas of previous introduction. Its consistent spread...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator are large wood-boring beetles which are commonly associated with dead or dying pine trees in the southeastern United States. While studies have traditionally classified Monochamus as secondary insects, recent reports have placed Monochamus species as primary pests in other geographical areas. Our ob...
Article
Full-text available
It was unknown whether twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a common secondary agent of tree decline in eastern US oak forests, contributed to tree mortality during a recent (1999–2003) episode of oak decline in the Ozark Mountains. Adult beetle flight was monitored by trapping in 2001, 2003, and 2004 and oak branc...
Article
Full-text available
Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports fre-quent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations...
Conference Paper
Two species of pine sawyer, Monochamus titillator and M. carolinensis, have overlapping ranges and both appear to utilize pine phloem from the same host trees. We examine intraspecific competition in M. titillator to establish the role of oviposition niche density and phloem thickness on survivorship and fitness. We hypothesize that intraspecific c...
Conference Paper
Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is the only pine-inhabiting woodwasp native to Arkansas. During their adult life span of 7-10 days females can oviposit dozens of eggs, usually in damaged or dying trees. Larvae develop in a year, emerging in the fall. In 2004, an invasive woodwasp in the same genus, S. noctilio F., was found in New Yor...
Article
An unexpected outbreak of a native longhorned beetle, the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)), occurred in upland oak forests of Arkansas, Missouri and Oklahoma ca. 1999–2005. Few management tools exist for reducing E. rufulus populations. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine susceptibility of all E. rufulus life stages to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To examine the effects of tree condition on oviposition behavior of Sirex nigricornis F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) trees were felled and adult female S. nigricornis were exposed to three bolts; each of a different moisture content (low, medium and high respectively). Females were allowed to oviposit until death at which point they were removed and d...
Article
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We used life table analyses to investigate age specific mortality and to better understand the population dynamics of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We continually sampled populations within 177 trees at primarily two sites in the Ozark National Forest in Arkansas throughout three (2-yr) generations. T...
Conference Paper
The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F., was introduced into New York and Ontario in 2004. In some areas where it has been introduced, it has caused extensive damage to pine stands. Moisture content of pine may be a main driving force behind the success or failure of the woodwasp. Pine bolts were wrapped in mesh and left at field sites. Drilling b...
Conference Paper
Pine engraver beetles have historically been recognized as secondary invaders of no detriment to healthy trees. Recent observations of significant pine mortality in Texas and Louisiana appeared to correspond with high population densities of Ips spp. which questions the aforementioned relationship. Three Ips species are found in the southeastern Un...
Article
Full-text available
Oak-hickory forests in the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas recently experienced an episode of oak mortality in concert with an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)). We utilized data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service to explore changes in perc...
Article
A major oak decline event in recent decades in Northwest Arkansas permits insight into disturbance impacts on forests, which is important for understanding global carbon, nutrient and climate cycles given projections of increasing disturbance event frequency in the future. The decline event, associated with an increase in population of a native, wo...
Conference Paper
Arkansas Sirex adults do not feed and therefore all adult activity must be accomplished on energy reserves acquired during larval stages. Drilling into hosts and ovipositing is an energy consuming process. Host tree factors that increase the amount of energy expended during oviposition could limit numbers of eggs a female oviposits. Drilling throug...
Article
Full-text available
Nous avons analysé le contenu en azote (N) du phloème et du xylème de 75 chênes rouges boréaux, Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae), prélevés en 2002–2007 dans trois sites de la forêt nationale d'Ozark, Arkansas, afin d'examiner la relation entre le N du tissu vasculaire et l'infestation par les insectes mineurs du bois. Durant la période d'échantillonnage...
Article
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Extreme climate events are frequently important factors associated with episodes of forest decline. A recent oak decline event and concurrent outbreak of a native wood-boring beetle, the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)), occurred throughout Arkansas Ozark and Ouachita Mountains. To investigate the role of drought and stand maturity on...
Article
1 The mechanisms by which hardwood trees resist invasion by native wood borers are still poorly understood. 2 We examined the importance of several host, herbivore and environmental variables in relation to Quercus rubra L., northern red oak, resistance to a native cerambycid, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), the red oak b...
Article
Full-text available
Even-aged loblolly pines in three crown classes chosen to represent varying levels of vigor were inoculated with the blue-stain fungus Ceratocystisminor to induce hypersensitive tissue formation. There were no differences in monoterpene composition of the induced tissue among crown classes growing on the same site. However, there were significant d...
