Frederick Cubbage

Frederick Cubbage
North Carolina State University | NCSU · Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources

PhD University of Minnesota

About

276
Publications
74,188
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Introduction
Fred Cubbage is Professor, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University. He has performed research in the U.S., South America, and Asia, and has co-authored about 560 papers and four books on analysis of global timber investments, natural resource policy, conservation programs, forest certification, and agroforestry. He teaches natural resource policy and forest economics. He was President of the Society of American Foresters in 2017.
Additional affiliations
July 1994 - present
North Carolina State University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (276)
Article
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As the global climate continues to change, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and heavy rainfall are becoming more frequent. Subsequently, flooding and standing water disrupt and negatively impact many communities. The use of nature-based solutions (NBS) is an innovative and sustainable approach to flood mitigation. Geospatial research and a...
Article
We built a game-theoretic supply model where forest landowners respond to each other's decisions using three market assumptions: (i) Perfect cartel, (ii) Cournot competition (simultaneous moves), and (iii) Stackelberg competition (sequential moves). Our findings indicate that the initial forest structure is instrumental in determining forest compos...
Article
FloodWise is a pilot project that proposes innovative new approaches for flood disaster resilience by applying nature-based solutions (NBS) in Eastern North Carolina to control water runoff for brief periods after major storm events. We collected production and cost data from primary or secondary sources and used discounted cash flow and capital bu...
Article
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Integrating trees in agricultural landscapes is a promising option to sustainably provide goods for society while increasing biodiversity, securing animal welfare, and generating profits for stakeholders. The choice of the species and knowing how timber quality is affected when trees are integrated to crop and/or livestock enterprises can provide a...
Article
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Silvopasture, the combination of trees, forage, and livestock, is a management practice that is gaining interest throughout the southeastern U.S. This research analyzed a hay-based alley cropping field trial that is transitioning into a silvopasture system. We planted four different tree spacings—2.4 × 2.4 m, 2.4 × 3.0 m, 3.0 × 3.0 m, and 1.8 × 3.0...
Article
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Increased global temperatures resulting from anthropogenically induced climate changes have increased the frequency and severity of adverse weather events, including extreme rainfall events, floods, and droughts. In recent years, nature-based solutions (NBS) have been proposed to retain storm runoff temporarily and mitigate flood damages. These pra...
Article
Context Forestry production can provide a valuable commodity and environmental services to complement cattle farming through the mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) from meat production, allowing more intensive use of natural resources. Objective This study addressed the long-term integration of forestry and cattle farming to achieve productive,...
Article
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There is rising global interest in growing more trees in order to meet growing population, climate change, and wood energy needs. Using recently published data on planted forests by country, we estimated relationships between per capita income and planted forest area that are useful for understanding prospective planted forest area futures through...
Article
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Large-scale global reforestation goals have been proposed to help mitigate climate change and provide other ecosystem services. To explore reforestation potential in the United States, we used GIS analyses, surveys of nursery managers and foresters, and literature synthesis to assess the opportunities and challenges associated with meeting proposed...
Article
The largest concentration of state-level forest cost-share programs in the United States can be found in the southern states. Since the inception of the first programs in the 1970s, the state-level forest cost-share programs in the US South have acted as models for the rest of the country. Cost-share programs compensate landowners through direct re...
Article
Citizen science, also known as participatory research, combines the efforts of professional researchers and community volunteers to collect data. We have established one such collaborative project in eastern North Carolina, near the 79,000-acre Hofmann Forest, called the Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (HOWL) citizen science project. The White Oak Ri...
Article
This paper serves as an introduction to a Special Issue (SI) of the Journal of Forest Policy and Economics dedicated to forest investment and finance. The Special Issue stemmed from an International Forest Business Conference (IFBC2018) held in Poland on 6–8 June 2018. It includes papers based on speeches at that conference, as well as others on si...
Article
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Silvopasture is a type of agroforestry that could deliver ecosystem services and support local livelihoods by integrating trees into pasture-based livestock systems. This study modeled the financial returns from silvopastures, planted forests, and conventional cattle-pasture systems in Amazonas, Peru using capital budgeting techniques. Forests had...
Book
We examine the nation’s legal, institutional, and economic capacity to promote forest conservation and sustainable resource management through a set of 10 indicators associated with criterion 7 of the Montréal Process criteria and indicators framework. Specifically, we considered (1) legislation and policies, (2) cross-sectoral coordination, (3) ta...
