Frederick Gallun

Frederick Gallun
Oregon Health and Science University | OHSU · Oregon Hearing Research Center

PhD, UC Berkeley

About

207
Publications
37,992
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,305
Citations
Citations since 2017
97 Research Items
1847 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
Introduction
The focus of the Gallun lab is to improve the relationship between self-reported hearing difficulties and clinical test results. Both self-report and research data reveal the impacts of age, hearing loss, and traumatic brain injury on central auditory function, but there are troublingly low correlations between what we measure in the laboratory and what patients report their experiences to be. Our studies focus both on speech understanding and on psychoacoustical abilities. The goal of the work is to develop portable automated rapid tests sensitive to dysfunction throughout the central auditory system that capture those aspects of the patient experience that lead those with difficulties to seek help.
Additional affiliations
June 2021 - June 2021
Oregon Health and Science University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2019 - present
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Position
  • Chair
September 2012 - June 2021
Oregon Health and Science University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1995 - June 2003
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Psychology
August 1989 - May 1994
Reed College
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (207)
Chapter
Full-text available
Upon completion of this chapter, the reader should be able to answer the following questions: What acoustical cues do listeners use to localize sound? What are the ranges of interaural differences experienced by human listeners in natural environments? Which spatial positions are ambiguous on the basis of interaural differences alone? Why is mo...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the cues listeners use to segregate sound sources and make sense of the auditory scene. These include spectral, temporal, spatial, and contextual cues. A review is also given of some of the known effects of age on sensitivity to these cues, with consideration given to the possible contributions of peripheral lim...
Article
Full-text available
Despite over 100 years of study, there are still many fundamental questions about binaural hearing that remain unanswered, including how impairments of binaural function are related to the mechanisms of binaural hearing. This review focuses on a number of studies that are fundamental to understanding what is known about the effects of peripheral he...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding speech in the presence of acoustical competition is a major complaint of those with hearing difficulties. Here, a novel perceptual learning game was tested for its effectiveness in reducing difficulties with hearing speech in competition. The game was designed to train a mixture of auditory processing skills thought to underlie speech...
Article
Full-text available
This study validates a new Spanish-language version of the Coordinate Response Measure (CRM) corpus using a well-established measure of spatial release from masking (SRM). Participants were 96 Spanish-speaking young adults without hearing complaints in Mexico City. To present the Spanish-language SRM test, we created new recordings of the CRM with...
Article
Full-text available
Speech information in the better ear interferes with the poorer ear in patients with bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) who have large asymmetries in speech intelligibility between ears. The goal of the present study was to assess how each ear impacts, and whether one dominates, speech perception using simulated CI processing in older and younger...
Article
Objectives: Some cochlear implant (CI) users are fitted with a CI in each ear ("bilateral"), while others have a CI in one ear and a hearing aid in the other ("bimodal"). Presently, evaluation of the benefits of bilateral or bimodal CI fitting does not take into account the integration of frequency information across the ears. This study tests the...
Article
Full-text available
Voice-gender differences and spatial separation are important cues for auditory object segregation. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of voice-gender difference benefit to the breadth of binaural pitch fusion, the perceptual integration of dichotic stimuli that evoke different pitches across ears, and the relationship of sp...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Binaural pitch fusion occurs when dichotic signals eliciting a different pitch are perceived as one sound. Previously, Oh et al. (ASA 2018) investigated the effects of auditory streaming cues on binaural fusion using a modification of the ABA streaming paradigm. A dichotic stimulus (fixed tone at frequency fref in the refe...
Article
Full-text available
Remote testing of auditory function can be transformative to both basic research and hearing healthcare; however, historically, many obstacles have limited remote collection of reliable and valid auditory psychometric data. Here, we report performance on a battery of auditory processing tests using a remotely administered system, Portable Automatic...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Difficulty hearing in noise is exacerbated in older adults. Older adults are more likely to have audiometric hearing loss, although some individuals with normal pure‐tone audiograms also have difficulty perceiving speech in noise. Additional variables also likely account for speech understanding in noise. It has been suggested that...
