Frederick J Morrison

Frederick J Morrison
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Psychology

Ph.D

About

142
Publications
132,097
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14,947
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
8110 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (142)
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the current study was to conduct a conceptual replication of the reciprocal associations between executive function (EF) and academic achievement reported in Schmitt et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000193). Using two independent samples (N (STAR) = 279, and N (Pathways) = 277), we examined whether the patterns of associations...
Preprint
Full-text available
The goal of the current study was to conduct a conceptual replication of the reciprocal associations between executive function (EF) and academic achievement reported in Schmitt et al. (2017). Using two independent samples (N (STAR) = 279, and N (Pathways) = 277), we examined whether the patterns of associations between EF and achievement across pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current study describes and validates a set of group-based executive function (EF) assessments for use with young children. These situational tasks involve instructing groups of young students to march to music while completing tasks that place demands on their EF abilities. These efforts were motivated by providing researchers with a set measu...
Article
Full-text available
Early executive function (EF) skills reliably predict school readiness and future academic success. While children’s skills undergo rapid development during the transition to formal schooling, it remains unclear the extent to which schooling exerts a unique influence on the accelerated development of EF and academic skills during the early years of...
Article
Among the many factors contributing to the SES-achievement gap, executive function (EF) skills have received a considerable amount of attention, given their role in supporting academic skill development. While recent work has demonstrated that global EF constructs mediate SES-achievement relations, less attention has been paid to unpacking the role...
Preprint
Early executive function (EF) skills reliably predict school readiness and future academic success. While children’s skills undergo rapid development during the transition to formal schooling, it remains unclear the extent to which schooling exerts a unique influence on the accelerated development of EF and academic skills during the early years of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Among the many factors contributing to the SES-achievement gap, executive function (EF) skills have received a considerable amount of attention, given their role in supporting academic skill development. While recent work has demonstrated that global EF constructs mediate SES-achievement relations, less attention has been paid to unpacking the role...
Article
Teacher preparation institutions have been critiqued for insufficient emphasis on the science of reading. The authors argue that although improving early reading success and teacher preparation are both critical issues, today’s “science of reading” discourse does not fully capture the complexity of teaching students to read. First, the authors desc...
Article
We observed the nature of parents’ writing support and studied their reports about their parenting practices. Participants were 130 middle-SES parent-preschooler dyads in the United States and Israel (69 American). Parents were videotaped while helping their children write an invitation to a birthday party in English in the United States and Hebrew...
Article
Entry into formal schooling is a signature developmental milestone for young children and their families and represents an important period of cognitive, social, and emotional development. Until recently, few researchers have attempted to isolate the unique impact of schooling on children’s developmental and academic outcomes. The application of qu...
Article
Full-text available
The current study used a regression discontinuity (RD) design to characterize more precisely the link between schooling and literacy by examining whether and how different grade-level, practice-as-usual schooling experiences uniquely predict specific literacy subskills during the transition to school. Data from 334 children revealed moderate positi...
Article
Previous research has established that higher levels of behavioral self-regulation are associated with higher levels of language and literacy. In this study, we take a more developmental perspective by considering how trajectories of self-regulation development (early, intermediate, late) predict the way literacy and language skills develop from pr...
Article
Behavioral evidence indicates that skills associated with children's cognitive control (e.g., response inhibition and attentional control) undergo rapid development during early childhood. A particularly important time is the transition to elementary school. Yet, at present, relatively little is known about developmental changes in the brain proces...
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms...
Article
Full-text available
Executive functioning (EF) and motivation are associated with academic achievement and error-related ERPs. The present study explores whether early academic skills predict variability in the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). Data from 113 three- to seven-year-old children in a Go/No-Go task revealed that stronger early readi...
Article
Full-text available
The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and...
Article
Despite three decades of scientific and public attention on efforts to improve literacy in America, little progress has been made in closing achievement gaps across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. This article argues that one major reason is failure to take into account the mosaic of strengths and weaknesses individual children bring to sc...
Article
Across a variety of scientific fields, ranging from genetics to neurophysiology to developmental psychology to cultural psychology, our understanding of human development has increased exponentially in the last three decades. The time is ripe to unite all these perspectives in a bold effort to create a comprehensive understanding of the nature and...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents’ aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-in...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated fifth graders’ (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read...
Article
Full-text available
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined the cross-lagged relations between behavioral engagement and reading achievement in elementary school and whether these cross-lagged relations differed between low-socioeconomic status (SES) and mid- or...
Article
Full-text available
We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different obser...