Article
Loblolly pines (Pinustaeda L.) growing in two plantations were inoculated with fungi that are associated with the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonusfrontalis Zimm. Trees were sampled at 12-h intervals to determine the rate of formation of induced lesions. After an initial lag of 60 h, trees responded to infection by the blue-staining Ceratocystismi...
Article
Full-text available
We used dendrochronological techniques to develop an optimal sampling strategy for the purpose of investigating the history of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus [Haldeman]) population patterns within northern red oaks (Quercus rubra L.). We cut the entire length of three northern red oak tree boles into cross-sections, sanded top and bottom surfac...
Article
Two symbiotic fungi (SJB 122, an unidentified basidiomycete, and Ceratocystis minor (Hedgecock) Hunt variety barrasii Taylor) and one pathogenic phoretic fungus (C. minor (Hedgecock) Hunt variety minor) of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, were inoculated onto six different concentrations of D. frontalis frass, loblolly p...
Article
Full-text available
A severe oak decline event associated with the outbreak of an insect pest (Enaphalodes rufulus [Haldeman]) affected the Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma Ozarks from the mid-1990s through 2005. Tree mortality was severe and widespread, but patchy in nature. The rugged and remote terrain of the Ozarks led to difficulty in monitoring and assessing the...
Article
Loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., were inoculated with a fungus associated with the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., at three heights to determine whether the trees responded to infection differently at each height. Loblolly pines responded to inoculation of this fungus by producing lesions of various dimensions. These were dissect...
Article
Full-text available
Infection and invasion by the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., and its associated fungi stimulate the inducible defense system of loblolly pine and result in production of a hypersensitive-like lesion around the affected tissue. The length of the lesion stimulated by inoculation is not related to the amount of inoculum introduced...
Conference Paper
In 2005, an invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), was collected in New York. Unlike native Siricidae, at high densities S. noctilio can attack and kill healthy pines. Although this species has not yet been found in Arkansas, it has the potential to become a threat to pines throughout the state. The overall goal of ou...
Article
1. Tree-ring techniques were used to date larval gallery scars of a native wood borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), in host Quercus rubra L. from eight sites within the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests of Arkansas. 2. Borer densities were quantified throughout the past century as indicated by scars within host tree boles and per capita rate o...
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman, a North American wood-boring cerambycid beetle, appears to be a major contributing factor to a recent Quercus rubra L. mortality event. The objectives of this research were to investigate the historical activity and within-tree distributions of E. rufulus by using scars formed by larval feeding in the ca...
Article
Many oak decline events have been reported within the past century in the eastern U.S., and important causal factors often differ among them. Coincident with a recent decline event in upland oak-dominant forests of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma was an unexpected outbreak of a native cerambycid beetle, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), the red oak...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemic populations of Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), red oak borer, a native longhorned wood boring beetle, were implicated as a major contributor to a recent widespread oak mortality event in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. We assessed potential factors affecting suitability of a primary host Quercus rubra L., northern red oak, which exp...
Conference Paper
The red oak borer has been a serious pest in Arkansas oak forests. Surprisingly, mature larvae deep within oaks were naturally infected with the fungus, Beauveria bassiana. We report various interesting aspects of this relationship.
Article
Full-text available
Oviposition biology of Acanthocinus nodosus was examined on southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, infested loblolly pine trees in Alabama, U.S.A. Components of oviposition biology, including oviposition pit description, colonization period, average number of eggs laid per oviposition pit, use of bark beetle entrance or ventilation hol...
Article
Full-text available
Oak-hickory forests of the Arkansas Ozarks recently incurred extensive tree mortality due in part to a native wood-boring beetle, the red oak borer Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Historically, red oak borer has existed throughout southeastern U.S. forests at relatively low population levels, but Arkansas infestation esti...
Article
Conifer defenses against scolytid beetles are usually considered as two types: a preformed resin system and an induced hypersensitive response. Inoculation of trees with Ceratocystis minor, the bluestain fungus carried by Dendroctonus frontalis, initiates production of hypersensitive lesions. It has been suggested that lesion size can be used as an...