Poster
Full-text available
Portable automated rapid testing of central auditory processing measures implemented in the app PART (https://braingamecenter.ucr.edu/games/p-a-r-t/) were adapted for Spanish-speaking populations. This adaptation included the generation of a corpus equivalent to the CRM to test a speech-on- speech masking task, in addition to frequency modulation t...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustics research involving human participants typically takes place in specialized laboratory settings. Listening studies, for example, may present controlled sounds using calibrated transducers in sound-attenuating or anechoic chambers. In contrast, remote testing takes place outside of the laboratory in everyday settings (e.g., participants' ho...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Anecdotal clinical reports and recent research findings suggest that auditory symptoms are common following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Typically, only tinnitus is captured on a case history. Self-reported noise sensitivity/hyperacusis and difficulty with speech are not commonly included in the assessment of mTBI...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Increasing numbers of military Veterans have reported substantive self-perceived hearing handicap despite normal/near normal hearing on standard audiometric testing. These hearing difficulties are especially true for Veterans with histories of blast exposure and presumed mild traumatic brain injury, with many of these Vete...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Traditional methods used to assess the auditory processing capabilities of individuals have limited clinical applications as they are time consuming and require specialized hardware. Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART) is a free application that allows various clinical assessments to be conducted in an automated and ra...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Portable automated rapid testing of central auditory processing measures implemented in the app PART (https://braingamecenter.ucr.edu/games/p-a-r-t/) were adapted for Spanish-speaking populations. This adaptation included the generation of a corpus equivalent to the CRM to test a speech-on-speech masking task, in addition...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This editorial introduces the new registered reports article type for the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research . The goal of registered reports is to create a structural solution to address issues of publication bias toward results that are unexpected and sensational, questionable research practices that are used to produce nov...
Article
Purpose Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is associated with impaired hearing. However, the evidence is less clear if DM2 can lead to difficulty understanding speech in complex acoustic environments, independently of age and hearing loss effects. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of DM2-related effects on speech understanding in...
Article
Full-text available
No PDF available ABSTRACT Spectral modulation detection is common method to assess spectral envelope perception in research and clinical settings. Prior investigations into spectral modulation (SM) detection have used two different modulator shapes: a sinusoidal envelope on a logarithmic amplitude scale or a sinusoidal envelope on a linear amplitud...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART) application was developed to measure basic auditory processing abilities and has been shown to effectively measure these abilities in research and audiologic clinical settings. Here, the effect of testing environment and participant perception on testing location were evaluated c...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT A series of previous studies (Souza et al., 2015; 2018; 2020) developed a “cue profile” test based on synthetic speech sounds used to assess a hearing-impaired listener’s use of speech cues. The resulting “weighting angle” quantifies how well individual listeners can utilize higher-precision spectro-temporal information (s...
Article
Purpose Evidence suggests that military blast exposure may lead to self-reported hearing difficulties despite audiometrically normal hearing. Research identifying potential mechanisms of this association remains limited. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the associations between blast, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and self-reporte...
Preprint
Disability is an important and often overlooked component of diversity. Individuals with disabilities bring a unique perspective to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) because of their unique experiences approaching complex issues related to health and disability, navigating the healthcare system, creatively solving...
Article
Full-text available
Frequency modulation (FM) detection at low modulation frequencies is commonly used as an index of temporal fine-structure processing. The present study evaluated the rate of improvement in monaural and dichotic FM across a range of test parameters. In experiment I, dichotic and monaural FM detection was measured as a function of duration and modula...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study is to use variability on tests of basic auditory processing to allow identification of those tests that could be used clinically to describe functional hearing ability beyond the pure-tone audiogram and clinical speech-in-noise tests. Method Psychoacoustic tests implemented using the Portable Automated Rapid Testi...
Article
Purpose A broad area of interest to our group is to understand the consequences of the “cue profile” (a measure of how well a listener can utilize audible temporal and/or spectral cues for listening scenarios in which a subset of cues is distorted. The study goal was to determine if listeners whose cue profile indicated that they primarily used tem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The second decade of the 21st Century has seen the rise of consumer technology capable of producing auditory signals at a level of precision only available to laboratory scientists and engineers just a few years earlier. This has allowed researchers to “flip the lab” and begin creating testing systems that can be taken to the participants rather th...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised awareness of the need for robust and reliable remote testing of auditory function. Here, we examine how the recently introduced Portable Automatic Rapid Testing (PART) system–validated to produce precise psychoacoustical data in consumer hardware [Larrea-Mancera et al., JASA, 2020]—performs when data are collected r...
Article
Full-text available
Despite over 100 years of study, there are still many fundamental questions about binaural hearing that remain unanswered, including how impairments of binaural function are related to the mechanisms of binaural hearing. This review focuses on a number of studies that are fundamental to understanding what is known about the effects of peripheral he...
Chapter
The spatial awareness of patients with auditory dysfunction can be significantly limited by their ability to make use of binaural and monaural spatial cues. Although the reduction in sensation level associated with hearing loss can greatly diminish sensitivity to spatial cues, there is nonetheless great diversity in the spatial hearing abilities of...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, real-time generation of spectro-temporally modulated noise has been performed on a linear amplitude scale, partially due to computational constraints. Experiments often require modulation that is sinusoidal on a logarithmic amplitude scale as a result of the many perceptual and physiological measures which scale linearly with exponen...