Article
Full-text available
Growth in executive functioning (EF) skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), ov...
Article
Preschool children and college adults were presented pictures of simple outlined geometric forms at tachistoscopic exposure durations of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 msec. When accuracy was plotted as a function of exposure duration, the curve of 5-year-olds approximated that of adults. However, 5-year-olds reached given performance levels at exposure dur...
Article
Experiment 1 examined the effects of three delay intervals (0, 24, and 48 h) on recognition memory performance of 5-, 8-, and 11-year-olds and adults using a forced-choice procedure. Results revealed significant drops in performance after 24 h for 5-year-olds and after 48 h for 8-year-olds, with no performance decrement for older age groups. Howeve...
Article
The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a n...
Article
Parental writing support was examined over time and in relation to children's language and literacy skills. Seventy-seven parents and their preschoolers were videotaped writing an invitation together twice during one year. Parental writing support was coded at the level of the letter to document parents' graphophonemic support (letter-sound corresp...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metacognitive knowledge (McK)—knowledge of one's self and others' thinking, tasks, and strategies (Flavell, 1979)—is positively associated with cognitive development and academic achievement (Dignath, Buettner, & Langfeldt 2008). Recent research on cognitive control using the ERP technique has examined the neurological processes that occur when peo...
Article
A difficulty for developmental researchers is disambiguating children's general maturation from the influence of schooling. In this study, we use a natural experiment to examine the influence of pre-kindergarten and kindergarten schooling experiences on the development of literacy and mathematics. Children (n = 60) whose birthdates fell within two...
Article
This study investigated relations between preschoolers' emergent executive function skills and their interactions with parents, with particular focus on the verbal utterances parents use to guide children's behavior (i.e., management language). Parent-child dyads (N = 127) were videotaped during a structured play task and the frequency of two types...
Article
Full-text available
Using a longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled design, we examined whether students' reading outcomes differed when they received 1, 2, or 3 years of individualized reading instruction from first through third grade, compared with a treated control group. More than 45% of students came from families living in poverty. Following students, we ran...
Article
Interference in picture naming by task-irrelevant words in Stroop-like paradigms has been interpreted as evidence of automatic semantic processing of unattended words. However, this effect may have been due to attentional rather than automatic processing. To test this hypothesis, subjects were instructed either to ignore task-irrelevant words (sele...
Conference Paper
Presentation of a neuro-behavioral model of executive functioning and self-regulation as core developmental processes in cognition and academic outcomes from early childhood into adolescence is built from new research in neuro-cognitive, behavioral, and developmental sciences.
Article
AbstractThe associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second grade...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of teacher self-efficacy, education, and years of experience on observed classroom practices across 2 dimensions—teacher support for student learning and time in academics—as they related to fifth-grade students' (n = 1,043) literacy skills. To address these issues, the study used longitudinal data from the National...
Article
This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall of k...
Article
This study investigated parenting practices among families of preschoolers in a middle-income community, as well as the contributions of these practices to children's literacy and learning-related social skills. A total of 229 families of preschoolers were recruited. Parents completed a survey describing their parenting practices, while children's...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in literacy growth over the summer versus the school year were examined to isolate how schooling affects children's literacy development from preschool through second grade across four literacy skills. Children (n = 383) were tested individually twice each year for up to 4 years on measures of phonological awareness, decoding, reading c...
Article
Full-text available
This study, using NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development longitudinal data, investigated the effects of classroom quality and students' third-grade behavioral engagement on students' third-grade reading achievement (n = 1,364) and also examined the extent to which students' third-grade behavioral engagement mediated the association b...
Article
Full-text available
Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we...
Article
Full-text available
Research Findings: This observational study of preschoolers (N = 140) in their classrooms (N = 41) examined variation in teacher orienting (defined as explanations and demonstrations about the procedures and rationale behind activities, including center projects, to the whole group or to individual children) and associations between orienting and c...
Chapter
This descriptive study explored teachers’ outreach to families in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade, and its relations to children’s early growth in language, literacy , and mathematics . Teachers (n = 62) completed surveys reporting the frequency of outreach practices to families, and children’s (n = 210) early academic skills were assessed...
Article
The present study examined the influence of schooling during children's first and second years of preschool for children who experienced different amounts of preschool (i.e., one or two years), but who were essentially the same chronological age. Children (n = 76) were tested in the fall and spring of the school year using measures of self-regulati...