Article
Adults of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm., emerging from the lower and middle sections of infested boles usually had a higher incidence of endoparasitism by the nema Contortylenchus brevicomi (Massey) Rühm than did beetles emerging from the upper bole. But the incidence of parasitism was similar among beetles flying at differ...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Decline events in North American forests may be promoted by climate change and associated disturbances. A major oak (Quercus rubra) decline associated with increased activity of a wood-boring insect, recently observed in the Ozark Mountains of N. America, may have been promoted by a cycle of droughts beginning in the 19...
Article
Black carpenter ants, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (DeGeer), are nearly ubiquitous in North American forests. These ants are documented as predators of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), a native longhorn beetle that experienced an unprecedented population increase synonymous with an oak decline event in the oak hickory forests of the Ozar...
Article
Forests in the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas recently experienced a widespread oak decline event. Armillaria, a root rot fungus, has been associated with other oak decline events and may have been an important contributing factor to tree mortality in this event. Although Armillaria has been identified from the Ozark Mountains in Missouri, it...
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of red oak borer, an insect infesting red oak trees, prompted the need for a biomass model of closed-canopy oak-hickory forests in the rugged terrain of the Arkansas Ozarks. Multiple height percentiles were calculated from small-footprint aerial LIDAR data, and image segmentation was employed to partition the LIDAR-derived surface into...
Article
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Fire is a natural abiotic disturbance agent that is important in determining the vegetation patterns observed in many hardwood forests. Although natural fire was suppressed through much of the 20th century, in the late 20th century, fire was reintroduced into many ecosystems in the form of prescribed burning. The effects of fire on insect populatio...
Article
Improved decision-making capabilities are an important goal in pest management. The need to more fully understand bark beetle/host tree interactions and how this knowledge can be linked to better prediction of Dendroctonus frontalis infestation growth is discussed. The properties of pines which confer resistance to D. frontalis, a primary resin sys...
Article
Full-text available
The incidence of homopteran honeydew was measured under pines and hardwoods located within 10 Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann infestations on the Talladega National Forest (Alabama) during summer, 2000. There were more honeydew droplets beneath hardwood trees compared to pines, but no difference beween D. frontalis infested and uninfested pines....
Conference Paper
We selected three red oak borer infested northern red oak with varying heights along a latitudinal gradient throughout the Ozark and Ouachita National Forests in Arkansas. We cut the entire length of each tree bole into cross-sections ~5 cm thick, sanded top and bottom surfaces and dated all scars to the year of adult emergence within each bole. Cu...
Article
1 Populations of an indigenous longhorn beetle, the red oak borer Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), recently reached epidemic levels in the Ozark National Forests of Arkansas and Missouri, resulting in extensive tree mortality. 2 The factors regulating E. rufulus populations are largely unknown. Ants appear to be the most a...
Article
Oak-dominated forests in northwestern Arkansas have recently experienced an oak mortality event associated with an unprecedented outbreak of a native insect, the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). To determine whether prior drought was associated with increased E. rufulus infestation level of Quercus rubra L. trees, we employed a suite...
Article
. 1Predation by birds, crawling arthropods (ants, harvestmen, spiders), and social wasps (Vespula) spp. on introduced stocks of Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) larvae was investigated in a oak-hickory forest canopy in northwestern Arkansas (U.S.A.).2Wasps, Vespula maculifrons (Buysson) and V.squamosa (Drury), removed over 90% of the larvae. Repeate...
Article
Red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), has been implicated as a contributing factor to oak decline and mortality in forests of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. A non-destructive rapid estimation procedure was used to determine red oak borer infestation histories of northern red oaks, Quercus rubra L., in a series...
Article
Three research areas in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, were chosen to investigate relationships of site and stand conditions to northern red oak, Quercus rubra L., mortality attributed to red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), a native wood-boring beetle. Fixed vegetation plots were installed in each area on five topographic positions...
Article
Full-text available
In the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, an oak decline event, coupled with epidemic populations of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman), has resulted in extensive red oak (Quercus spp., section Lobatae) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled in the...
Article
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An outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Halde-man), in Arkansas has resulted in millions of dollars in damage to oak trees. A survey for microbial pathogens of late stages of red oak borer in northwest Arkansas forests demonstrated that red oak borer infected with Beauveria bassiana were present in 12 of 21 Quercus spp. trees. Oak trees...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined adult parasitoids of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) utilizing an artificial parasitoid food on locations with and without hosts. Eliminade™ was applied to bark on boles of infested pines, to pine canopy foliage and to understory hardwood foliage. Adult parasitoids were collected, identified and dissec...