Article
The South of Brazil is one of the most attractive regions for timberland investments in the world. High productivity and relatively attractive timber prices have gained attention from timberland investors. However, as in most emerging countries, it is not very clear how prices are transmitted across products and markets. Having this information is...
Chapter
The Wicked Problem of Forest Policy - edited by William Nikolakis July 2020
Preprint
Full-text available
We all have many opportunities to engage in leadership and management. Leadership consists of aligning an organization's resources and actions with its real stated intentions. Articulating a clearly stated vision and doing what you say can move organizations forward and resolve issues. Conversely, vague missions or inconsistent missions, statements...
Article
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We estimated timber investment returns for 22 countries and 54 species/management regimes in 2017, for a range of global timber plantation species and countries at the stand level, using capital budgeting criteria, without land costs, at a real discount rate of 8%. Returns were estimated for the principal plantation countries in the Americas—Brazil...
Article
As a long-term investment, timberland investments offer financial benefits including portfolio diversification, attractive risk/return profile, an inflation hedge, and the potential of cash flow. Based on interviews with experts regarding ranges of input parameters used in single-hectare financial models and Monte Carlo simulation method, we examin...
Presentation
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This is a Speech on Leadership, Professionalism, and Activism in Natural Resources "Matches" a paper here on Research Gate as well. Contact me at RG or fredcubage@yahoo.com
Article
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Financial returns of forest plantations are an important concern around the world. In this research, we focused on South China’s timber investments, collected data from the Pingxiang, Guangxi Province, China, which is the demonstration zone of Fast-growing and High-yielding Timber Plantation Base Construction Program and National Timber Strategic S...
Article
Local communities own approximately 45% of Mexico's forests and have relative autonomy to manage them. Some of these communities have established community forest enterprises (CFEs) in order to generate benefits, such as jobs. However, if CFEs focus mainly on community benefits, and lose sight of financial competitiveness and ecological sustainabil...
Article
We investigated the impact of wood pellet mills on pulpwood price structure in the US South. Rather than focusing exclusively on price elasticities, we progress by examining how wood pellet production has affected the spatial transmission of pulpwood prices. Pairwise price ratios were modeled using smooth transition regression to identify changes i...
Article
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Softwood chip-n-saw (CNS), an intermediate stumpage product between sawtimber and pulpwood, has become a mainstay in southern timber markets in recent years. Most of the previous studies in southern timber markets primarily focused on pulpwood and sawtimber markets, and often overlooked CNS as a standalone timber product. Using the Subregional Timb...
Article
Planted forests are a rising share of total forests globally and an increasingly important source of timber product output, affecting national and global markets. We estimated econometric models of planted forest area by OECD and non-OECD country groups that control for economic, institutional and environmental policies likely to influence future c...
Article
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Current trends in the nation’s forest-sector research capacity were analyzed in terms of funding and number of scientists, and compared with prior data in the National Research Council’s 2002 report, National Capacity in Forestry Research. The total number of professors at institutions accredited by the Society of American Foresters, research scien...
Preprint
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Global Timber Investment Trends, 2005-2017
Article
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Forest resources are critical to environmental, economic, and social development, and there is substantial interest in understanding how global forest area will evolve in the future. Using an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model of total forest area that we updated using more recent data sets, we projected forest area through 2100 in 168 countri...
Chapter
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Chapter
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We performed research in the Southern Cone of South America and in North Carolina USA that examined logging production, costs, innovation, and capacity. We compare the findings of this timber harvesting research up until 2015 between South America and the U.S. South, and draw conclusions regarding comparative forestry sector economic advantages. Lo...
Article
This paper assesses the market power of pulpwood mills in different regions of the U.S. We estimated the conjectural elasticity, elasticities of substitution and price elasticities for the delivered price at the mill in Southeast and North U.S. and the stumpage in the Southeast. We assembled data composed of price and quantity of Labor, Energy, Che...
Presentation
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Natural Resource Policy Processes, Criteria, and Approaches Lecture Set
Presentation
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Some persons have asked for our 2017 Natural Resource Policy textbook by Waveland Press. It is copyrighted and must be purchased as a paperback or on-line format. But here are 4 key lectures that summarize a lot of it; the syllabus for those is here; PowerPoints also attached in this folder next. fredcubbage@yahoo.com
Presentation
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Natural Resource Policy Class Lecture Four - Overview of U.S. Incentives and Market Based Conservation Tools
Presentation
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History Outline of major U.S. Natural Resource Policy Events, Laws, Regulations, Institutions, Court Cases
Presentation
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Natural Resource Policy Class lecture Number 3: Land Use Regulation and Environmental Law in the United States
Article
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Global changes in land use and increased forestry plantations have reduced the livestock area in Uruguay, and silvopastoral systems have recently emerged. This paper aimed to quantify these new systems, and to identify the diversity of patterns of integration of forestry and livestock production. Based on detailed data from the 2011 Uruguay Census...