Article
Objectives: Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blast waves frequently report persistent auditory difficulties such as problems with speech-in-noise (SIN) understanding, even when hearing sensitivity remains normal. However, these subjective reports have proven challenging to corroborate objectively. Here, we sought to determine wheth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hearing speech in competition is a major complaint in those who suffer from hearing loss. Here we investigate a novel perceptual learning game that is designed to train perceptual skills thought to underlie speech in competition, such as spectral-temporal processing and sound localization, under conditions of quiet and in noise. Thirty young normal...
Conference Paper
The Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART) application has been shown to effectively measure basic auditory processing abilities in both audiology research and clinical settings (Diedesch et. al., 2021; Lelo de Larrea-Mancera et. al., 2020). Here, the effect of testing environment and participant perception on testing location were evaluated, comp...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare speech identification abilities of individuals of various ages and hearing abilities using traditional methods and Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART) iPad app. Method Speech identification data were collected using three techniques: over headphones using a virtual speaker array, using PART iPad...
Article
Full-text available
Binaural processing, particularly the processing of interaural phase differences (IPDs), is important for sound localization and speech understanding in background noise. Age has been shown to impact the neural encoding and perception of these binaural temporal cues even in individuals with clinically normal hearing sensitivity. This work used a ne...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the degree to which Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART), a freely available program running on a tablet computer, is capable of reproducing standard laboratory results. Undergraduate students were assigned to one of three within-subject conditions that examined repeatability of performance on a battery of psychoacou...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Temporal gap detection is associated with obligatory and nearly perfect spectral integration. The impact of competing background noise was to determine whether such integration also applies to simultaneously presented narrowband maskers. Gap markers were 0.5 octaves wide, centered at 2000 Hz, and presented at 85 dB SPL for...
Presentation
No PDF available ABSTRACT Acoustics research involving human participants typically takes place in specialized laboratory settings. Listening studies, for example, may present controlled sounds using calibrated transducers in sound-attenuating or anechoic chambers. In contrast, remote testing takes place away from the lab, in natural settings or in...
Presentation
The second decade of the 21st Century has seen the rise of consumer technology capable of producing auditory signals at a level of precision only available to laboratory scientists and engineers just a few years earlier. This has allowed researchers to “flip the lab” and begin creating testing systems that can be taken to the participants rather th...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss may have similar monaural thresholds (i.e., pure tone audiogram) but perform quite differently on tests of speech-in-noise. Additional testing using complex, binaural signals may be able to differentiate individuals with similar pure-tone hearing. Here, individuals with mild-to-m...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Psychoacoustic tasks have been used to evaluate auditory processing capabilities throughout many decades. Here, we present data for Spatial Release from Masking (SRM), gap detection thresholds (GDTs), and spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity on a large group of listeners varying in age and hearing acuity collected...
Article
Purpose A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect information from clinical audiologists about rehabilitation options for adult patients who report significant auditory difficulties despite having normal or near-normal hearing sensitivity. This work aimed to provide more information about what audiologists are currently doing in the clinic to...
Article
A classic paradigm used to quantify the perceptual weighting of binaural spatial cues requires a listener to adjust the value of one cue, while the complementary cue is held constant. Adjustments are made until the auditory percept appears centered in the head, and the values of both cues are recorded as a trading relation (TR), most commonly in μs...
Preprint
Full-text available
Frequency modulation (FM) detection at low modulation frequencies can be used as an index of temporal fine structure processing and is sensitive to changes in age- and hearing-related deficits associated with impaired speech intelligibility in noise. Monaural FM detection has been shown to improve with increased signal duration, yet it is unclear w...
Article
Measures of signal-in-noise neural encoding may improve understanding of the hearing-in-noise difficulties experienced by many individuals in everyday life. Usually noise results in weaker envelope following responses (EFRs); however, some studies demonstrate EFR enhancements. This experiment tested whether noise-induced enhancements in EFRs are de...
Article
Recent evidence has shown that auditory information may be used to improve postural stability, spatial orientation, navigation, and gait, suggesting an auditory component of self-motion perception. To determine how auditory and other sensory cues integrate for self-motion perception, we measured motion perception during yaw rotations of the body an...
Article
Purpose In a previous paper ( Souza, Wright, Blackburn, Tatman, & Gallun, 2015 ), we explored the extent to which individuals with sensorineural hearing loss used different cues for speech identification when multiple cues were available. Specifically, some listeners placed the greatest weight on spectral cues (spectral shape and/or formant transit...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe data collected using Portable Automated Rapid Testing (PART), a freely-available application for psychoacoustical testing that harnesses commercially available tablet computer technology to translate current psychophysical knowledge into clinical practice. PART tests included the detection of tones in noise with and without spectral gap...
Conference Paper
Psychoacoustic tasks have been used to evaluate auditory processing capabilities throughout many decades. Here, we present data for various psychoacoustic tasks on a large group of young normal-hearing listeners collected using the PART iPad application (https://braingamecenter.ucr.edu/games/p-a-r-t/). Data analyses revealed similar thresholds betw...