Article
The Head Start program endeavors to provide pre-schoolers with high-quality learning opportunities, in part through fostering family involvement. This exploratory study addressed the paucity of empirical research regarding the nature of educator outreach and family involvement in Head Start and their contributions to children's development of the a...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about how components of executive function (EF) jointly and uniquely predict different aspects of academic achievement and how this may vary across cultural contexts. In the current study, 119 Chinese and 139 American preschoolers were tested on a battery of EF tasks (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and attentional control) as wel...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the psychometric properties of scores from a direct measure of behavioral regulation, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (HTKS) with 3- to 6-year-old children in the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, and China. Specifically, we investigated (a) the nature and variability of HTKS scores, including relations to teacher-ra...
Chapter
The chapter describes an ongoing project aimed at understanding the impact of instruction on children’s early literacy growth. Derived from direct observations of classroom instruction, findings revealed that the most effective instruction depends on the initial skill levels of the child. These child X instruction interactions imply that efforts to...
Article
We examined the effect of individualizing student instruction (ISI; N=445 students, 46 classrooms) on first graders' self-regulation gains compared to a business-as-usual control group. Self-regulation, conceptualized as a constellation of executive skills, was positively associated with academic development. We hypothesized that the ISI interventi...
Article
This study examined relations among early family risk, children's behavioral regulation at 54 months and kindergarten, and academic achievement in first grade using data on 1,298 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Family risk was indexed by ethnic minor...
Article
This descriptive study explored teachers’ outreach to families in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade, and its relations to children’s early growth in language, literacy, and mathematics. Teachers (n=62) completed surveys reporting the frequency of outreach practices to families, and children’s (n=210) early academic skills were assessed at th...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we examine self-regulation and its role in academic development, focusing on the transition to formal schooling. We posit that adaptive development in the school context depends on children's ability to manage their reactions and specifically their task-related behaviors. Moreover, successfully self-regulating depends on environmen...
Article
The authors examined relations between implicit and explicit Hope of Success (HS) and Fear of Failure (FF) and memory and liking for successful and unsuccessful peers. Implicit motives were expected to predict memory and explicit motives to predict liking of peers. Results from 106 American and 79 Singaporean students supported the implicit–explici...
Article
Full-text available
In this rejoinder to Willis, Smagorinsky, and Douglas (this issue of Educational Researcher), the authors discuss how many of the points raised by Willis and Smagorinsky regarding their original article, which appeared in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher, are concerned less with the methods themselves than with different styles of sci...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter–word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an objecti...
Article
The four articles in this issue exemplify several exciting trends in the ongoing effort to understand the nature and sources of children’s academic trajectories. Particularly noteworthy is the common thread of searching for key parenting and child mediators of the connection between parental educational accomplishments and child outcomes. In an eff...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined a new assessment of behavioral regulation and contributions to achievement and teacher-rated classroom functioning in a sample (N = 343) of kindergarteners from 2 geographical sites in the United States. Behavioral regulation was measured with the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS) task, a structured observation requiring childre...
Article
We examined the relations of teacher knowledge (n = 42 first-grade teachers), explicit decoding instruction provided, and students' (n = 437) word-reading gains. Results revealed an interaction between teacher knowledge and observed decoding instruction: For students of more knowledgeable teachers, more time in explicit instruction predicted strong...
Article
Full-text available
The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom...
Article
Recent findings demonstrate that the most effective reading instruction may vary with children's language and literacy skills. These Child x Instruction interactions imply that individualizing instruction would be a potent strategy for improving students' literacy. A cluster-randomized control field trial, conducted in 10 high-moderate poverty scho...
Article
We employed a cutoff design in order to examine age- and schooling-related effects on executive functions. Specifically, we looked at development of working memory and response inhibition over the period of 1 school year in prekindergarten and kindergarten students born within 4 months of each other. All children improved on executive function and...
Article
Full-text available
Data were analyzed from 641 children and their families in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test the hypotheses that in the early school years, mothers' and fathers' sensitive support for autonomy in observed parent-child interactions would each make unique predictions t...
Article
Evidence strongly suggests that shared book reading at home and in preschool is important for young children's development of the foundational skills required for the eventual mastery of decoding and comprehension. Yet the nuances of how learning from book reading might vary across these contexts and with children's skills are not well understood....
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral aspects of self-regulation, including controlling and directing actions, paying attention, and remembering instructions, are critical for successful functioning in preschool and elementary school. In recent years, several direct assessments of these skills have appeared, but few studies provide complete psychometric data and many are not...
Article
Teacher organization is a crucial part of classroom functioning; however, its relation to student achievement has not been investigated as extensively as that of instruction. In this study, organization is defined as the amount of time teachers spend explaining the purpose and procedures of learning activities and daily routines. Data from first-gr...