Article
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Forest plantations have increased in South America for several decades. Harvesting is performed mainly through contractor companies. Our hypothesis is that logging contractors that innovate, grow more than others. We analyzed logging contractors through production and innovation, working in Argentina (22), Brazil (35) and Uruguay (10), through surv...
Article
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Silvopasture is the planned and managed agroecosystem in which forage, livestock, and woody perennials are integrated "either simultaneously or sequentially on the same parcel of land." Silvopasture can help mitigate anthropogenic climate change through carbon sequestration in perennial vegetation. We examined silvopasture, forest, and pasture syst...
Article
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USA Southern timber markets are described, and the effects of changes in forest products demand and timber supply are modeled. Factors that are likely to shift supply or demand and the potential impact on prices are examined.
Article
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Purpose of Review Increased availability of current forest resource information provides an opportunity to evaluate the continued concerns about forest sustainability in North America. The purpose of this study is to assess and discuss the current state and trends of North American forest resources, sustainable forest management, and their implicat...
Article
State-owned forest enterprises (SOFEs) in northeast China have experienced past economic loss and environmental degradation, causing government to seek reforms. Measurement of technical efficiency allows us to evaluate overall trends and how reforms affect production of social and environmental goods. Previous assessments have used small samples, s...
Poster
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The poster was prepared for presentation at the World Conference on Natural Resource Modelling, held in Guangzhou China, June 9--13th, 2018. The aim of this research is to provide new information on the factors that drive demand for planted forests and industrial plantations under different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) based on quantitati...
Article
State forest enterprises (SFEs) in Vietnam for decades were the main source of industrial wood production, but smallholder forest plantations have become common. Smallholders need positive financial returns to be viable. Likewise, financial returns are an important consideration of proposals to turn SFEs into joint ventures, because the potentially...
Article
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The development of private land is a significant conservation concern globally. To conserve the ecosystem services associated with private lands, conservationists must understand landowner conceptions of stewardship and its role in decisions about land and natural resources. We began addressing this need with a survey of North Carolina Farm Bureau...
Article
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Timber production from forest plantations has increased substantially in South America in the last few decades. The timber harvesting process is carried out mainly through logging contractors. This research developed production and cost 'functions for logging contractors working in Misiones and Corrientes (Argentina), Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio...
Poster
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Preventing deforestation and enhancing forest cover to supply sustainable livelihoods and reduce climate change have become globally important issues. As one new approach to assess this issue in forestry, we examined the economics of silvopasture systems. We analyzed the financial returns of silvopastoral and traditional dairy cattle systems in Ama...
Article
On the basis of data from 2000 to 2010, we investigated the separate effects of the uptake of forest certification and the usage of recycled paper on imports of paper and paperboard into Germany and the United States. Using panel data methods and based on a conventional Armington trade model, we find that the effects of two main forest certificatio...
Article
Among other objectives, certification aims to improve environmental outcomes in developing country forests. Yet little is known about whether and how it actually generates such benefits. To shed light on these questions, an analysis was conducted of 1 162 corrective action requests (CARs) issued after third-party inspections of 35 forests in Mexico...
Article
Soil texture is known to affect soil organic C (SOC) concentration and microbial activity, but these relationships are not always straightforward. We characterized total, mineral-associated, and mineralizable C fractions along a gradient of soil texture within a flood plain field in the Coastal Plain region of North Carolina. Soil was collected fro...
Article
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Mexico has had a non-state forest certification system under the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) since it was initiated in 1993, and developed a new state-sponsored Mexican Forest Certification System (MFCS) that began in 2008. Several analyses have been made of FSC forest certification in Mexico, but none have summarized the new MFCS system or co...
Conference Paper
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Durango, al ser el estado con mayor superficie forestal certificada, constituye una buena oportunidad para conducir un estudio serio que permita generar evidencia que pruebe si han existido impactos sociales, económicos y ambientales significativos a partir de la certificación forestal. En el presente trabajo se diseñaron y utilizaron tres instrume...