Conference Paper
Acoustics research involving human participants typically takes place in specialized laboratory settings. Lis-tening studies, for example, may present controlled sounds using calibrated transducers in sound-attenuating or anechoic chambers. In contrast, remote testing takes place away from the lab, in natural settings or in participants’ homes. Rem...
Article
Tinnitus is one of the predicted perceptual consequences of cochlear synaptopathy, a type of age-, noise-, or drug-induced auditory damage that has been demonstrated in animal models to cause homeostatic changes in central auditory gain. Although synaptopathy has been observed in human temporal bones, assessment of this condition in living humans i...
Preprint
In the normal auditory system, central auditory neurons are sharply tuned to the same frequency ranges for each ear. This precise tuning is mirrored behaviorally as the binaural fusion of tones evoking similar pitches across ears. In contrast, hearing-impaired listeners exhibit abnormally broad tuning of binaural pitch fusion, fusing sounds with pi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The detection of sinusoidal modulation is commonly used for assessing the auditory perception of temporal, spectral, and spectro-temporal acoustic features. For temporal (amplitude) modulation, the sinusoidal modulator usually is expressed on a linear amplitude scale. For spectral modulation, the modulator has been specified to be sinusoidal on a l...
Poster
One approach to better understanding temporal and spectral envelope perception is to measure sinusoidal modulation detection thresholds. To date, investigations of temporal modulation (TM), spectral modulation (SM), and spectro-temporal modulation (STM) have used different signal generation methods that may have influenced measurement outcomes. Spe...
Article
Purpose Growing evidence supports the inclusion of perceptual tests that quantify the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS) in clinical hearing assessment. Many tasks have been used to evaluate TFS in the laboratory that vary greatly in the stimuli used and whether the judgments require monaural or binaural comparisons of TFS. The purpose of...
Poster
Full-text available
This presentation will describe data collected using a freely available procedure for psychoacoustical testing that harnesses commercially available tablet computer technology to address the current gap between (1) modern auditory neuroscience and psychophysics and (2) current clinically available tests of hearing. Portable Automated Rapid Testing...
Poster
Full-text available
Previously published data (Souza et al., 2015; 2018) revealed individualized patterns of cue-weighting in the identification of synthetic speech ("bah," "dah," "lah," "wah"). The speech tokens were constructed such that temporal modulation (TM; envelope rise-time) and spectrotemporal modulation (STM; formant transitions) were systematically varied....
Preprint
Tinnitus is one of the predicted perceptual consequences of cochlear synaptopathy, a type of age-, noise-, or drug-induced auditory damage that has been demonstrated in animal models to cause homeostatic changes in central auditory gain. Although synaptopathy has been observed in human temporal bones, assessment of this condition in living humans i...
Presentation
One of the most cited manuscripts in behavioral hearing research is Levitt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477. (1971)]; it is typically the only reference cited in the procedures section of studies reporting thresholds obtained via adaptive tracking. This is problematic because Levitt (1971) informs only one among many parameters used in threshold es...
Poster
The detection of sinusoidal modulation is commonly used for assessing the auditory perception of temporal, spectral, and spectro-temporal acoustic features. For temporal (amplitude) modulation, the sinusoidal modulator usually is expressed on a linear amplitude scale. For spectral modulation, the sinusoidal modulator has been specified on a linear...
Presentation
Spatial auditory cues can supplement vestibular cues to improve postural sway and gait. However, the mechanisms of auditory-vestibular integration are not well understood. Participants completed a one-interval, two-alternative forced choice direction recognition psychophysical task in the dark under three sensory conditions: whole-body yaw rotation...
Article
Purpose The field of audiology is experiencing many changes resulting from scientific advances, modifications to governmental regulations, and expanding use of technology. These changes bring with them both opportunities and challenges for audiologists. This article presents an overview of cognitive hearing science, auditory neuroscience, and rece...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current state of consumer-grade electronics means that researchers, clinicians, students, and members of the general public across the globe can create high-quality auditory stimuli using tablet computers, built-in sound hardware, and calibrated consumer-grade headphones. Our laboratories have created a free application that supports this work:...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report normative data and predict thresholds for a rapid test of spatial release from masking for speech perception. The test is easily administered and has good repeatability, with the potential to be used in clinics and laboratories. Normative functions were generated for adults varying in age and amounts...
Article
Background: Severe hearing loss impairs communication in a wide range of listening environments. However, we lack data as to the specific objective and subjective abilities of listeners with severe hearing loss. Insight into those abilities may inform treatment choices. Purpose: The primary goal was to describe the audiometric profiles, spectral...
Article
Full-text available
Many military Service Members and Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blast waves suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting in chronic auditory deficits despite normal hearing sensitivity. The current study sought to examine the neurological cause of this chronic dysfunction by testing the hypothesis that blast exposure leads...